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Transcript of Speech
by Angela Pusz
Strategies to develop Language
Oral Language Games
Difference between Speech and Language
Speech is the sounds we use. It is the ability to articulate different sounds (e.g., k, t)
Language is the words we use and understand.
Steps in a Speech Program
Most speech programs focus on a single sound rather than many.
For improvements to be made, programs need to be completed consistently, around 15 minutes a day.
Before moving to another level, the target sound needs to be correct around 90% at the current level.
Steps in Speech Program
Listening for the sound
- making different speech sounds, seeing if the student can recognise when the target sound is made.
Sound in isolation
- focuses on making the target sound by itself consistently.
- target sound plus vowel (e.g., kee, tor). Can be referred to as 'nonsense words'
- words that have the target sound at either initial, middle or final position (depending on the errors the child is making).
- three or four words with one word with the target sound ("I have a..." "I see a...").
- talk about a book, picture or experience, comment on target sound.
Different types of Language
Language can be broken into 'receptive' and 'expressive'.
Receptive - words that you understand.
Skills include: following directions, having categories to describe words, vocabulary, recalling sentences.
Expressive - words that you use.
Skills include: sentence structure, grammar.
You need to phrase your questions to ensure students will give you a lot of language in their answer.
Try not to use yes/no questions (e.g., "Do you want a pencil?", "Did you have fun yesterday?", "Can you dance?"
Instead try using questions that start with "who", "where", "what", "when", "why".
e.g., "What did you do this morning?", "Why do you dance?", "When have you been to the park?".
Blank's Levels of Questioning
Level 1 -
Look at it!
(related to what the child can see and hear at the time)
Level 2 -
Talk about it!
(talk about what they can see)
Level 3 -
Think about it!
(similarities, differences, sequencing, word definitions)
Level 4 -
(What would happen it...)
Most common are barrier games where you give the student directions and they follow them. These can be games like "Simon Says", building towers or copying a picture.
Directions need to increase in difficulty slowly.
Start with single step directions.
e.g. "draw a circle"
Then add a concept (colour, shape, size, location)
"draw a small circle" "draw a red circle"
Once they are able to do this, you can add more concepts to the single direction.
"draw a small red circle in the middle of the page".
*Note at this stage there is still only a single step.
Once students can follow a single step direction with multiple steps you can add in extra steps slowly.
"Draw a circle and a square"
Increase the number of steps and difficulty of the conjunction slowly.
Activities focus on building the understanding of word meanings and therefore building their vocabulary through understanding.
- building the knowledge of how words fit together, so when students think of one word they are aware of many others that they can use as well.
e.g., Brain Strain
- building the knowledge of individual words.
e.g., Odd one Out, Bingo
Sentence Structure Games
Working on the ability to use grammatically correct sentences. Can work on individual parts (e.g., verbs) or structure as a whole.
Ensure you always restate the child's sentence, modelling correct grammar.
e.g., "Car fast goes"
"The car goes fast".
Description games, Groovy Grammar
There are different ages that speech sounds are acquired. 90% of children achieve these milestones.
By 3; 5 years - p, b, w, m, t, d, l, n, k, g, y, h, f, v, s, z
By 4 years - ch, j
By 6 years - sh
By 7 years - r, th
*If children cannot hear the sounds, they will not be able to make them, as they do not know the difference in the speech sounds
Give students time to answer questions. They may need lots of processing time, especially if they have any delay or disability.
Sounds can be long or short (s and t), soft or loud (p and b).
Sounds are made with:
- lips (w, p, b, m)
- lips and tongue (ch, j, sh)
- teeth and lips (f, v)
- teeth and tongue (s, z)
- tongue (t, d, n, l, th, r)
- back of tongue - (k, g, y, h)
four word sentences, beginning to retell stories.
five to six sentences, beginning to use joining words, uses adjectives, sorts into categories.
uses pronouns correctly, retells a familiar story in sequence, recalls and follows three step directions.
Tells original stories, recognises words of opposite or same meaning.