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O&G II: Wellhead Solutions

Vertical Segment Training
by

Michael Nagy

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of O&G II: Wellhead Solutions

Wellhead Midstream
gathering, processing, transport, distribution, refining
collecting and metering from wells (wet gas, crude oil)
preliminary processing
separate methane from other natural gas liquids (ethane, propane, butane, etc)
de-sanding & de-watering oil, fractionating gaseous components (methane, etc)
transport & distribution via pipeline, tanker & rail to downstream industries Upstream
exploration and extraction
underground/underwater discovery
drilling exploratory wells
completing production wells
operating production wells
crude oil and raw natural gas O&G II: Wellhead Solutions Global Training Services 1 Industry Orientation 2 Industry Needs 3 Strategy & Approach 4 Phase 1:
Data logging, control, visualization 5 Resources &
SFDC 4 GEIP Solutions Phase 1:
Data logging, control, visualization 4 Phase 2:
Optimize efficiency & resources 4 Phase 3:
Maximize revenue and returns Scope Summary
The target applications center on production wellheads.

Our solutions provide the necessary data acquisition, control and visualization for the flow, transport and local processing of oil & gas from wells. From the Wellhead, the oil and gas (along with any accompanying gases, liquids and solids) will be gathered or processed in a variety of scenarios:
On-site processing and local storage (offshore platforms, small scale & remote onshore wellheads)
On-site processing with immediate transport to remote storage facilities (onshore)
Gathered to small bore pipelines and transported for processing and storage at centralized facilities (onshore, usually for fields) The Christmas Tree is the collection components and equipment used to regulate, control, monitor and measure production above the wellhead.

It is an assembly of control valves, pressure gauges and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control flow of oil and/or gas after well has been drilled and completed.

This is usually required only for wells under pressure, or subject to injection to maintain pressure. Wells with pump jacks use mechanical means to extract oil, and therefore do not need to regulate excess pressure and control flow (as the pump jack is self-limiting). The Wellhead is a structural component, mainly to contain and regulate the pressure and materials in the well. It is used in both the exploration and production phases of a well.

It acts as the interface between the subsurface structures & materials (e.g. casing, tubing, pump, sand, rock, oil & gas) and the apparatus above the well (e.g. meters, valves, controllers, visualization and pipeline equipment).

For a production well, equipment that is mounted above the wellhead is termed the Christmas Tree. Wellhead Primer Wellhead solutions DO NOT apply to this industry group Downstream
distribution and sale of finished products
natural gas and crude oil derivatives
natural gas and by-product sulphur
natural gas liquids – ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, etc
petroleum fuels - gasoline/petrol, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil
finished materials – asphalt, lubricants, rubbers, plastics, fertilizers, pesticides, etc Mobility Agents:
Thermal = Steam;
Viscosity = CO2;
Surface Tension = Surfactants

Primary & secondary recovery
~ 20-40% of reservoir original contents

Enhanced oil recovery
~ 15-30% of reservoir original contents EOR is Enhanced Oil Recovery. Through a variety of techniques and mechanisms, the goal is to use subsurface injection to improve yields of oil in existing reservoirs.

A variety of agents (chemicals, gases, steam, etc.) are injected down hole at very high pressures to push the oil & gas to the extraction point (well) and up to the surface.

Pressure is not the only mechanism: the injection agents alter the mobility of the oil to allow recovery. Upstream Rig platforms
Production wellheads
EOR wellheads
Gathering facilities Target applications for Wellhead Solutions Onshore vs. Offshore Offshore
these operations are large capital projects with significant requirements for local personnel, monitoring, safety, power and operation.
platforms are more like plants that support a single high-yield well. Wellhead Oil & Gas - Industries
Obstacles:
Local monitoring and control is isolated. Real-time, historical and diagnostic data are disconnected from the enterprise. Hence, findings, best practices and best performance procedures are rarely shared outside of the local field
A lack of centralization for collections, visualization, alarming, diagnostics and analysis duplicates effort for minor tasks. This burdens scarce human resources that are better used for remote maintenance and operational efficiency
Bespoke DAQ platforms cause cost-based obsolescence before optimal recovery is achieved Obstacles:
Manual record-taking requires time to travel between well-heads in a sequential fashion.
The time in transit results in a mismatch between downtime recovery and scheduled visits and maintenance.
This downtime frequently results in hours or days of lost production.
Obstacles:
Lack of real-time information means that control is built for safety at the expense of productivity.
Production control is not timely, efficient or optimal.
Predictive/preventive maintenance is based on a very small sample data set.
Well performance monitoring is estimated from wide-interval sampling of a limited number of inputs. Wellhead Industry For an introduction to Hazardous Locations, as well as more Wellhead Terminology and Primer topics...

Visit the glossary under "Resources"
in the main course page Production costs need to be reduced to offset higher drilling, transport and personnel costs, lower yields from maturing reservoirs and more stringent safety and environmental regulations
Wells need to couple rugged, self-sustaining systems for monitoring and control with centralized analysis and dispatch systems to optimize production and maintenance cycles
Remote monitoring & diagnostics should help standardize production metrics across wells and act as a force multiplier for personnel while assisting with troubleshooting & preventative maintenance.
Obstacles
Too much reliance on personal experience is needed to optimize production from local fields
Lack of standardization (equipment, operating procedures, control) creates uneven returns from wells within a field and between fields. It also prevents production benchmarking that can indicate where greater effort is required to achieve optimal recovery.
Preventative and predictive maintenance is more often “time-based” than “needs-based”
Obstacles:
Declining oil production – need to squeeze more profit out of every well and reservoir
Material and energy cost escalation – capital and operating costs increase as wells become more remote
Shortage of experienced personnel – knowledge and expert resources more expensive and spread thinly
Compliance to safety standards - adds an extra layer of cost and risk
Ambiguity and latency in data used for decision support – personnel unable to make improvements and refinements at the optimal time
Bespoke harsh area platforms - cause premature obsolescence of equipment, reducing the capability to produce from aging wells and reservoirs and reducing the ROI per well GE as trusted partner providing a modern technology platform that exceeds asset life cycle needs Extend lifecycle of assets Inadequate Asset Longevity Improved use of scarce resources via automated workflow Decrease mobilization & deployment costs Resource Scarcity
(personnel) Application-specific Bookshelf modules deployed via packaged solutions & focused domain-specific services Reduce operational risk Reduction of Domain Expertise Automation systems that lower TCO while optimizing the use of the existing
asset portfolio Increase operational efficiency
Reduce CAPEX by 2-5% Decreasing Asset Production RESULT GE IP RESPONSE PAIN POINT
Reduce Capex (Capital expenditures)
Reduce Opex (Operating expenditures) Approach Technical differentiator
Adopt analytical process models, predictive maintenance and alarming capabilities

Benefit
predict impending problems
moderate process fluctuations
extend asset life

Value
Improve safety and reliability while maximizing productive time Scenario #4: Implement Advanced Diagnostics
 (reduce Opex) Technical differentiator
Field mounting in the harshest environmental conditions; controller and network redundancy

Benefit
minimize maintenance trips ($ per trip x #trips )
prevent downtime production losses (e.g. bpd x #days x price)

Value
Round-the-clock asset performance ensured by hardened, high-availability monitoring & control Scenario #2: Prevent Equipment failures
 (reduce Opex) total system optimization & connectedness - from production to fiscal metering – adapts to changing customer demands while maximizing revenues & safety digitize operating & alarm procedures, reduce risk & troubleshooting, and optimize personnel tasks by matching need to availability standardize production visualization & decisions across multiple assets reduce downtime, improve efficiency and yields through process optimization and consistency overcome personnel shortages and provide consistent decision support Upstream Journey Strategy Technical differentiator
Deploy solutions with a common development environment and pre-configured components, logic and displays

Benefit
Reduce costs for engineering, equipment and deployment

Value
Reliability through standardization and simplification Scenario #1: Minimize time to production
 (reduce Capex) Phased Deployment Technical differentiator
Purpose-fit integrated control and safety systems that consume less power ~ 5 watts per controller ( 0.12 kWh/day)

Benefit
install fewer panels or generators
maintain fewer batteries

Value
Raise asset performance (integrated safety & control) while reducing capital costs Scenario #3: Reduce energy usage
(reduce Capex) Differentiators
AND
How far do they want to go? Recall the phased approach… Resource, expert shortage
Regulatory compliance
Consistent uptime
Daily operations & maintenance costs + Advanced functionality to manage maintenance, operations and process optimization Includes Field and Multi-Field Facilities… Scalable, hardened hardware platform for hazardous locations; includes regulatory control function blocks and built-in version control capabilities Declining production
Resource, domain shortage
Regulatory compliance
Consistent uptime
ROI on CAPEX
Daily operations & maintenance costs + + Includes Oil Sands, Shale Gas, Coal Based Methane, SIL2 Offshore Platforms… Scalable, hardened hardware platform for hazardous applications High performance, rugged and localized display for harsh environments Advanced functionality to manage maintenance, operations and process optimization Built In Redundancy Integrated safety and control in one panel enclosure This Industrial PC is purpose-built for harsh environments. Its COM-Express carrier architecture extends the useful life of the unit by facilitating repeated upgrades of cost-effective modules. Performance
15”, sunlight readable, LED backlit display
Soldered Intel Core 2 Duo processor, up to 4 GB soldered DDR3 RAM
Expansion slot for COM-Express Card
USB, Serial, Ethernet and VGA-out ports
Rotating (100 GB) or solid state (32-64 GB) disk drives
100-240 VAC or 11-32 VDC power inputs Wolverine III (IPC) Data Logging, Control, Visualization Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. In Oil & Gas, this is an asset monitoring and control system spread over a very wide network (tens, hundreds or even thousands of hectares in area). Geography (vast distances)
Communications (low bandwidth with only periodic updates (hourly or daily) and significant latency)
# of control devices (in the tens, hundreds or thousands often reporting in a sequence)
# of points (usually a dozen or so per site/device)
Data sampling and collection is infrequent
Problem remediation often requires dispatch and travel An HMI is a Human Machine Interface. In Oil & Gas, this is usually an operator terminal local to the equipment being controlled and monitored. SCADA/HMI Reduced I/O counts (generally less than 40 points)
Very low power requirements (often solar, battery or generator based)
Hardened and ruggedized against the elements (wind, rain, cold, heat)
Often Sealed from surrounding environment in hazardous locations (natural gas and other flammables may be present part of the time)
Very small memory for storage of variables and samples (FIFO arrays)
Very narrow communications bandwidth (telephone, radio, satellite, radio ethernet) An RTU is a remote terminal unit – a standalone, self sufficient control device that usually resides and operates outdoors RTUs What do GE IP Wellhead RTU and SCADA/HMI solutions look like? Synchronization
Checkpoints Failure to rendezvous or errors cause rapid
and bumpless change over automatically Rendezvous Redundancy Antenna HMI – QuickView
RTU controller
Radio and switch Solar panel
for 24vdc Inventory of components Antenna HMI – QuickView
RTU controller
Radio and switch Solar panel
for 24VDC SCADA HMI: Centralized visualization & reporting, with multi-site aggregation and decision support Start at the beginning… ESD OR FIRE HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTROL Can’t any I/O be field mounted? - 40 to +70 deg C (op)
5g vibration
30g shock
G3 corrosive resistance
IP65 in enclosure - 40 to +80 deg C
5g vibration
30g shock
G3 corrosive resistance Compare Inside Radio Power Supply
24/12 RTU QuickView Application-specific domain expertise Manage Template logic diagrams
Function blocks
Faceplates
Graphical elements Integrate Optimize RTU Wellhead Elements PRESSURE CONTROL
BLEED VALVE CHOKE VALVE
(4-20MA) HYDRAULIC WING
SHUTOFF SURFACE SHUTOFF SURFACE CONTROLLED
SUB-SURFACE SHUTOFF HYDRAULIC
FLUID PUMPS Robust, safe field terminals Plan to prevent and mitigate failures/problems with proactive maintenance and SOP-equipped personnel.
Get out ahead of problems by optimally deploying resources to prevent them instead of reacting to the latest data. Approach 9-12 MONTHS Remote Asset Monitoring: performance profiling, fiscal metering and monitoring, ideal custody transfer (Requires centralization of data, control & alarming using SCADA/HMI and Historian, at a minimum) Maximizing efficiency with SCADA, Historian, Bookshelf v2 (PPS) Technology Proficy
Process
Systems Gas calc. logic diagrams & function blocks
Template faceplates & graphical elements
Template logic diagrams, function blocks, faceplates, & graphical elements
Proficy Suite integration
Advanced control
Application specific domain Focus on the asset, and not on data and tags
Use Proficy to strip out the extra data that does not isolate the specific performance goal that is being optimized (ex. uptime, throughput, energy use, etc.)
Provide accurate real-time assessments and diagnosis of true performance and asset viability
Predict behaviour trends based on performance and alarm data Intelligent well test scheduling: high impact metering adjustment to maximize accuracy of measurement (very important in multi-phase streams) Take a performing platform to world-class productivity, efficiency & safety Proficy
Process
Systems Maximizing revenue with SCADA, Historian, Bookshelf v2 (PPS) Phase 1:
Data logging, control, visualization 4 Case Study A more robust solution comprised of fewer components and reduced interfaces to maintain.
Unmatched diagnostics encourage significant maintenance savings.
Standardised components and configurations eliminate engineering a specific site from scratch and drastically reduce end-to-end testing.
All sites are centrally monitored and cyber-security risks are minimized – providing a safer, more secure energy infrastructure for National Grid. UK Gas Network infrastructure A more robust solution comprised of fewer components and an unmatched level of diagnostics.
Allows the use of existing devices and networks while providing modern attributes and remote maintenance. IRIS RTU replacement National Grid, plc Case Study 65% reduction in maintenance requirements
60% improvement in MTTR
Higher availability for critical customers
24 x 7 real-time site data
Reduced risk of human error Provide a modern RTU infrastructure whilst reducing future maintenance needs.
Reduce maintainable components and vendors.
Ensure longevity of the UK Gas infrastructure
Provide remote maintenance National Grid, plc These resources are available to the public - globally Oil & Gas Industry Page GE-IP.com This EDGE training is available to all
GEIP & Channel sales O&G I: Getting Smart on Oil & Gas
O&G II: Wellhead Solutions
O&G III: Pipeline Solutions
O&G IV: Drilling Solutions Training @ EDGE These resources are available to all GEIP and Channel sales Oil & Gas
block/channel SMP Call to action… Visit the O&G libraries, SMP pages These resources are available only to Salesforce.com users Shared Content
Subscribe for notification
Rate and comment SFDC
Questions… Comments… Concerns…? O&G industries (up, mid, down) & Wellhead Review Upstream
exploration and extraction Downstream
distribution & sale of finished products Midstream
gathering, processing, transport, distribution, refining Onshore
often remote, unattended, and infrequently serviced.
usually monitored from a distance
often exposed to the elements in extreme conditions.
often low-yield on an individual basis, but high-yield when aggregated with the other wells in a field. Target Applications What is a Wellhead? About Gathering Facilities What is a Christmas Tree? What is EOR? Wellhead Industry Needs Summary Cost Optimization Real-time Information Electronic Records Digital Wellhead Remote Monitoring & Diagnostics Cost Optimization Electronic Records Remote Monitoring & Diagnostics Real-time Information Digital Wellhead Sample Pain Points & Solutions Optimize Wellhead Operations Increased safety & reliability,
decreased CAPEX and OPEX Hardened Environmental Specifications Low Power Consumption Integrated Control & Safety Advanced Diagnostics Risk-free Deployment Enhanced safety & reliability… Decreased CAPEX & OPEX costs… Increased asset integrity… Automated SOPs
Performance optimization Low power consumption
Plug and play redundancy for maximum uptime
Simplified maintenance – hot swap CPUs, modules Hardened environmental specs
Integrated IS, control & safety
Advanced diagnostics Well2Tank Bookshelf HMI (e.g. Quickpanel) PAC8000, SafetyNet, RX3i Wellhead Solutions Gathering Facilities Enhanced safety & reliability… Hardened environmental specs
Integrated IS, control & safety
Advanced diagnostics
Built-in security features Decreased CAPEX & OPEX costs… Plug and play redundancy for maximum uptime
Simplified maintenance – hot swap CPUs, modules Increased asset integrity… Automated SOPs
Performance optimization Well2Tank Bookshelf PPS, PAC8000, SafetyNet Where is your client today ? HYDRAULIC TANK What is so special about PAC 8000 I/O? Field Device PAC8000 Optional fuses Optional disconnects Field wiring directly on terminals Module keys for function and protection type No electrical connection to the carrier Proficy Bookshelf v1 Safety Rugged HMI Technology Integrated Automation Solution Wellhead RTU Robust Control What is an HMI? (iFIX, CIMPLICITY, View) What is SCADA? (iFIX, CIMPLICITY) What makes it different from plant-based SCADA/HMI? What is an RTU? What makes it different from a plant-based controller? Where do they start? Wellhead RTU: DAQ and Control Panel HMI: Local Visualization OR AUTOMATIC VALVE SEQUENCING ON MANUAL COMMAND BASED ON
PRESSURE & PUMP RUNTIME TANK LEVEL
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
FLOW PRESSURE
-----------------------
FUTURE:
FLOW OUT CONTROL INDICATION: (Enclosure Closed) Battery Box
2 X 12VDC Battery Box
2 X 12VDC Inventory of components (Enclosure Open) Switch Work with the Industry team to move opportunities forward Start logging Leads and Opportunities for pursuit Follow (or join) the Oil & Gas group @ Salesforce.com Subscribe to content Resources & SFDC GE IP Solutions Strategy & Approach Needs of Wellhead industry & customers Environmental
-40C to +60C operating temperature
40G pulse shock resistance, 2G 500Hz vibration (with solid state drives)
ATEX Zone2, NEMA 4X, IP65 Digital Wellhead Version 1 – Core Template faceplates & graphical elements Template logic diagrams & function blocks Deliver packaged solutions to Upstream applications: Optimize Efficiency & Resources Where to improve? Work process digitization: standardized work execution with optimal dispatch timing Maintenance scheduling: preventative maintenance to maximize uptime for consistent, efficient production Put your centralized DAQ and historical archiving to work.
Use accurate and more frequent sampling to provide a more idealized measurement for fiscal metering. Reduce “estimate” losses
Plan your maintenance to coincide with optimal personnel use and visit frequency. Maintain uptime and shorten or eliminate downtime while reducing costs due to personnel dispatch and latency
Deploy resources at the precise moment they are needed and arm them with standard instructions, procedures & targets that can be delivered and measured electronically How? What makes it different? Manage Integrate Optimize Deliver packaged solutions to Upstream applications: Bookshelf v2 Proficy Historian
Proficy Workflow
Proficy Cause+
Proficy Troubleshooter 3rd Party Domain Expertise
Project Life Cycle Management
*** Includes V 1.0 - Core Version 2.2 – AGA 3,8 Integration Version 2.3 – 3rd Party Integration Version 2.1 – Proficy Integration Maximize Revenue & Returns World Class Performance How to get there? Predictive maintenance: asset profiling to achieve accurate diagnosis of off-spec performance with immediate dispatch for remediation Real-time cause-based alarming: immediate notification and diagnosis of alarm conditions Approach (Requires centralization of data, control & alarming using SCADA/HMI and Historian, at a minimum) How? Put your centralized DAQ and historical archiving to work.
Use abundant data to profile and benchmark asset performance.
Provide early warning or prediction of problems and failures.
Schedule diagnostics for optimal impact and overlap with resource availability. What makes it different? Technology High-performance Operations Case Study UK Gas Network infrastructure IRIS RTU replacement CHALLENGES RESULTS PAC8000 RTU with intrinsically safe IO and HART pass through one panel.
A single node with mixed IO types uses the same hardware without need for external barriers.
Redundancy ensures more up time. The Intelligent Platforms Solution The Value Delivered PAC8000 RTU with intrinsically safe IO and HART pass through all-in-one integrated system.
Parameterised templates & control diagrams provide common platforms on every site.
Centrally held site configurations eliminate site variance and cyber-security risks.
Integrated Alarm Management System with context-based maintenance data. The Intelligent Platforms Solution The Value Delivered Resources & Next Steps Library  Oil & Gas Group:  Oil & Gas CCS Well2Tank Vertical Group
Members, shared resources & Chatter Infrastructure Solutions SMP Sales Training Market & segment primers Vertical Market Solutions www.ge-ip.com/well-to-tank
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