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From hunter/gathering societies to settled societies
Transcript of From hunter/gathering societies to settled societies
societies: The origins of patriarchy?
Format of lectures
Before we start...
begin with a summary of previous lecture
overview of today's lecture
finalize with a conclusion of main points
Foragers (hunters and gatherers) had
D) all of the above
Which statement about foragers is NOT true?
A) Many ate well with less work than is necessary today
B) Many had more leisure than people today
C) There was less inequality than today
D) They were mainly vegetarians
Southwest Asia (Iraq, Syria, Turkey): 9 000 B.C.E.; wheat and barley; sheep, goats, pigs and cattle
Southern Sahara: 9 000-7 000 B.C.E.; sorghum; cattle, sheep and goats
Yangzi River Valley: 6 050 B.C.E.; rice
Central Mexico: 4 000 B.C.E.; maize (corn), beans, peppers, squash, and tomatoes
Early Agricultural Societies
artisanal industry: pottery, metalwork and textiles
religious practices followed agricultural patterns; emphasis on fertility
changes related to environment
Common characteristics of Neolithic settlements
Turkish Pavilion at Shanghai World Expo 2010
35,000 to about 10,000 years ago
Paleolithic; Old Stone Age
what were hunter-gatherer (forager) societies like?
shift from hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic) to agricultural/pastoral (Neolithic) society
Çatal Huyuk (Çatalhöyük), Turkey
development of patriarchy
10,000 years ago
hunting & gathering -> farming & domestication of animals
Neolithic/ New Stone Age
Map 2.6 The Assyrian Empire.
Map 2.5 The Hittite Empire and Eastern Mediterranean ca. 1500 BCE.
Map 2.4 Old Kingdom Egypt.
Map 2.3 (a) The Akkadian Kingdom. (b) Kingdom of Babylonia.
Map 2.2 Urban Centers in Mesopotamia and Egypt, 5500–350 BCE.
Map 2.1 Farming and Settlement in the Ancient Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean.
advantages of cereal grains (wheat, barley) -> could be stored for a long time
encouraged people to settle
more food -> more people
population control -> disease, food supply, water supply
heavier & stronger houses
Hoe and other farming tools
grain bins, jars, pots
economic activities: agriculture, manufacturing, trade in obsidian
Consequences for women
Introduction of the plough
new tools -> change of women's contribution
more children -> less farm work for women
decline in status
Mesopotamia & Egypt
Which statement about the agricultural revolution is NOT true?
A) It began about 10,000 years ago
B) It corresponded roughly with the end of the last ice age
C) It is called a revolution because of how quickly the world moved from hunting and gathering to agriculture
D) Women played a crucial role
The Croods: Ugga and Grug
small groups; nomadic lifestyle
followed food resources
division of labour
men traveled in hunting expeditions
women and children gathered plants, roots, nuts and fruits
bone, skin, wood
Source: National Geographic
wet grain started to sprout -> enzymes
starch -> malt (maltose sugar)
fizzy & intoxicating -> yeasts fermented
fruit juice -> wine
honey -> mead
Other forms of alcohol
Varieties of beer in ancient societies
Beer & origins of agriculture
Which of the following is a reason given by scholars for why agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent:
B) not enough animals to hunt
C) population growth
D) to guarantee supply of beer
E) all of the above
Ibo settlements (modern example)
Margaret Ehrenberg, "Women in Prehistory"
Study of horticultural societies
Factors behind loss of status
Men cared for animals
Plough agriculture done mostly by men
Plough agriculture more labour intensive
Inheritance and descent done through father's line