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CVA: Organizational Management (chapters 4 & 5)

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Melia Tichenor

on 19 April 2013

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Transcript of CVA: Organizational Management (chapters 4 & 5)

(1) Traditional
Structure and control is the goal
Change is slow and gradual

(2) Social Change
Consciousness raising for change is the goal
Transformative change is needed to change the system

(3) Serendipitous
Connection and collaboration is the goal
Change is gradual and based on consensus

(4) Entrepreneurial
Individual empowerment is the goal
Transformative change is needed to empower individuals Basic Cultural
Assumptions Forward-sequence planning
(starts by asking where you can start rather than where you want to go)

vs.

Reverse-order planning
(starts at end by identifying goal/outcome and working backwards) (1) synoptic (rational) - dominated planning literature. Linear approach
TRADITIONAL CULTURE

(2) incremental - Takes into account politics of planning process. "The science of muddling through it". Compromises between competing groups, will change direction in process as needed. Learns from the process, moves forward one step at a time.
CLAN/ SERENDIPITOUS CULTURE

The next three take into consideration the importance of including DIVERSE CONSTITUENCIES and stakeholders in the decision-making process

(3) advocacy - include volunteers in all stages of determining program direction and management. Attempts to raise unheard voices. Important to manage power dynamics.
ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTURE

(4) transactive - very relational, built on mutuality, face-to-face interaction, consensus-building. Sensitive to including all parties.
CLAN/SERENDIPITOUS CULTURE

(5) radical - believes systems are oppressive, focus on liberating oppressed groups to transform the system (conflict is common).
MARKET/SOCIAL CHANGE CULTURE Theories behind
Planning Your Volunteer Program See pg. 81 for more Questions to consider to guide planning Volunteer Programs Strategic Management
of Volunteer Programs Organizational Management Chapter 4: Strategic Management of Volunteer Programs
Chapter 5: Operational Management Definitions:

Strategies involve finding approaches to keep people and organizations alive.

Managers are the implementers of policies, "the person whose job it is to make the organization run in a productive and harmonious way"

Strategic Management is "defined as those approaches, used by persons responsible for volunteer program implementation, to enhance capacity and move programs towards sustainability (survival)." Organizational Culture "There must be a sense of shared experience in order for a culture to develop."

Indicators/levels of culture:

Artifacts - tangible things and behaviors one observes
Values - strongly held beliefs by members of the group, program, or organization
Basic Underlying Assumptions - theories-in-use or worldviews that explain and make sense of what happens in the organization (1) Hierarchical Culture - formal, structured, procedures govern daily activities. Clearly defined, focused on dependability, punctuality, clear scheduling. PREDICTABILITY.
STABILITY/CONTROL
INTERNAL FOCUS/INTEGRATION

(2) Market Culture - focused beyond the walls of the organization itself, highly competitive. Getting the job done above all else. Goal-oriented, focused on change.
STABILITY/CONTROL
EXTERNAL FOCUS/INTEGRATION

(3) Clan Culture - "family" like. Friendly place where managers serve as mentors more than managers. Harmonious, loyal. Focus on cohesion, development, morale, teamworks, consensus. Success based on how people are treated/respected.
FLEXIBILITY/DISCRETION
INTERNAL FOCUS/INTEGRATION

(4) Adhocracy Culture - dynamic, entrepreneurial, risk-taking. Innovation. Success defined by thinking outside the box. Anti-administration -- "everyone do what works for you"
FLEXIBILITY/DISCRETION
EXTERNAL FOCUS/INTEGRATION Types of Volunteer Programs & Their Assumptions Competing Values Framework Questions to Ask (see pg. 77 for more):

Is your preferred culture traditional, social change, serendipitous or entrepreneurial?
What type of culture does your group, program, or organization have?
Are they congruent with your preferred culture? Why or why not?

(Knowing and recognizing organizational culture is critical to strategic thinking. Paradoxes can be plentiful.) How to Focus...

(1) individual volunteers
(2) volunteers as a group
(3) the program
(4) the larger organization CONDITION - Simply "what is"

PROBLEM - A condition that has been negatively labelled

What one person or group perceives to be a condition can be a problem for another person or group and vice versa Focusing
&
Prioritizing Analyzing Situations Determining Focus Is this an issue among individuals volunteers?
Is this an issue for a group of volunteers who are a part of the program?
Is this an issue for the volunteer program as a whole?
Is this an issue that is broader than the program? Organization? Community?
Is it all of the above? Assessing Feasibility After considering the situation in context... how feasible is it for the volunteer administrator to attempt to change the situation? Within this culture, what can I control as the manager of volunteers?
What adjustments can I make if I work with others?
What do I have no control over? Controllables = artifacts, your behaviors/interactions, volunteer recruitment and assignments
Contingencies = artifacts / values that could shift if others join with you in making changes
Constraints = policies, procedures, regulations, standards, other areas you must conform with See pg. 85, Table 6, for more questions about focusing & prioritizing Hierarchical/Traditional Culture
Design school - conceptual process
Planning School - formalized
Positioning School - analytical

Market Culture:
Environmental school - reactive process
Configuration School - transformational
Power School - negotiated

Clan/Serendipitious Culture:
Cognitive School - mental process
Learning School - emergent
Cultural School - collective process

Entrepreneurial Culture:
Entrepreneurial School - visionary Five Ps for Strategy

Plan - guides course of action (intended strategy)
Pattern - what has been repeatedly done (realized strategy)
Position - positioning program to move with trends of service-learning, other timely current trend
Perspective - using strategy to see the program and its volunteers in context, how they fit within the program, within the organization, and the larger environment
Ploy - a way to manoeuvre around obstacles or compete with others for volunteers. Strategizing! Types of Strategy Strategy Formation Fit Between Program Culture & Strategy "What is important to strategic management is that the manager understands the culture in which they operate so that there is a fit between strategies and cultural norms"

See pg. 93, Table 7 for examples Survival Strategy 1) Maintain services
2) insure capacity to remain within budget
3) acquire power over the environment
4) alter organizational domain Change Strategy 1) Collaboration - used if you have good communication and a reasonably strong relationship, a situation in which those persons targeted for change are in agreement that something needs to happen.

2) Campaign - based on there not being consensus that change needs to happen. Disagreement about what action to take. Persuasion / lobbying / appeals. Need to state facts and get the word out

3) Contest - needed when there is opposition to the change or allocation of resources that you wish to change. Communication might have broken down. Assertive tactics - bargaining and negotiating. Social change/transformative difference. Expose what is happening Operational Management:
Chapter 6

Program Considerations for Planning Planning
Design Planning Framework Approaches to Planning Alignment or "fit" of plan with mission & vision Specific Program Considerations for Planning Planning Terms Defining the
Need for the Plan Benefits and Limitations of Planning Operational planning - The initial task of the volunteer administrator within the management role

Program plan - The plans that direct and lead to a program

Organizational plan - A subset of a larger organizational plan

Project plan - A specific application of an operational plan with a fixed set of parameters Why is the plan necessary at all? What is the need driving the effort?

Community assessment needed.

Justification for the use of volunteers to carry out the plan -- why volunteers are a necessary and valuable asset for accomplishing it

Volunteer management plan must align with the strategic objectives of the organization as a whole, along with policies and vision Benefits:
well thought out plans give staff and volunteers a sense of direction
plans provide benchmarks for measuring success over time
shows that individuals can make a difference Limitations:
limited resources, financial or other, available for implementation
unexpected events can quickly derail even the best plans
involving volunteers means the organization is subject to changes in their availability, motivation, abilities, etc.
volunteers are typically limited in their authority with the the organization Operational plans are nestled within larger strategic plans and governed by a set of policies and procedures.

Policies answer:
Why is there a need for the plan?
What has to be done to meet this need?

Procedures answer:
How will the plan to be conducted?
When?
Who will plan the plan? Policies & Procedures "Planning" is a process, with the "plan" as the result or outcome. Planning vs Plan The Strategic Plan:
Largest scope specifying the purpose, goals, and program of the entire organization. 3-5 year desired status or vision. Where you are, where you want to be, how to get there.

The Operational Plan:
Day to day plans, usually mapped out in one year timelines (annual goals/performance plans) to achieve specific goals. Helps management clarify, focus, and research strategies, provide a framework, and offer benchmarks for measurement.

The Project Plan:
Focuses on time-related or constrained variables. Clear measurable objectives to achieve a one-of-a-kind effort with a quick response time. Usually limited in its life cycle, parameters, and objectives Types of Plans A planning tool based on systematic outcomes, with four components:
Inputs (resources dedicated to program -- $, time, staff, equipment, supplies)
Activities (processes - what you do with inputs to fulfill mission -- strategies, techniques, methods)
Outputs (direct products of activities -- measured in terms of work accomplished, typically tangible and captured in number of ____ who ____)
Outcomes (benefits or changes for individuals or populations as a result of activities -- change in behavior, skills, knowledge, attitudes, value, conditions, attributes...) Logic / Outcomes Model A need is unmet because the right methods do not exist yet. "Build it and they will come" Seat of the Pants Incremental
Planning Depends on what the founder does to meet community needs, but more people become involved as time goes by. (Tough to distinguish between program services and organization services) Needs of clients are well known, methods are familiar, cost and risk low compared to first 2 methods. Business
Planning Careful analyzation of needs, methods, targets, processes, goals, and outcomes before implementation (least amount of risk) Project Planning a feasibility study
building a business case
risk management analysis
creating terms of reference
determining the scope of the project
identifying a sponsor, often someone in the organization
developing a communication plan
doing an impact analysis
completing a post-project review Definition Planning organizing and managing of resources for specific goals and objectives

start and completion date

purpose to produce a specific product or service during this period rather than sustain an ongoing program

Constraints are SCOPE, TIME, BUDGET 9 components Is the project short term, ad-hoc (as needed) or long term? SCOPE Is this plan put in place to sustain current operations, improve upon them, or begin a new venture or initiative? Purpose & Lifecycle Who is involved? CEO and board of directors, staff, volunteers, or all of the above? People Are there any risks and why?
Why must it be managed?
What is the level of risk?
Who is affected and how?
What steps will be carried out? Managing Risk What age, gender, social level, income level, education, language or demographic are we targeting? Targets, Goals & Outcomes What factors are at work?
What factors will affect the target client base?
What effect will these factors have on the plan?
What data can be used to create the plan? Environment
or Context What services are needed and when?
How accessible will the service be?
Can they afford it?
Will they be capable of using it?
Are there any challenges with delivery? Marketing Is this plan financially feasible?
Have all budgets, revenues, costs, and pricing been considered? Finances Does this plan put forward the best possible message and image of our product/service/program? Advertising & Promotions Is this plan easily understood by others? Will it be implemented in the intended way? Sales, Service & Delivery What personnel and materials will be required to successfully carry out the plan? Resources What data is needed to evaluate the plan?
Where and how will data be collected?
How will this info be interpreted and reported?
Who will collect and analyze this information? Monitoring & Evaluation Process Questionnaire - large amounts of info quickly in quantifiable terms; easy to collect/analyze, usually only a narrow range of response
Survey - Similar to above; many need an expert to write
Interviews - In-depth responses based on experience; rich data but time-consuming and difficult to analyze
Focus groups - Thorough discussion with small targeted groups to get common understanding; Rich and deep data but prone to groupthink and hard to schedule Evaluation
Methods
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