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O&G II: Wellhead Solutions

Vertical Segment Training

Michael Nagy

on 7 July 2017

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Transcript of O&G II: Wellhead Solutions

gathering, processing, transport, distribution, refining
collecting and metering from wells (wet gas, crude oil)
preliminary processing
separate methane from other natural gas liquids (ethane, propane, butane, etc)
de-sanding & de-watering oil, fractionating gaseous components (methane, etc)
transport & distribution via pipeline, tanker & rail to downstream industries
exploration and extraction
underground/underwater discovery
drilling exploratory wells
completing production wells
operating production wells
crude oil and raw natural gas
O&G II: Wellhead Solutions
Global Training Services
Industry Orientation
Industry Needs
Strategy & Approach
Phase 1:
Data logging, control, visualization
Resources &

GEIP Solutions
Phase 1:
Data logging, control, visualization
Phase 2:
Optimize efficiency & resources
Phase 3:
Maximize revenue and returns
Scope Summary
The target applications center on production wellheads.

Our solutions provide the necessary data acquisition, control and visualization for the flow, transport and local processing of oil & gas from wells.
From the Wellhead, the oil and gas (along with any accompanying gases, liquids and solids) will be gathered or processed in a variety of scenarios:
On-site processing and local storage (offshore platforms, small scale & remote onshore wellheads)
On-site processing with immediate transport to remote storage facilities (onshore)
Gathered to small bore pipelines and transported for processing and storage at centralized facilities (onshore, usually for fields)
The Christmas Tree is the collection components and equipment used to regulate, control, monitor and measure production above the wellhead.

It is an assembly of control valves, pressure gauges and chokes assembled at the top of a well to control flow of oil and/or gas after well has been drilled and completed.

This is usually required only for wells under pressure, or subject to injection to maintain pressure. Wells with pump jacks use mechanical means to extract oil, and therefore do not need to regulate excess pressure and control flow (as the pump jack is self-limiting).
The Wellhead is a structural component, mainly to contain and regulate the pressure and materials in the well. It is used in both the exploration and production phases of a well.

It acts as the interface between the subsurface structures & materials (e.g. casing, tubing, pump, sand, rock, oil & gas) and the apparatus above the well (e.g. meters, valves, controllers, visualization and pipeline equipment).

For a production well, equipment that is mounted above the wellhead is termed the Christmas Tree.
Wellhead Primer
Wellhead solutions DO NOT apply to this industry group
distribution and sale of finished products
natural gas and crude oil derivatives
natural gas and by-product sulphur
natural gas liquids – ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, etc
petroleum fuels - gasoline/petrol, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil
finished materials – asphalt, lubricants, rubbers, plastics, fertilizers, pesticides, etc
Mobility Agents:
Thermal = Steam;
Viscosity = CO2;
Surface Tension = Surfactants

Primary & secondary recovery
~ 20-40% of reservoir original contents

Enhanced oil recovery
~ 15-30% of reservoir original contents
EOR is Enhanced Oil Recovery. Through a variety of techniques and mechanisms, the goal is to use subsurface injection to improve yields of oil in existing reservoirs.

A variety of agents (chemicals, gases, steam, etc.) are injected down hole at very high pressures to push the oil & gas to the extraction point (well) and up to the surface.

Pressure is not the only mechanism: the injection agents alter the mobility of the oil to allow recovery.
Rig platforms
Production wellheads
EOR wellheads
Gathering facilities
Target applications for Wellhead Solutions
Onshore vs. Offshore
these operations are large capital projects with significant requirements for local personnel, monitoring, safety, power and operation.
platforms are more like plants that support a single high-yield well.
Oil & Gas - Industries

Local monitoring and control is isolated. Real-time, historical and diagnostic data are disconnected from the enterprise. Hence, findings, best practices and best performance procedures are rarely shared outside of the local field
A lack of centralization for collections, visualization, alarming, diagnostics and analysis duplicates effort for minor tasks. This burdens scarce human resources that are better used for remote maintenance and operational efficiency
Bespoke DAQ platforms cause cost-based obsolescence before optimal recovery is achieved
Manual record-taking requires time to travel between well-heads in a sequential fashion.
The time in transit results in a mismatch between downtime recovery and scheduled visits and maintenance.
This downtime frequently results in hours or days of lost production.

Lack of real-time information means that control is built for safety at the expense of productivity.
Production control is not timely, efficient or optimal.
Predictive/preventive maintenance is based on a very small sample data set.
Well performance monitoring is estimated from wide-interval sampling of a limited number of inputs.
Wellhead Industry
For an introduction to Hazardous Locations, as well as more Wellhead Terminology and Primer topics...

Visit the glossary under "Resources"
in the main course page
Production costs need to be reduced to offset higher drilling, transport and personnel costs, lower yields from maturing reservoirs and more stringent safety and environmental regulations
Wells need to couple rugged, self-sustaining systems for monitoring and control with centralized analysis and dispatch systems to optimize production and maintenance cycles
Remote monitoring & diagnostics should help standardize production metrics across wells and act as a force multiplier for personnel while assisting with troubleshooting & preventative maintenance.

Too much reliance on personal experience is needed to optimize production from local fields
Lack of standardization (equipment, operating procedures, control) creates uneven returns from wells within a field and between fields. It also prevents production benchmarking that can indicate where greater effort is required to achieve optimal recovery.
Preventative and predictive maintenance is more often “time-based” than “needs-based”

Declining oil production – need to squeeze more profit out of every well and reservoir
Material and energy cost escalation – capital and operating costs increase as wells become more remote
Shortage of experienced personnel – knowledge and expert resources more expensive and spread thinly
Compliance to safety standards - adds an extra layer of cost and risk
Ambiguity and latency in data used for decision support – personnel unable to make improvements and refinements at the optimal time
Bespoke harsh area platforms - cause premature obsolescence of equipment, reducing the capability to produce from aging wells and reservoirs and reducing the ROI per well
GE as trusted partner providing a modern technology platform that exceeds asset life cycle needs
Extend lifecycle of assets
Inadequate Asset Longevity
Improved use of scarce resources via automated workflow
Decrease mobilization & deployment costs
Resource Scarcity
Application-specific Bookshelf modules deployed via packaged solutions & focused domain-specific services
Reduce operational risk
Reduction of Domain Expertise
Automation systems that lower TCO while optimizing the use of the existing
asset portfolio
Increase operational efficiency
Reduce CAPEX by 2-5%
Decreasing Asset Production

Reduce Capex (Capital expenditures)
Reduce Opex (Operating expenditures)
Technical differentiator
Adopt analytical process models, predictive maintenance and alarming capabilities

predict impending problems
moderate process fluctuations
extend asset life

Improve safety and reliability while maximizing productive time
Scenario #4: Implement Advanced Diagnostics
 (reduce Opex)
Technical differentiator
Field mounting in the harshest environmental conditions; controller and network redundancy

minimize maintenance trips ($ per trip x #trips )
prevent downtime production losses (e.g. bpd x #days x price)

Round-the-clock asset performance ensured by hardened, high-availability monitoring & control
Scenario #2: Prevent Equipment failures
 (reduce Opex)
total system optimization & connectedness - from production to fiscal metering – adapts to changing customer demands while maximizing revenues & safety
digitize operating & alarm procedures, reduce risk & troubleshooting, and optimize personnel tasks by matching need to availability
standardize production visualization & decisions across multiple assets
reduce downtime, improve efficiency and yields through process optimization and consistency
overcome personnel shortages and provide consistent decision support
Upstream Journey
Technical differentiator
Deploy solutions with a common development environment and pre-configured components, logic and displays

Reduce costs for engineering, equipment and deployment

Reliability through standardization and simplification
Scenario #1: Minimize time to production
 (reduce Capex)
Phased Deployment
Technical differentiator
Purpose-fit integrated control and safety systems that consume less power ~ 5 watts per controller ( 0.12 kWh/day)

install fewer panels or generators
maintain fewer batteries

Raise asset performance (integrated safety & control) while reducing capital costs
Scenario #3: Reduce energy usage
(reduce Capex)

How far do they want to go?
Recall the phased approach…
Resource, expert shortage
Regulatory compliance
Consistent uptime
Daily operations & maintenance costs
Advanced functionality to manage maintenance, operations and process optimization
Includes Field and Multi-Field Facilities…
Scalable, hardened hardware platform for hazardous locations; includes regulatory control function blocks and built-in version control capabilities
Declining production
Resource, domain shortage
Regulatory compliance
Consistent uptime
Daily operations & maintenance costs
Includes Oil Sands, Shale Gas, Coal Based Methane, SIL2 Offshore Platforms…
Scalable, hardened hardware platform for hazardous applications
High performance, rugged and localized display for harsh environments
Advanced functionality to manage maintenance, operations and process optimization
Built In Redundancy
Integrated safety and control in one panel enclosure
This Industrial PC is purpose-built for harsh environments. Its COM-Express carrier architecture extends the useful life of the unit by facilitating repeated upgrades of cost-effective modules.
15”, sunlight readable, LED backlit display
Soldered Intel Core 2 Duo processor, up to 4 GB soldered DDR3 RAM
Expansion slot for COM-Express Card
USB, Serial, Ethernet and VGA-out ports
Rotating (100 GB) or solid state (32-64 GB) disk drives
100-240 VAC or 11-32 VDC power inputs
Wolverine III (IPC)
Data Logging, Control, Visualization
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. In Oil & Gas, this is an asset monitoring and control system spread over a very wide network (tens, hundreds or even thousands of hectares in area).
(vast distances)
(low bandwidth with only periodic updates (hourly or daily) and significant latency)
# of control devices
(in the tens, hundreds or thousands often reporting in a sequence)
# of points
(usually a dozen or so per site/device)
Data sampling and collection is infrequent
Problem remediation often requires dispatch and travel
An HMI is a Human Machine Interface. In Oil & Gas, this is usually an operator terminal local to the equipment being controlled and monitored.
Reduced I/O counts
(generally less than 40 points)
Very low power requirements
(often solar, battery or generator based)
Hardened and ruggedized against the elements
(wind, rain, cold, heat)
Often Sealed from surrounding environment in hazardous locations
(natural gas and other flammables may be present part of the time)
Very small memory for storage of variables and samples
(FIFO arrays)
Very narrow communications bandwidth
(telephone, radio, satellite, radio ethernet)
An RTU is a remote terminal unit – a standalone, self sufficient control device that usually resides and operates outdoors
What do GE IP Wellhead RTU and SCADA/HMI solutions look like?
Failure to rendezvous or errors cause rapid
and bumpless change over automatically
Rendezvous Redundancy
HMI – QuickView
RTU controller
Radio and switch
Solar panel
for 24vdc
Inventory of components
HMI – QuickView
RTU controller
Radio and switch
Solar panel
for 24VDC
: Centralized visualization & reporting, with multi-site aggregation and decision support
Start at the beginning…
Can’t any I/O be field mounted?
- 40 to +70 deg C (op)
5g vibration
30g shock
G3 corrosive resistance
IP65 in enclosure
- 40 to +80 deg C
5g vibration
30g shock
G3 corrosive resistance
Power Supply
Application-specific domain expertise
Template logic diagrams
Function blocks
Graphical elements
RTU Wellhead Elements
Robust, safe field terminals
Plan to prevent and mitigate failures/problems with proactive maintenance and SOP-equipped personnel.
Get out ahead of problems by optimally deploying resources to prevent them instead of reacting to the latest data.
Remote Asset Monitoring
: performance profiling, fiscal metering and monitoring, ideal custody transfer
(Requires centralization of data, control & alarming using SCADA/HMI and Historian, at a minimum)
Maximizing efficiency with SCADA, Historian, Bookshelf v2 (PPS)
Gas calc. logic diagrams & function blocks
Template faceplates & graphical elements

Template logic diagrams, function blocks, faceplates, & graphical elements
Proficy Suite integration
Advanced control
Application specific domain
Focus on the asset, and not on data and tags
Use Proficy to strip out the extra data that does not isolate the specific performance goal that is being optimized (ex. uptime, throughput, energy use, etc.)
Provide accurate real-time assessments and diagnosis of true performance and asset viability
Predict behaviour trends based on performance and alarm data
Intelligent well test scheduling
: high impact metering adjustment to maximize accuracy of measurement (very important in multi-phase streams)
Take a performing platform to world-class productivity, efficiency & safety
Maximizing revenue with SCADA, Historian, Bookshelf v2 (PPS)
Phase 1:
Data logging, control, visualization
Case Study
A more robust solution comprised of fewer components and reduced interfaces to maintain.
Unmatched diagnostics encourage significant maintenance savings.
Standardised components and configurations eliminate engineering a specific site from scratch and drastically reduce end-to-end testing.
All sites are centrally monitored and cyber-security risks are minimized – providing a safer, more secure energy infrastructure for National Grid.
UK Gas Network infrastructure
A more robust solution comprised of fewer components and an unmatched level of diagnostics.
Allows the use of existing devices and networks while providing modern attributes and remote maintenance.
IRIS RTU replacement
National Grid, plc
Case Study
65% reduction in maintenance requirements
60% improvement in MTTR
Higher availability for critical customers
24 x 7 real-time site data
Reduced risk of human error
Provide a modern RTU infrastructure whilst reducing future maintenance needs.
Reduce maintainable components and vendors.
Ensure longevity of the UK Gas infrastructure
Provide remote maintenance
National Grid, plc
These resources are available to the public - globally
Oil & Gas Industry Page
This EDGE training is available to all
GEIP & Channel sales
O&G I: Getting Smart on Oil & Gas
O&G II: Wellhead Solutions
O&G III: Pipeline Solutions
O&G IV: Drilling Solutions
Training @ EDGE
These resources are available to all GEIP and Channel sales
Oil & Gas
Call to action…
Visit the O&G libraries, SMP pages
These resources are available only to

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Questions… Comments… Concerns…?
O&G industries (up, mid, down) & Wellhead
exploration and extraction
distribution & sale of finished products
gathering, processing, transport, distribution, refining
often remote, unattended, and infrequently serviced.
usually monitored from a distance
often exposed to the elements in extreme conditions.
often low-yield on an individual basis, but high-yield when aggregated with the other wells in a field.
Target Applications
What is a Wellhead?
About Gathering Facilities
What is a Christmas Tree?
What is EOR?
Wellhead Industry Needs
Cost Optimization
Real-time Information
Electronic Records
Digital Wellhead
Remote Monitoring & Diagnostics
Cost Optimization
Electronic Records
Remote Monitoring & Diagnostics
Real-time Information
Digital Wellhead
Sample Pain Points & Solutions
Optimize Wellhead Operations
Increased safety & reliability,
decreased CAPEX and OPEX
Hardened Environmental Specifications
Low Power Consumption
Integrated Control & Safety
Advanced Diagnostics
Risk-free Deployment
Enhanced safety & reliability…
Decreased CAPEX & OPEX costs…
Increased asset integrity…
Automated SOPs
Performance optimization
Low power consumption
Plug and play redundancy for maximum uptime
Simplified maintenance – hot swap CPUs, modules
Hardened environmental specs
Integrated IS, control & safety
Advanced diagnostics
Well2Tank Bookshelf
HMI (e.g. Quickpanel)
PAC8000, SafetyNet, RX3i
Wellhead Solutions
Gathering Facilities
Enhanced safety & reliability…
Hardened environmental specs
Integrated IS, control & safety
Advanced diagnostics
Built-in security features
Decreased CAPEX & OPEX costs…
Plug and play redundancy for maximum uptime
Simplified maintenance – hot swap CPUs, modules
Increased asset integrity…
Automated SOPs
Performance optimization
Well2Tank Bookshelf
PPS, PAC8000, SafetyNet
Where is your client today ?
What is so special about PAC 8000 I/O?
Field Device
Optional fuses
Optional disconnects
Field wiring directly on terminals
Module keys for function and protection type
No electrical connection to the carrier
Bookshelf v1
Rugged HMI
Integrated Automation Solution
Wellhead RTU
Robust Control
What is an HMI? (iFIX, CIMPLICITY, View)
What makes it different from plant-based SCADA/HMI?
What is an RTU?
What makes it different from a plant-based controller?
Where do they start?
Wellhead RTU
: DAQ and Control
Panel HMI
: Local Visualization
(Enclosure Closed)
Battery Box
2 X 12VDC
Battery Box
2 X 12VDC
Inventory of components
(Enclosure Open)
Work with the Industry team to move opportunities forward
Start logging Leads and Opportunities for pursuit
Follow (or join) the Oil & Gas group @ Salesforce.com
Subscribe to content
Resources & SFDC
GE IP Solutions
Strategy & Approach
Needs of Wellhead industry & customers
-40C to +60C operating temperature
40G pulse shock resistance, 2G 500Hz vibration (with solid state drives)
ATEX Zone2, NEMA 4X, IP65
Digital Wellhead
Version 1 – Core
Template faceplates & graphical elements
Template logic diagrams & function blocks
Deliver packaged solutions to Upstream applications:
Optimize Efficiency & Resources
Where to improve?
Work process digitization
: standardized work execution with optimal dispatch timing
Maintenance scheduling
: preventative maintenance to maximize uptime for consistent, efficient production
Put your centralized DAQ and historical archiving to work.
Use accurate and more frequent sampling to provide a more idealized measurement for fiscal metering. Reduce “estimate” losses
Plan your maintenance to coincide with optimal personnel use and visit frequency. Maintain uptime and shorten or eliminate downtime while reducing costs due to personnel dispatch and latency
Deploy resources at the precise moment they are needed and arm them with standard instructions, procedures & targets that can be delivered and measured electronically
What makes it different?
Deliver packaged solutions to Upstream applications:
Bookshelf v2
Proficy Historian
Proficy Workflow
Proficy Cause+
Proficy Troubleshooter
3rd Party Domain Expertise
Project Life Cycle Management
*** Includes V 1.0 - Core
Version 2.2 – AGA 3,8 Integration
Version 2.3 – 3rd Party Integration
Version 2.1 – Proficy Integration
Maximize Revenue & Returns
World Class Performance
How to get there?
Predictive maintenance
: asset profiling to achieve accurate diagnosis of off-spec performance with immediate dispatch for remediation
Real-time cause-based alarming
: immediate notification and diagnosis of alarm conditions
(Requires centralization of data, control & alarming using SCADA/HMI and Historian, at a minimum)
Put your centralized DAQ and historical archiving to work.
Use abundant data to profile and benchmark asset performance.
Provide early warning or prediction of problems and failures.
Schedule diagnostics for optimal impact and overlap with resource availability.
What makes it different?
High-performance Operations
Case Study
UK Gas Network infrastructure
IRIS RTU replacement
PAC8000 RTU with intrinsically safe IO and HART pass through one panel.
A single node with mixed IO types uses the same hardware without need for external barriers.
Redundancy ensures more up time.
The Intelligent Platforms Solution
The Value Delivered
PAC8000 RTU with intrinsically safe IO and HART pass through all-in-one integrated system.
Parameterised templates & control diagrams provide common platforms on every site.
Centrally held site configurations eliminate site variance and cyber-security risks.
Integrated Alarm Management System with context-based maintenance data.
The Intelligent Platforms Solution
The Value Delivered
Resources & Next Steps
Library  Oil & Gas
Group:  Oil & Gas
CCS Well2Tank Vertical Group
Members, shared resources & Chatter
Infrastructure Solutions
Sales Training
Market & segment primers
Vertical Market Solutions
Full transcript