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World Wars and Revolutions
Transcript of World Wars and Revolutions
1. Growth of German power in Central Europe challenged Great Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia).
2. International competition among European powers for colonies and economic markets.
4. Militarism - As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun. By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in military buildup.
5. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
6. Naval rivalry between Great Britain and Germany. Increase in size of European armies.
7. Breakdown of the European treaty system and the 19th c. “Balance of Power.”
1. Many countries began to adopt more liberal forms of government, and a hostile Germany was forced to pay for a large deal of war reparations, which ultimately led to the start of World War II.
2. Governmental Changes:
As a result of World War I, socialistic ideas experienced a boom as they spread not only in Germany and the Austrian empire but also made advances in Britain (1923) and France (1924). However, the most popular type of government to gain influence after World War I was the republic. Before the war, Europe contained 19 monarchies and 3 republics, yet only a few years afterward, had 13 monarchies, 14 republics and 2 regencies.
3. Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The Germans were forced to sign a humiliating treaty accepting responsibility for causing the war, as well as dole out large sums of money in order to compensate for war costs.
4. The size of the German state was reduced, while that of Italy and France was enlarged.
5. Economic Change: Technology experienced a great boost after the war, as the production of automobiles, airplanes, radios and even certain chemicals, skyrocketed. The advantages of mass production and the use of machinery to perform former human labor tasks, along with the implementation of the eight hour work day, proved to stimulate the economy, the United States' in particular. However, much of Europe suffered devastating losses of physical property and landscape as well as finances.
6. Disillusionment: A feeling of disillusionment spread across the world as people bitterly decided that their governments in no way knew how to serve the best interests of the people. Important Events The Russian Revolution
(Bolshevik Revolution) Vladimir Ilich Lenin is best known for his role in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the founding of the Soviet Union. Lenin symbolized for many people the principles and ideas of the 1917 Revolution. In fact, in many ways, Lenin turned Marx on his head by placing politics over economics when he argued that Russia had gone through its capitalist stage of history and was ready for a second, socialist revolution.
Lenin argued that imperialist expansion allowed capitalism to postpone its crisis and form into socialism. It also created new, serious problems for the world. Lenin viewed World War I as an imperialist war, caused by tensions that arose from the simultaneous expansion of several European empires. As nations at the core of capitalism competed to expand their exploitative sphere, their interests conflicted with one another, producing the Great War.
Lenin's role in the Revolution of 1917 was to help defeat liberal political forces that sought to keep Russia within the European capitalist system. Under Lenin's leadership, Russia essentially withdrew from Europe and its imperialist conflicts, and resolved to move quickly and on its own toward a communist system free of class conflict and imperialist wars.
Lenin's imperialist theory of capitalism was very influential. Lenin sought to explain how it was that capitalism shifted from internal to international exploitation, and how the inequality among classes caused an uneven development among nations.
Vladimir Lenin The Russian Revolution of 1917 is also called the Bolshevik Revolution or the October Revolution. In 1917 there were actually two revolutions in Russia. One was the February Revolution in which the Provisional Government took power. The other was the October Revolution in which the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks.
Earlier, during the 1905 Revolution in Russia, the peasants in the Baltic took this as their cue to revolt against their rulers. At different times in history, the Estonian and Latvian peasants had been ruled by Tsarist Russia, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Baltic German nobility; Lithuanian peasants were governed by Russia and before it, by the Kingdom of Poland (1569 to 1791). They saw this time period as an opportunity to finally take control over their destiny and to rule them selves. Though it didn't lead to independence at this time, independence did emerge from 1918 untill 1940 for the people of the Baltic States. When Stalin became the leader of Russia in 1929, he realized that Russia was far behind the west and that it would have to modernize it's economy very quickly if it was to survive. Also a strong economy would lead to a strong military if Russia was going to survive threats from other forces. A modernized Russia would also provide the farmers with the machinery they needed if they were going to modernize their farms - such as tractors.
Stalin introduced the Five Year Plans. This brought all industry under state control and all industrial development was planned by the state. The state would decide what would be produced, how much would be produced and where it should be produced. An organization called Gosplan was created to plan all this out. The first five year plan was from 1928 to 1932; the second five year plan was from 1933 to 1937; & the third five year plan was from 1938 to 1941 when the war interrupted it.
Each plan set a target which industries had to meet. Each factory was set a target which it had to meet. The targets were completely unrealistic and could not be met but vast improvements were made. The emphasis was on heavy industries such as coal, oil, iron and steel and electricity. Stalin Totalitarian Government:
A totalitarian government is one where there is only one party allowed - the ruling party. In Stalin's Russia this meant that the Communist Party was supreme. All criticism and opposition is eliminated. The people are expected to be totally loyal to the state and to the person at the head of the government. Stalin ruled as a dictator, commanding his people with absolute power. He took on the name of "Stalin", which means "Man of Steel" in Russian. He conducted many purges against his rivals and introduced a new constitution which reinforced his power. The secret police and even a cult helped to build up his image and keep him in power. Communism in Russia After Marx had influenced the capitalism and Imperialism states, in 1917 the people of Russia made their choice - taking the path of the Revolution. The state transformed from a monarchy to socialist republic. This is when communism came into use for the first time in a country and the main ideas of the movement were applied.
After the WWII, during the Cold war, the Soviet Union in which Russia was the supreme member, showed an incredible technical advance. Communism worked well for the industry if not for the people - the divide in production and the five year development plans designed a framework for steady development. Since people were not influenced by the capitalism theories, they all worked for the state in a country where the government was the ultimate owner and judge of orders. Private ownership was forbidden and the equality of people led to rapid development. The results were the first man in the space sent by Russia, the technological advance in aircraft and weapon production as well as electrical engineering and heavy industry machinery. This is how Communism developed in Russia until the 1990s, when the Soviet Block was abolished and democracy took place. Nationalist Movements after WWI Mexico started a revolution that lead to a change in power.
The revolution was caused mostly by peasants, factory workers, and miners who were unhappy with the Diaz dictatorship.
Francisco Madero encouraged revolt.
Basically a government overthrow.
Democratic Government was established.
In the early twentieth century, European artistic and literary movements influenced culture in Latin America. Wealthy urban elites became very interested in modern art. Latin American artists incorporated techniques of modern art and often combined them with their own native roots. Many artists expressed a nationalist spirit. Latin America/Mexico Africa Black Africans had fought in World War 1 in French and British armies. Many Africans hoped they would be rewarded with independence after the war. After WWI, Africans became more active politically. Africans who fought in the war had learned new ideas about naitonalism and freedom in the West. In Africa itsef, missionary schools taught their pupils about liberty and equality. As more africans became aware of Western ideas and practices, they began to seek reform.
In Kenya in 1921, the Young Kikuyu Assossiation, orgnized by Harry Thuku, protested the high taxes levied by the British leaders.
A struggle against Italian rule in Libya also occured in the 1920's. Forces led by Omar Mukhtar used warfare against the Italians and defeated them numerous times. The italians established cocnentration camps and used all weapons to crush the revolt. Mukhtar's death ended the movement.
New leaders, such as Du Bois, was the leader of a movement that tried to make all Africans aware of their own cultural heritage.
Also, Garvey, a Jamaican who lived in Harlem, stressed the unity for all Africans, a movement known as Pan-Africanism.
Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya argued in his book, "Facing Mount Kenya", that British rule was destorying the traditional culture of African people. Middle East A group of reformers called the Young Turks forced the restoration of the constitution in 1908. They deposed the sultan in 1909. At the same time, many ethnic Turks pressed for an independent Turkish state.
At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed. Turkey was all that remained under Ottoman control. When Greece invaded western Turkey, Turkish leaders decided to form a new Republic of Turkey. Under the command of Mustafa Kemal, they were able to drive the Greek troops out. In 1923, the last Ottoman sultan fled the country.
Atatürk, president of Turkey made changes throughout Turkish society. These included eliminating Arabic elements from the Turkish language, adopting the Roman alphabet, and forcing people to adopt last names.Atatürk established factories and directed the economy. He tried to modernize farming, but to little effect. Atatürk wanted Turkey to be a secular state, one that rejects religious influences in politics. In 1924 he abolished the caliphate and forbade men to wear the fez, or traditional Turkish Muslim hat. He forbade the Islamic custom of women wearing a veil. New laws gave women equal marriage and inheritance rights and in time, the right to vote. Turks could join non-Islamic religions.
Reza Shah Pahlavi, king of Persia, tried to follow the example of Kemal Atatürk in Turkey. He reformed and modernized the government, the military, and the economic system. Persia was renamed Iran. Reza Shah Pahlavi did not try to destroy the power of Islam. However, he encouraged Western-style education and forbade women to wear the veil in public.
Pan-Arabism, the general term for the modern movement for political unification among the Arab nations of the Middle East took place. Ghandi & India Before World War I, Mohandas Gandhi had been active in the independence movement to end British rule in India. He was known as Mahatma, or “Great Soul.” Gandhi organized mass protests. He insisted that the protests be nonviolent. Gandhi used civil disobedience—the refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust—to achieve his goals.
India was tired of Britain control and wanted independence.
While meeting together, the British came and fired upon the Indians, known as the Amritsar Massacre.
Gandhi saw what was happening and wanted to change this; he staged non-violent actions against British rule:
Boycotted British goods.
Urged Indians to wear only cotton grown in India.
Worked to restore pride in India's traditional industries.
Gandhi led protests against Britain and eventually got some independence (India got independence).
The British raised the tax on salt and prohibited Indians from harvesting their own. In 1930, Gandhi protested by walking to the sea on the Salt March. At the ocean, Gandhi defied the British by picking up salt. Thousands of Indians followed suit. Gandhi and other INC leaders were arrested.In the 1930s, Jawaharlal Nehru emerged as an important leader in Indian politics. Nehru had studied law in Great Britain and was an upper class intellectual. The independence movement split into two paths. Gandhi represented the traditional, religious, and Indian path. Nehru represented the modern and Western. While the two paths shared the same goal, the division created uncertainty about what the future of India would look like. China & Japan Between 1900 and 1920, Japanese society adopted many aspects of Western societies and became an increasingly prosperous and industrial country. Traditionalists called for a return to older Japanese values. They rejected the influence of Western ideas in education and politics.
The United States wanted to keep Asia open for trade. In 1922, the United States held a conference that produced a nine-power treaty that recognized China’s territorial integrity and the Open Door policy. In return, Japan was allowed to control southern Manchuria.
During the 1920s, Japan tried to use economic and diplomatic means to realize Asian interests. The policy was unpopular. New heavy industries developed in Japan. To run these industries the Japanese needed new sources of raw materials.
At the end of the 1920s, problems arose that led to a rise in militarism in Japan. A group within the ruling party gained control of the political system. Many in the group thought that the Japanese system had been corrupted by Western ideas.
During the 1930s, extremist patriotic organizations emerged, some as part of the military. In 1931, a group of army officers directed an invasion of Manchuria. The government opposed the move, but the people supported it. The military and other supporters of Japanese expansion dominated the government.
The success of Communist parties in Asia varied greatly. Some cooperated with existing nationalist parties to overthrow Western colonial rulers. For example, in French Indochina, Ho Chi Minh, who had been trained in Moscow, organized the Vietnamese Communists. China had the strongest Communist-nationalist alliance. However, in most Asian colonial societies, communism had little success in the 1930s.
In all of Asia, revolutionary Marxism had its greatest impact in China. By 1920, two political forces emerged to challenge the Chinese government: Sun Yat-sen’s Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
In 1921, young radicals formed the Chinese Communist Party in the city of Shanghai. Comintern agents advised them to join with the older Nationalist Party. Sun Yat-sen welcomed the Communists. In 1923, the two parties formed an alliance to drive out the Chinese warlords and the imperialist powers.
The two parties worked together for three years. They trained an army. In 1926 they began the Northern Expedition and took control of all of China south of Chang Jiang (Yangtze River).
After the Long March, the threat from the Communists seemed to have ended. Chiang Kai-shek was trying to build a new nation. He vowed to form a republican government, but as Sun Yat-sen had stated, he felt that the Chinese people would need a transitional form of government to prepare them for a democratic state.
Chiang instituted a period of political tutelage (training). Under his leadership, the Nationalists tried to dictate land reforms and to modernize industry. However, the Chinese people were not ready for reforms. Eighty percent of the people were very poor peasants who were mostly illiterate. At the same time, the growing urban middle class took on Western values. They accumulated wealth and paid little or no attention to the needs of the peasants.
Chiang tried to blend modern Western industrialization with traditional Confucian values of hard work, obedience, and integrity. Chiang and his wife instituted the “New Life Movement.” It promoted Confucian ideals and rejected the individualism and greed of Western capitalism.
Effects Causes Fascism Elements of fascism:
The individual should distrust reason and simply obey.
Denial of equality – the strong have an obligation to destroy the weak.
Violence is an essential tool.
Government by an elite as the average person is incapable
Totalitarian – total state control of the lives of the individuals.
Racism and Imperialism justified in that certain nations are elite and are obligated to control.
Permanent mobilization – soldier valued above all other citizens
Anything is justified if it serves that states ends
Fascism emphasizes victory, glorifies war, is cruel to the weak, and is irrational and intolerant.
By providing a uniform, someone to blame, someone to hate and a leader, fascism restores self-respect.
Italian Facist Propaganda Italy & Mussolini Germany & Hitler German Fascist Propaganda World War II Appeasements of Germany World War Two began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland. Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland, the causes of the war are more complex. The term appeasement refers to a diplomatic policy aimed at avoiding war by making concessions to another power. The policy of appeasement was not necessarily the primary reason for WWII. Although, appeasement was a major contributing factor. Great Britain and France both implemented the policy of appeasement toward Nazi Germany because Europe was afraid of war at this moment. Europe had experienced WWI and the Depression. Simply, appeasement worked because it temporarily averted war during hostile tensions. In other words, it kept Hitler happy.
While Appeasement didn't cause the war, it also did absolutely nothing to prevent it. If Germany had been held accountable much earlier, it's possible a larger war could have been avoided. However, France and England did not have adequate military forces to ensure a victory, and didn't have political support to start a war even if they wanted to.
Other Reasons for WWII The failure of the League of the Nations to:
2) Bring about disarmamen (reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.) 1. Hitler invaded Poland bringing France and Great Britain into the war.
2. Japan took over Manchuria bringing China into the war.
3. Japan attacked the US Fleet at Pearl Harbor bringing the US into the war.
4. Germany invaded the USSR bringing the Soviet Union into the war. - Failure of the Treaty of Versailles: The treaty signed after World War I treated Germany very harshly and was greatly resented by the German people.
1) The size of Germany's military was severely restricted.
2) Germany lost territory in Europe and was forced to give up territories from its overseas colonies.
3) Germany was ordered to pay $33 billion in reparations (war damages). Appeasement Fascism, Nationalism & Totalitarianism (a political system where the state, usually under the control of a single political person, faction, or class, has no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life.) Expansionism:
The war was caused by the expansionist desires of Hitler, Mussolini and the Japanese imperialists. Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to conquer new territories and enslave or exterminate the peoples living there.
The aggression of Hitler’s Allies:
Italy – Mussolini wanted a Fascist-Roman empire in the Mediterranean and Africa (e.g. Abyssinian invasion in 1935.)
Japan – Japan wanted a Nipponese empire in the Pacific, extending into China and Australia. Major Battles: World War II There were many battles fought in WWII but a few were most important:
The battle of Khalkhin Gol in Mongolia (1939): Soviet troops defeated the Japenese curtailing their goals in the north, an area of contension since the 1904 Russo-Japanese conflict. As a result, they looked south instead, leading to the pacific conflict, drawing the americans into the war. The soviets could focus their forces entirely to the west, fighting a war on one front, unlike the germans.
Battle of Britain (1940): Battle fought over britain; air battle between Great Britain's Royal Airforce and Germany's Luftwaffe.
Midway (1942): The battle between the U.S. and Japanese naval fleets. This was the turning point in the war against Japan because most of Japan's fleet was destroyed
Stalingrad (1942-1943): A battle deep in Russia where the russians finally defeated the Germans and were able to go on the offensive. This was a major turning point in the war because the Nazi army suffered heavy loses.
D-Day (1944): The invasion of Normandy which gave the allies a foothold on Europe.
The Battle of the Bulge (1944-1945): Last major offensive Hitler launched to try and hold back allied powers.
Major Battles of WWII In Germany, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler pursued establishing such a fascist government in Germany. With the onset of the Great Depression, Nazi support rose and, in 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany, and in the aftermath of the Reichstag fire, Hitler created a totalitarian single-party state led by the Nazis. Europe Under the Nazis Asia Under Japan Japan felt that they were superior and felt that they had the right to take over Asia to provide more resources for themselves. After the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, Japanese politics became increasingly dominated by the military, eventhough no military party ever gained any influence in parliament. The cabinet of ministers was made mostly of nonparty politicians, supported by violent nationalist military groups such as the Imperial Way, who assassinated numerous politicians.
Those militarists pushed to take control of China. Economic and social upheaval in the 1920's led many Japanese farmers to move to Manchuria to release tensions inside Japan, and in 1931 the independent state of Manchukuo was created. From 1937, the Japanese army invade and took Peking, Shanghai, Nanjing and most of North-East China. Beginnings of the Cold War When Russia made a revolution, became the Soviet Union, unified itself under Lenin and created an ideological structure called communism, the United States could only react with fear. The government could not accept the simple fact that a country could exist with economic and political principles so critically opposed to democracy and industrial capitalism.
By 1919 or 1920, the Red Scare had occured. Through the manipulation of public opinion and even physical force, anarchists, socialists and communists were clearly forced into retreat.
Another cause of the cold war revolved around a relatively new development in United States-Soviet relations. The Soviets would exploit every opportunity to extend their system.
America reacted to the threat of the spread of both Soviet power and communist thinking by commencing the policy of ‘containment’, outlined in a speech to Congress on March 12 1947, action aimed at stopping any further Soviet expansion and isolating the empire which existed. Worried that others were gaining influence as the economy worsened, to secure the western markets for US products and to put containment into practice, America reacted with the ‘Marshall Plan’ of massive economic aid. The Marshall Plan was implemented following the second world war to aid European countries that had been destroyed as a result of the war. Following World War II, the United States needed this plan to help rebuild war-destructed Europe, and help create a stronger economic environment for Europe as a whole. In the aftermath of the Second World War two new powers formed in Europe, one dominated by America and capitalist democracy, the other dominated by the Soviet Union and communism. While these powers never directly fought, they waged a 'cold' war of economic, military and ideological rivalry. From World War, to Cold War German Invasion of Poland (September 1st, 1939)
German tanks invaded West Prussia and Posen on the 1st of September 1939 using blitzkrieg tactics ("lightning war", a tactic based on speed and surprise and needed a military force to be based around light tank units supported by planes and soldiers). Chamberlain sent an ultimatum (a warning with a threat) saying that if Hitler did not withdraw from Poland by 11am, September 3rd 1939, Britain would declare war. On the 3rd of September, Britain, followed by France, odeclared war on Germany. How did the us mobilize to fight in World War II?
The US moblized to fight in World War II by creating a draft. The Selective Service System expanded the draft and eventually provided another 10 million soldiers. Also the US created a Women's Auxiliary Army Corps, which opened up the chance to women to join the army. Once the war began, the countries involved mobilized their entire populations and economic resources to achieve victory on the battlefield. This was known as Total War. Total war was a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nation's ability to engage in war.
Atrocities of WWII World War I ended with the signing of the Armistice of 1918. This meant the immediate clearing of Belgium, France, Alsace-Lorraine, to be concluded within 14 days. Any troops remaining in these areas to be interned or taken as prisoners of war. All limitations by Germany on neutral shipping were also to be removed. This marked the end of fighting in the first World War on the Western Front. Armistice with Germany The Russian Kulaks were a class of peasant farmers who owned their own land. The term "Kulak" was originally intended to be derogatory. Soviet propaganda painted these farmers as greedy and standing in the way of the "utopian" civilization that would take away their land, livestock, and produce. "Kulak" means "fist" in Russian. Kulaks During the Cold War both the USA and USSR sought to gain client states in Africa. In Africa at this time, apartheid was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1993, under which the rights of the majority non-white people of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by white people was maintained. Apartheid Pacifism is a belief that violence, even in self-defence, is unjustifiable under any conditions and that negotiation is preferable to war as a means of solving disputes. In the First World War pacifists became known as conscientious objectors. Some pacifists refused to fight but about 7,000 were willing to help the country by working in non-combat roles such as medical helpers, ambulance drivers, cooks or labourers. The Kamikaze were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of World War II, designed to destroy as many warships as possible. (EXAMPLE OF ATROCITY) World Wars & Revolutions By: Jenna Schiffman War can be justified, but only in retrospect. War can only be justifiable if it's waged as a last resort. All non-violent options must be tried before the use of force can be justified. Simply, war can be justified in the name of self-defense and self-preservation. If one is attacked or going to be attacked, then it is justifiable to defend oneself. If there is no reasonable chance of success, war is clearly unjustified. Deaths and injury involved in a hopeless cause are not justifiable in my opinion. I believe that the ultimate goal of a just war is to re-establish peace. Therefore, the peace established after the war must be preferable to the peace that would have remained if the war was not fought. Can War be Justified?