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Psychology: Jaylene Smith

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Mark Deacon

on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of Psychology: Jaylene Smith

The Case of Jaylene Smith Sigmund Freud Carl Jung Alfred Adler Karen Horney Erik Erikson Carl Rogers Personality Assessment Psychodynamic View Humanistic View Trait Theory Cognitive -Social Learning Sigmund Freud theorized that personality is formed around 3 structures: The Id, ego and superego. The id is present at birth and completely unconscious. This structure consists of unconscious desires and urges. In Jaylene's case, the unconscious desire to do something to gain attention from her parents, so they would stop spending more time with her little brother. Then, there is the ego. The ego controls all thinking and reasoning activities. Both conscious and pre-conscious desires and thought are present in the ego. The ego learns about the external world through the senses amd sees to the satisfaction of the id's drives in the external world. It cooperates with the reality principle, so as not to be too selfish. The superego is the social and parental standards the individual has internalized. In short, the superego is a moral guardian. In Jaylene's case, the superego makes sure she strives to do the right thing.
Freud is a world renowned psychologist, however, he has been criticized for being to male centered. Feminists disagree with his views for comments he made about women. He said they feel inferior due to the fact they don't have a penis. He believed that the genital stage, or puberty, is the last psychosexual stage of development. This could explain Jaylene's apparent depression due to her boyfriends struggles. The lack of a stable relationship during this time may have made her more self concious. Carl Jung who died in 1961, shared many of the same beliefs as Freud. However, there are some differences in their views. Jung believed that psychic energy represents all life forces, not just sexual ones. Both Freud and Jung believed that the unconscious play an important role in human behavior. But where Freud the id as something the ego has to control, Jung thinks the unconscious is the ego's source of strength and vitality.
Jung divided people into two categories: introverts and extroverts. Extroverts are people who turn their attention to the outside world, while introverts do the opposite. Jung would probably place Jaylene Smith under the category of introvert. Constantly doubting herself, she clearly is focused on her flaws internally, rather the success she has had on the outside world. She always asks herself what shes doing wrong, what does she want from life, and searching for an identity. Alfred Adler disagreed with Freud regarding the selfish id and moral superego. Adler believed that people strive for social perfection, and have positive motives for things they do in life. He thought that the quest for perfection and superiority is more important than personality development. This may have been exactly what Jaylene Smith was struggling with. Her father expected great things from her. This pressure that he put on Jaylene may be a reason for her depressed feelings today. She felt like she had to be perfect in school to make her family happy, and bring honor to her father. This may have hindered her personality growth. Adler would argue that this would be a good thing, because she excelled in school, and was a superior individual compared to her peers. However, this clearly had a negative effect on Jaylene, because she ended up depressed, unhappy and shy. Karen Horney agreed with Sigmund Freud on many issues, and owes a lot of her theories to him; however, there are still some issues that they disagree on. Horney believed that environmental and social factors are the most important influences in shaping personality, most importantly, the relationships we experience as children.
If Karen Horney were to diagnose Jaylene Smith today, she would probably bring up the unfulfilling relationship Jaylene had with her mother. When a parent favors certain children, it leaves the other kids feeling unloved and alone. Although Jaylene's mother had stopped favoring Jay's little brother by the time Jay was 7, the damage may have already been done. Jaylene may have already felt like an outcast, which possible haunted her throughout her life.
Horney viewed anxiety as a reaction to a real or imagined dangers. Freud believed that anxiety spawned from sexual conflicts. She believed that in childhood, anxiety comes from a child's dependence on a parent to survive. Having one parent give you everything, while another shuts you out, had to be very confusing to Jay. Erik Erikson agreed with Horney and Freud when discussing parent-child relationships. He believed this was crucial to a child's development because it was his or her first brush with society. He even broke down life into 8 stages of development. He claimed that the key to development is that children should feel their own needs and desires be compatible with those of society as embodied in their family. Children must feel competent and valuable to themselves and others around them to mature and develop an identity.
In terms of Jaylene Smith, Erikson would probably say the lack of emotional connection to her mother may have contributed to her lack of identity as a teenager and young adult. Carl Rogers is renowned as one the history's most prominent humanistic theorists. It is his belief that every organism is born with innate capacities or capabilities. "A sort of genetic blueprint, to which substance is added as life progresses." He thinks that the goal in each person's life is to fulfill this blueprint. He thinks that people form images of themselves and try to live up to those images. It is also Rogers' belief that people who are brought up with unconditional positive regard are more fully functioning than those brought up with conditional positive regard. In Jaylene's case, her father supplied the unconditional positivity while her mother supplied the conditional positive regard. Carl Rogers would argue that this clouded upbringing may be the cause of Jaylene's lack of image or identity today. Trait theorists assert that people differ according to the degree to which they possess certain personality traits. They focus on already developed personalities and how they differ from one another.
A psychologist working from this perspective in Jay's case would infer certain traits from her behavior. Due to her outstanding academic performance in high school and beyond, it is reasonable to infer a trait of determination or persistence in her. She also has motivation, intellligence and sincerity traits. However, her lack of enthusiasm shows that she may possess anxiety and shyness traits within Jay. Cognitive Social learning theories hold that people internally organize their expectancies and values to guide their own behavior.
Jay may have learned to be shy and introverted because she was rewarded for studying by herself. her father encouraged her studying, which acted as a shield to people around her. Self-discipline was probably enforced at an early age by parents and teachers, and with it, the ieda that she had to achieve academically. Her aggression towards men may be traced back to her anger towards her brother, and her father's positive reaction to it. As with every person, Jay probably learned many things based on interactions between family members. 1) The Personal Interview - A conversation with someone to obtain information from the interviewee. Asking questions and follow-up questions can shed light on many issues in a persons life. However, most of the interview is structured.
2) Direct Observation - A second tactic used to gather information on someone. Observing them in everyday life over a long period of time is a very accurate way to see how they behave.
3) Objective Tests - Personality tests that are administered and scored in a standard way.
4) Projective Tests - Personality tests, such as the Rorschach test, consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material. If I were Jaylene Smith...... A psychodynamic approach to psychology includes all theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality. According to Freud, personlaity traits like insecurity, introversion, and feelings of worthlessness (Jay's feelings), arise from fixation at the phallic stage of development. Jay may have felt that the affection her father showed to her was dependent on her success in school, and the dreams he set forth for her. The shortcomings of this view is that it doesn't explain Jay's inability to maintain a relationship later in life, or explain her development in her early teenage years. Still, it is pretty accurate in determining what affected her as a child. A humanistic view of Jaylene would foucs on the discrepancy between Jay's self-concept and her inborn capacities. Carl Rogers, a humanistic psychologist, would claim Jay is intelligent and strives for achievement, but worries about whether she deserves certain things, and if something will make her truly happy. Humanistic psychologists would point out that the conditional love shown to Jay at an early age may cause her loneliness, fearfulness, insecurity and anxiety that she feels today. Some say that this type of psychological view present an overly optimistic view of human beings, and fail to take into account the evil we are capable of. Others say is focuses on self-centered ideas and narcissism. If I were Jaylene Smith, I would choose Alfred Adler as my psychologist. He believed that people strive for social perfection. He thought that this quest to be perfect outweighed personality development in human growth. Jay Smith was forced on this path for perfection by her father, and Adler, who is an expert on precisely that, could offer great insight into why she is the way she is. Although Adler might believe that Jay's academic superiority was a good thing, but her current state of mind would allow him to change his thesis around. This relationship would be great for both of them, which is why I would pick Alfred Adler. McLeod, S. (200). Simplypsychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html Cherry, K. (2008). Trait theory of personality. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm Fisher, M. (2001). Alfred adler. Retrieved from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/adler.htm Citations The Best School of Thought In terms of Jaylene Smith, the humanistic school of thought is the best. This is because humanistic psychologist talk about conditional and unconditional love that parents show children. This is exactly what Jaylene experienced. She experienced both ends of that spectrum with a father that loved her for her work ethic, and a mother who was absent early on in life, then grew to connect with Jay. Humanists would most closely connect with Jay, which is why they its the best school of thought.
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