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Multiple Sclerosis

Bio project
by

Melody Kelm

on 25 May 2010

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Transcript of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis History of Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Course of Multiple Sclerosis Impacts on Body Systems Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis Long-term Prognosis Immune System Reaction Scientists have identified people who had MS as early as the Middle Ages. MS was one of the first diseases to be scientifically recorded. Jean-Martin Charcot, known as the father of neurology, wrote a detailed description of the disease in 1868. In 1916, a microscopic description made by James Dawson helped reveal the basic damage done by MS. In 1935, an animal form of MS was developed, suggesting that it was an autoimmune disease. The National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) was founded in 1946 In 1981, the first MRI was used on a person with MS. MRI revolutionized diagnosis and provided evidence that MS is a constantly active disease even when symptoms abate. Under an early NMSS grant, a diagnostic test suggestive of MS was developed, linking MS to immune system problems in 1948. In 1993, Beta-interferon 1b (Betaseron) was approved as the first drug to change the course of MS. There are over 50 symptoms linked to MS. Some of them are fatigue, depression, tremor, vertigo, vision problems, numbness and tingling, and heat intolerance. There are also some rare symptoms. One of these is the "MS hug" which is a pain that goes as high as the chest or as low as the waistline. Multiple Sclerosis is a nervous system disease. It affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. The symptoms of MS happen because the connection between the brain and the body's nerves are damaged. Similar to flickering lights, MS causes problems in the signaling of the nervous system. There is no cure for MS, but there are treatments to help the symptoms lessen. Most of these treatments have to be injected but some of them do not. The treatments are Avonex (taken by injection), Betaseron and Extavia, Glatiramer (taken by injection), Novantrone, Rebif (taken by injection), and Tysabri (taken by iv infusion). MS is quite common. Around 1 in 800 people in Europe and North America have it. MS is the most common cause of disability due to nerve damage in young adults. hell hellos adkjfkld sfdfsdfasdf Women are twice as likely to get MS than men are. Whites develop MS twice as often as other races. Most people who first experience symptoms of MS are between the ages of 20 and 40. Research shows that MS doesn't develop until after a person reaches 15 years. MS is five times more prevelant in temperate climates such as those found in the Northern United States, Canada, and Europe than in tropical climates. Some research on MS supports that some kind of environmental factor is what spreads the disease, while other scientists think that it is genetic or related to racial factors. There are occasionally MS clusters, or
outbreaks of MS. The most famous of
these epidemics happened in the Faroe Islands north of Scotland during WWII. No environmental factors have been found to support the clusters. An Italian Scientist named Dr.Paolo Zamboni thinks he has cured MS through a surgery, but this is not widely accepted by the scientific community. His preliminary study was completed in April of 2009. Some Syptoms overlooked by doctors when diagnosing people with MS are:
headaches
problems swallowing
constipation
respiratory problems and coughing The course of MS is unpredictable. Some people are barely affected by it while others have rapid progress to total disability, with most people fitting between these two extremes. Although everyone experiences a different combination of MS symptoms, there are many distinct patterns relating to the course of MS. Even though it is impossible to accurately predict the course of MS for any individual, the first five years after being diagnosed give some indication of how the diesease will continue for that person. This is based upon the course of the disease over that period and the disease type. The level of disability reached at end points such as five and ten years is thought to be a reliable predictor of the future course of the disease.
Age at diagnosis and gender may also be indicators of the long-term course of MS. Some research has indicated that younger age at onset [under 16 years of age] implies a more favorable prognosis, but this must be tempered by the knowledge that for a young adult living with MS for 20 or 30 years may result in substantial disability even if the progress towards disability is slow and in the first 10 or 15 years he or she is relatively mildly affected. Other research has indicated that late diagnosis [over 55 years of age], particularly in males, may indicate a progressive course of MS.
In MS the detente between the immune system and the body is disrupted when the immune system seems to wrongly identify myelin, the protection over the axon of a nerve cell, as an invader and declares war on it, damaging or even destroying it. The revolutionary "cure" for MS discovered by Dr. Paolo Zamboni has not been medically or scientifically accepted yet. This treatment focuses on removing iron build up in the main blood veins of the brain that is present in over 90% of people with MS. This surgery is similar to angioplasty, and over half of the studied patients have shown no symptoms of MS for two years after having the procedure. Many people with MS, approximately 45%, go through life with manageable disabilities such as fatigue, a limp, or bladder problems. Another 15% will go through life with severe disabilities like using a wheelchair full time. Multiple Sclerosis is not usually a life threatening disease; people who have MS have about the same life expectancy as normal people do. People who have MS, depending on the severity of the disease, will go through life with disabilities ranging from fatigue and bladder problems to having to use a wheelchair. Since there is no cure for MS, people with the disease will have to take different medications to treat the symptoms for their whole life. Work Cited www.nationalmssociety.org
www.nmss.org
www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/multiplesclerosis.html
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