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Australia

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Krista Lynn

on 14 June 2013

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Transcript of Australia

Australia
Introduction
Australia is a country and a continent in the southwestern hemisphere. It is home to beautiful natural scenery, some of the world's best beaches, the world's oldest rainforest, long stretches of desert, the Australian Outback, and the world's weirdest wildlife.
History
Geography
Australia is one of the world's oldest continents, considered to be one of the driest continents on Earth
250 million years of erosion has affected the land mass and it has become the flattest land mass on Earth
It is free of any major mountain building events for the past 80 million years so the land mass is very stable
By Sarah Donovan, Isabel Kim, Emma Bailey & Krista Rozdolsky
Language
Australians are informal
Most live within 50km of coast so they have a laid back and social lifestyle
Weekends usually consist of swimming or surfing in the ocean, sporting matches, barbeques and spending time with family
Addressing people is different (first name and surname). Mr. and Mrs. is used when they’re older then you
Always make direct eye contact when you speak
Australia has over 80 languages but the prodominant one is basic English
Accents you will find in Australia are those of the upper, middle and working classes and are sometimes exaggerated if you are at a social function
Australia has been inhabited for about 60,000 years before the colonization in 1788. Archaelologists have uncovered rock art in caves that depict the style of clothing, art and other cultural details in the lives of Aboriginal people. Over time the stlyes changed, and the cave drawings showed these changes.
Prehistory
1606-1787
The first sighting of Australia by European explorers was in 1606
Lieutenant James Cook was the first European known to have explored the east coast. He landed in what is now Sydney, Australia in April 1770 with the crew of the Endeavour.
1788-1850
This was the period of early colonies
Eleven of Britain's ships (named the First Fleet) arrived in Sydney, Australia to establish the colony of New South Wales.
Beginnings of a democratic government
1851-1900
Gold rushes and agricultural industries brought prosperity to the colonies
British settlers continued their expansion across the continent
The development of railways and the telegraph brought the settlements closer together
The six colonies began to unite
In 1890 was the most severe depression that Australia had ever faced
1901-1945
The Commonwealth of Australia was created with the federation of the colonies
The young nation joined Britain in World War I
Australia suffered the Great Depression with the rest of the world
They once again joined Britain in the Second World War against Nazi Germany in 1939
Imperial Japan launched air and submarine raids at Australia in the Pacific War
1945-Present
Since 1945 Australia has seen long periods of economic prosperity
Has moved farther away from Britain and is increasing engagement with the United States and Asia
The current Prime Minister of Australia is Julia Gillard, leader of the Australian Labor Party
Geography
Australia has a wide variety of landforms:
- vast, ancient crustal blocks: the western plateau approximately 300 metres above sea level
-The Central Eastern portion (a lowland which formed the bed of ancient seas)
-The eastern highland running north and south along the eastern coastline
The position and lack of natural features like high mountain ranges cause generally no extremes of climate
Climate varies because of the size of the continent
The temperature ranges from 23°-26°C above the Tropic of Capricorn to 38°C in the arid plateaus and deserts of the interior
The southern areas are more temperate
Australia is subject to wide variations such as high rainfall, great heat, irregular flooding and drought
The area of Australia is 7,682,300 square kilometres
It is about the size of the mainland United States excluding Alaska
Approximately 24 times the size of the British Isles
Australia is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Indian Ocean to the west, the Afarura Sea to the north, and the Southern Ocean to the south
Their nearest neighbour is Papua New Guinea, 200 kilometres to the north
Timor Leste is 640 kilometres to the north west, New Zealand is 1920 kilometres east, and Antarctica is 2000 kilometres due south
Attractions to See
Great Barrier Reef
Sydney Harbour
Melbourne
Daintree Rain Forest
and Cape Tribulation
The Great Ocean Road
Situated off the coast of Queensland
Largest coral reef in the world
It's so vast, it can be seen from outer space
Home to a diverse range of life including whales, dolphins, porpoises, turtles, sea snakes, stingray, sharks, saltwater crocodiles, and numerous species of fish, frogs and plant life.
This natural harbour is where you can find the iconic Sydney Opera House and magnificent Sydney Harbour Bridge
The best time of year to visit is New Year's when you can witness the breathtaking sight of the world famous and spectacular New Years Eve Fireworks
Melbourne is the largest city in the state of Victoria and the second most populated city in Australia
It’s characterised by many grand civic buildings including Parliament House, Old Melbourne Gaol, the State Library, Melbourne Town Hall and many others, all funded by the Victoria gold rush in the 1850s
Daintree Rain Forest is one of the oldest rain forests in the world
Cape Tribulation is a popular destination because there is plenty of adventure to be had here, whether it’s in the form of kayaking, snorkelling or climbing.
This road runs along the southern coast of Australia
It stretches 250km
It was built in 1930 in memory of fallen soldiers
Very scenic
In Australia everyone has these rights:

Respect for equal worth, dignity and freedom of the individual
Freedom of speech and association
Freedom of religion and a secular government
Support for parliamentary democracy and the rule of law
Equality under the law
Equality of men and women
Equality of opportunity
Peacefulness
A spirit of egalitarianism that embraces tolerance, mutual respect, and compassion for those in need.
Australia also holds firmly to the belief that no one should be disadvantaged on the basis of their country of birth, cultural heritage, language, gender or religious belief.

Celebrations & Holidays
Some celebrations and holidays that Australia celebrates are:

Australia Day: on January 26th, founding of the first European settlement in Australia in 1788.
Anzac Day: on April 25th, Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (Anzac) landed at Gallipoli in Turkey in 1915 during World War I. It is celebrated in memory of those who fought for Australia and those who lost their lives in war. The ceremonies include hanging wreaths and military parades.
Melbourne Cup Day: A horse race. As people say "the race that stops a nation," it's over a distance of 3,200 metres. The event is held at around 3 pm on the first Tuesday in November by the Victoria Racing Club, on the Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne.

Traditional Musical Instruments
Some of the traditional instruments of Australia are the didgeridoo, the bullroarer, and the gum-leaf. These instruments have been part of the Australian music scene for many years and were built and created by the aboriginal people of Australia.
Didgeridoo
Gumleaf
Bullroarer
What does it look like?
The didgeridoo is a long wooden tube like instrument that is approximately 1.5m in length. It is made from trees or bamboo that has been hollowed out by termites. It is then cleaned by scraping out the insides. It is then painted with Australian designs and colours.
What does it sound like?
The didgeridoo sounds like a deep low drone. This sound is created by air being blown into the opening at the top and creating sound waves that travel through the instrument and exit at the bottom end of the instrument. As you blow into the instrument the vibration from your lips create different sounds, speed of the waves, and multiple pitches. The longer the didgeridoo is in length the lower the notes that will be produced.
What does it look like?
Very basic instrument, it only consists of a Eucalyptus leaf
It is played by putting the leaf up to your lips and holding it with the fingers on both hands
What does it sound like?
It has a predominant pitch, but it sounds rough and chaotic
Useful for special effects, such as imitating the cry of a cockatoo
Has no musical value
What does it look like?
A simple wooden slat, 30 to 40cm long, attached to a cord
It is played by spinning the instrument in a circle with the cord

What does it sound like?
Makes a low-pitched humming or whirring sound
The larger the wooden slat, the lower the sound will be
Traditional Music & Predominate Styles
1. Australian Folk Music
Folk music of Australia is represented by other types of music around the world and is put into song. Culture, language, rhythms, noise, environment and different traditional Australian instruments are represented through Australian Folk Music. It is mostly cultural based.

2. Bush Songs and Music
Bush music in Australia is similar to the folk music of Australia. It can be recorded by anyone living there. The themes and lyrics are based on people’s experiences living and surviving in Australia. Including war, droughts, and flooding. The most famous “bush ballads” (folk music, poetry, Australians traditional outback music) is the unofficial national song know as “Waltzing Matilda.” This song was first published as sheet music in 1903, and it narrates the story of an Australian itinerant worker. The first part of the title “waltzing” is Australian slang for traveling by foot, and “matilda” is slang for bag slung over your shoulder. This is the stereotypical Australian worker. Also know as a swagman.

Australian National Anthem
"Advance Australia Fair"
Contemporary Music
The Wiggles
A groundbreaking children's group called The Wiggles broke through into fame in the late 1990s. They gained international popularity in the early 2000s and by the end of the decade they had become one of the most popular children's groups in the world. They are a multi-award-winning four-piece group. They have a big fanbase in many regions including Australia, Britain, Asia, the USA and Canada.
Australia's biggest selling domestic solo artists include John Farnham, Olivia Newton-John, Missy Higgins, Kylie Minogue, Gotye and Tina Arena, Pub Rock Band, Cold Chisel, and folk-rocker Paul Kelly
Solo Artists
Kylie Minogue
Star Kylie Minogue began her music career in the late 1980s and released The Loco-Motion which became the biggest selling single in Australia for the decade and quickly catapulted her to worldwide stardom.
Other
Cody Simpson - R&B, Pop
Keith Urban - Country
Bee Gees - Pop, Disco
Australian Food
Lamingtons
The lamington is often referred to as the “National Cake of Australia.”
It's a square-shaped sponge cake coated in a layer of chocolate icing and coconut.

Vegemite
A spread that Australians enjoy on toast
More savory than sweet
Dark brown food paste made from yeast extract
Eaten for breakfast, lunch and with tea.
Really popular Australian food
Thanks for Watching!
Any questions?
John Farnham
Missy Higgins
Olivia Newton-John
Kylie Minogue
Tina Arena
Gotye
Cold Chisel
Paul Kelly
Full transcript