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Transcript of Ancient Rome
Romulus and Remus
Twin boys were cared for by a she-wolf, after being thrown in the Tiber River in a basket.
Legend of Romulus and
When Romulus a
nd Remus grew
up, they wanted to build a city. They could not agree, so they each built their own city. Remus made fun of Romulus' city wall. They fought, and Romulus killed Remus.
Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3000–1500 BC, Mature period 2600–1900 BC)
weights and measures, evident by the excavations
Calibration was also found in measuring devices along with multiple subdivisions in case of some devices.
Romulus calls his city Rome, and
beomes the first king of Rome.
The Etruscans were Italy's first highly civilized group of people. What proved this?
They were "People of the Sea" or pirates.
They were great merchants.
They had a strong army, and a weapon like no other: heavy shoes that gave them better footing during battles.
They had a strong social order.
They made several contributions to the Romans.
There were two social classes: the Patricians and the Plebeians.
were the most prosperous families of Rome.
an army was
During Punic War I, the Romans developed the "
" as a tool to allow the Roman soldiers to board the Carthaginian warships and battle them on their ships.
, or giant estates replaced the smaller farms. Many goods were imported from conquered lands.
General Hannibal Barca led Carthage
into Italy, by crossing the Alps on
elephants. He used many different tactics
through-out the war.
The Roman general, Scipio attacked Carthage, forcing Hannibal to return to Carthage to defend it. Hannibal committed suicide instead of facing defeat at the hands of the Romans.
Rome destroyed Carthage, burning it to the ground and poured salt on their fields during Punic War III.
Rome grew, expanding it's territories and became the leading power of the Mediterranean Sea. This brought economic and political changes to Rome.
Augustus brought many reforms to Rome.
He reformed the government, and brought peace,
which lasted 200 years.
Augustus made changes:
Governed existing territory
Didn't expand territory
Ordered a census
Made Rome more beautiful
Improved police and fire forces
Life was difficult for most Romans at the beginning of the Empire. There was too little housing, air pollution, unemployment, high taxes, and crime.
Most Romans lived i
called "islands." The
rich Romans lived
in homes, called "do
mus" with marbled
walls, central heat, a
nd running water.
Romans enjoyed various
leisurely activities: public
games, exercises, gladiator
games, chariot races, lectures,
Roman Ceremonies The Roman people were deeply rooted in tradition and custom. Ceremonies such as those listed below would have meant an enormous amount to a Roman family. Far more important to the Romans than the day of birth of a child, the dies lustricus, they day when the baby was to be named, was a joyous occasion. The custom of handing down names to children was of great importance to Romans and their families.
Fall of the
Three Reasons for the Fall:
There was no rule as to who would inherit the throne when an emperor died.
divided the empire into two: west and east, which drifted apart.
s would kill the emperors. 20 emperors in 75 years.
-Invasions: Germanic tribes, and Persian tribes invaded. Germanic tribes were hired to protect Rome, but they didn't care.
Constantine I became emperor, and gave religious freedom to all people.
As a Christian emperor, he made Christianity legal, and did much to help Christianity grow.
The Roman Empire helped Christianity spread in various ways:
Pax Romana made travel safe for Christian missionaries.
Roman roads made travel quick.
Language: many spoke either Latin or Greek, making it easier
to speak with people about Jesus Christ.
Family was very important to the Romans. The father was the head of the household. Cousins were expected to help each other.
They were the only ones who could hold public office.
Fasces- symbol of authority
The dictator Musselini used
this as the symbol of his Facist party.
The Forum was built in a swampy area
the Etruscans had drained out.
Parade to welcome Roman heroes returning home from battle.
First Temple at Capitoline
and the mundus.
were the working class, poorer
citizens who paid taxes and served in the army.
In 509 BC, the Romans set up a
, "a government belonging to the people."
were elected by the Senate, which was made up of Patricians. The Consuls were in office for one year. They had the power to veto each other.
's role was to give advice to the Consuls.
There were 300 to 600 members in the Senate. They were members for life.
This came from an
Etruscan funeral custom.
means "I forbid"
, the leaders of the Plebeians' governing body, the
, could veto as well.
The Assembly demanded the
Senate write down the Roman laws.
These were written down on the Twelve
The Punic Wars were a
series of 3
Another result was the influx from
the farms to the cities, where living
conditions became terrible.
Another result was the decline in the
Roman Republic. Government officials were
more concerned with becoming rich instead
Rome had many different popular leaders, some who were reformers, others were generals.
Julius Caesar served on the first
or group of three people, with equal power.
Pompey, another member of the triumvate was
jealous of Caesar's power but had different
views of how Rome should be ruled. Pompey favored the Republic. They fought for power, and Pompey was killed.
Julius Caesar declared himself dictator for life. Although he brought about many reforms for Rome,
the Senate feared that he planned to declare
himself king. His friend, Brutus and other members of the Senate murdered Caesar on March 15th.
Octavian gave himself the title of "Augustus" or "revered one." He became Rome's first emperor, or sole ruler in 31 BC. His policies though led to 200 years of peace.
Augustus strengthened his power in two ways:
Army pledged their allegiance to him.
Built up his imperial household by choosing people for their talent instead of their birth.
God used Augustus' order for a census
as a means to fulfill the prophecy of
Bethlehem being the birthplace of the
EDUCATION;Children went to
At age 15, boys went to
rhetoric school, and
girls received private
& HAIR STYLES:
The very e
wore a toga.
Ancient Rome went through three phases:
Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ.
He taught that:
God created all people and loves them as a father loves his children.
People should love God and one another.
If they trust in God, they would be saved.
Rome and Christianity
Jesus is the
, who was born to save us from our sin. The Jews believed he came to save them from Romans. This worried some of the Jewish leaders and the Romans. Jesus was crucified (for our sins.)
After his death, and resurrection, Jesus' disciples began spreading the
, the Good News
o f Jesus' teaching. Paul, became a missionary, spreading the gospel to the
or non-Jews through-out the Roman world.
Resources: Human Heritage, Glencoe 2004.
To keep the poor from revolting, and to gain
their vote, rulers gave the poor food and entertainment, which is called Bread and Circuses.
: Small businesses suffered when Rome began using slaves to supply goods and services.
-Army and invaders disrupted trade
-People had less money to spend
- Government produced more coins but didn't have enough gold or silver so the coins had less value. People began
- Christianity changed people's lives, and they
were not as interested in defending Rome.
- People didn't care about their country, only "
bread and circuses
" and living it up.
-people weren't interested in education
-most people were slaves
-migration of many people into Rome.