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Chapter 20 Section 3

Independence in Latin America
by

R Kay

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 20 Section 3

Latin America
Independence in
What do we know?
Our Road Map
Learning Targets
What is...
Latin America
Creoles
Peninsulares
Enlightenment Ideas
Revolutionary Influences
Early 1800's
key concepts for
understanding
today's lesson
Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (i.e., those derived from Latin) – particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken.

Latin America covers almost 3.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.1% of its land surface area. As of 2010, its population was estimated at more than 590 million and its combined GDP at 5.16 trillion United States dollars.
Creoles: people of European descent who
were born in the colonies
Peninsulares: colonist born in Spain
Enlightenment Ideas: writings of John Locke, Voltaire, Jean Rousseau, Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine.

Challenged the
theory of “Divine
Right” monarchy.

Give people rights  life, liberty,
property!
Make fair
societies based on reason possible.

Laws of nature
[NATURAL LAWS]
govern natural
science and human
society.
Declaration of
Independence
1776
Declaration of
the Rights of Man
1789
Causes of Conflict
Increasing wealth leads to education in Enlightenment Ideas 

Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions.

Inspiration of American and French Revolutions.

Preoccupation and fallout of Spain & Portugal in fighting the Napoleonic Wars.
Recipe for change...
The Stage
Haiti
Mexico
S.America
Summary
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Born a slave
House servant
Read Enlightement Writers
Freed in 1771
1791 Slave Rebellion
Became military leader
Rights of Man brings crisis
Toussaint revolts against French settlers
Napoleon sends troops
Armistice 1802 - executed in 1803
Several months after seizing power in 1799, Napoleon issued a proclamation to Haiti promising to respect the rights of the free black citizens. Napoleon decreed that the phrase "Remember, brave blacks, that the French people alone recognize your freedom and equality of rights" be written on the flags of the colony. Toussaint refused and responded by saying…

"It is not a circumstantial freedom conceded to ourselves alone that we want. It is the absolute adoption of the principle that any man born red, black or white cannot be the property of his like. We are free today because we are the stronger party. The Consul maintains slavery in Martinique and Bourbon; we will thus be slaves when he will be the stronger."
Toussaint L'Ouverture
1804 Revolutionaries Declare Independence - Haiti is born
1807 Invasion of Spain and Portugal
sends King of Spain to prison
and King of Portugal to Brazil.
Ruled by a monarch
Creole & Peninsulare equality
Catholic Church would be State Religion



1820 Augustin' de Iturbide - royalist, seeks compromise and wins Mexican independence
from Spain in 1821
Napoleon's Invasion of Spain sparks conflict
1810 Father Miguel Hidalgo calls for independence
Jose' Maria Morelos continues movement and organizes a congress for "Americans"
Miguel Hidalgo
Jose' Morelos
Iturbide
MEXICO
HAITI
Helped free Peru and Bolivia (named in his honor)
Simon Bolivar (1783-1830)
Known as the "Liberator" and "George Washington of South America"
1811 helped free native Venezuela
By 1821 he had freed most of northern South America from Spanish
President of Gran Columbia (Venezuela,Columbia,Panama, Ecuador)
Met Bolivar in Gran Columbia, resigned, returned to Europe
Most influential leader in South American Independence Movement (Northern liberator)
Jose de San Martin (1778-1850)
Native of Argentina
Fought against Napoleon in Spain
Southern liberator
1816 Declared Argentina Independence
1818 Freed Chile
(led troops over Andes Mountians)
Meeting of Bolivar & San Martin
Pedro I
1822 Pedro declares Brazil free and is crowned Emperor of Brazil
Napoleon invades Portugal in 1807
John VI flees to Brazil
Rio de Janeiro named capital of Portuguese Empire
1820 revolution in Portugal returns John VI to Portugal
Leaves Prince Pedro in power in Brazil
Brazilian colonist inspired by Bolivar and San Martin
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Miguel Hidalgo
Jose' Morelos
Iturbide (Agustin I)
Toussaint
Pedro I
Analyze and Evaluate the causes of Independence in Latin America
Recall Key Revolutionary Leaders and Compare the Independence movements of...
Haiti
Mexico
South America
Learning Targets
Analyze and Evaluate the causes of Independence in Latin America
Recall Key Revolutionary Leaders and Compare the Independence movements of...
Haiti
Mexico
South America
Recipe for change...
Enlightenment Ideas 

Creole discontent

Inspiration of American/French Revolutions.

Preoccupation and fallout of Napoleonic Wars.
Latin America
Independence in
Early 1800's
Toussaint
Haiti
Hidalgo
Mexico
Moroles
Mexico
Iturbide
Mexico
Bolivar
S.America (N)
Martin
S.America (S)
Pedro I
Brazil
Full transcript