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Narrative Hybridity: Representing Dominican Diaspora in "The Brief and Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao"

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Liz Stevens

on 6 May 2013

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Transcript of Narrative Hybridity: Representing Dominican Diaspora in "The Brief and Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao"

DIASPORA The song is a criticism of Western
influence on the Latino nation
and criticism of Latino politics. The song invokes themes
discussed in "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao" because it refers to the effects of dictatorship and colonialism on mult-cultural histories.

-The prettiest faces that I have known,
I am the picture of the "disappeared," meaning the silenced during the dictatorships of Latin America. "Soy, soy lo que dejaron,
Soy las sobras de lo que te robaron,”

I am, I am what they left,
I am the leftovers of what they stole. Synthesis of "Latinoamérica" by Calle 13 “La interpretación de nuestra realidad con esquemas ajenos sólo contribuye a hacernos cada vez más desconocidos, cada vez menos libres, cada vez más solitarios.” The interpretation of our reality through patterns not our own serves only to make us ever more unknown, ever less free, ever more solitary’ (Hanna 511) Representational style benefits from a form that is aesthetically representative of the history it represents. If form works alongside content to provide meaning to the text themes then when studying diaspora, a hybrid of diverse cultural identities, it is more effective to use a form that is both hybrid and diverse. DIASPORA is dynamic and very
influential in the construction of identity. Therefore, proper representation is crucial. Both conversations focus on Díaz and how he manipulates “The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao” through narrative hybridity to shed light on the Diaspora experience. Although, these conversations speak a lot about Diaz's role in representing the Dominican Diaspora, these conversations do not look at Domincan Diaspora through the lens of Yunior’s narration. The Diaspora experience situated in this novel is prevalent in Yunior’s telling of the story and goes beyond the limits of influence from the mother country that is believed to dominate the diasporic identity. ”Díaz traces the process in which Dominican Identity, shaped by the traumatic and painful national history, transforms itself into a new being, swayed by the cultural and social influences of the United States, and yet, remains entirely dominated by the identity politics of the mother country” (Ziarkowska 137) Díaz's use of alternatives to the chronological linear pattern in narrative are more effective at representing Diaspora. The Previous Conversation Chronological Linear Pattern in Narrative Magic Realistic Narrative in -
Latin American writing Previous conversation about the effects/uses of Junot Diaz’s narrative hybridity on the representation of Dominican Diaspora "In Santo Domingo a story is not a story unless it cast a supernatural shadow" (Díaz 245) .
Synthesis: Yunior identifies the primary mode of historiography in Santo Domingo, or more generally the Dominican Republic (DR), as magical realistic. Using the word unless: “It is not a story UNLESS it casts a supernatural shadow” shows the reader that the use of the magical realist genre is necessary to represent the history of the DR. “Latin American authors often present magical realism as an authentic expression of the peculiar political and cultural condition of their region. The powerful persistence of traditional or indigenous beliefs in modern Latin America, for example, has served as a particular source of inspiration for much magical realist writing. . . representation of these older traditions bolstered [Latin American authors’] claims that magical realism was an absolutely native and authentic expression of the multicultural and historically fractured nations of Latin America” (Bautista, 42-43).
Synthesis: As Bautista states, magical realism came to be known as the standard narrative structure to use when representing “authentic expression” of Latin American history and identity. However, "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao" does not exclusively rely on magic realism. The introduction of hybrid narration deviates from the Latin American standard. The shift from more classic representations of Latin America to the narrative hybridity in Díaz’s work represents Dominican Republic diaspora. This shift shows how different forms of literary structures are significant to the content represented and how that content is interpreted. Important Definitions What We Bring to the Conversation Yunior's Role Crux: If "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao" is enhanced by narrative hybridity then how does narrative hybridity represent diaspora histories and identity; is this model of narration more effective at representing diaspora because of the role of Yunior’s narration?

Examples of narrative hybridity within the novel we are analyzing:
Poly-vocal narration with the unreliable narrator/character
Blending of fictionalized memory and historical content
Pop-culture references in science fiction combined with old-world Latin American fantasy

For more information, look at Thomas Larson’s ideas about the hybrid narrative: “It describes any narrative whose structure is fragmented, braided, threaded, broken, or segmented”. http://www.thomaslarson.com/memoir-writing-lectures/210-hybrid-narrative.html Diaspora: Narrative Hybridity: “Every summer Santo Domingo slaps the Diaspora engine into reverse yanks back as many of its expelled children as it can” (Díaz 271) In Stuart Hall’s article “Cultural Identity in Diaspora” he argues that the diaspora experience is a recognition of diversity that is “constantly producing and reproducing themselves a new through transformation and difference” (438) Our combined definition after looking at different sources:
Dominican Diaspora is scattering of Dominicans whose identity is informed by various experiences, memories and truths that cause constant changes in culture and histories. Yunior’s narration effectively captures the diasporic identity because of his narrative style in the novel. He is also able to do so because he is a narrator-character that reconstructs the history of the Dominican Republic that includes hindsight of the past and issues of the present. Yunior shows the history of a family and a people as they go through the process of Diaspora. Yunior is able to highlight the influences of hybridity on the Diaspora whilst undermining the "dominant" influence of "the mother country." Why is his narration significant?

What is he doing? Yunior attempts to construct an alternative history that is inclusive of old world and new world Dominican perspectives, popular culture, magical realism and historical narrative, diaspora subjects, experience and memory. Sci-fi & Fantasy In the following footnote Yunior starts off by letting the reader know that the story he is telling is not his "first draft." If Yunior has edited the story it means that history is altered; it is subject to change. This parallels how Díaz portrays Dominican Diaspora in "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao", as an entity that can be manipulated the history has been recorded and told by an official historian. Yunior also lets the reader know that he is not an expert on the Dominican Republic because he had to go to Leonie the "resident expert," dismissing himself as an expert. Yunior lets the reader know that parts of, or all of his story is constructed. He tells the reader he “just liked the image too much” which tells the reader that this is not solely a factual account of the Dominican and Oscar’s familial history, but also his history. He issues an apology but not to the reader, which emphasizes that this history is just as credible despite his mistakes. This highlights that the Dominican history in "The Brief Wondrous Oscar Wao", especially in the context of Dominican Diaspora, is experienced differently and yet still one singular history. Yunior and Lola are the only actual two narrators to speak, but the silenced, unspoken and unwritten narratives voiced by at another more important element to polyvocaality in "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao". Yunior intervenes in chapter three during Beli’s story of heartbreak and tells the reader his information is "fragmented." Yunior implies that Beli’s story is also missing story line "due partially to Beli's silence" and other's unease to talk about the regime. In "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao" Yunior compensates for these silences by filling in the gaps or "páginas en blanco." The Dominican diaspora in novel is able to unearth, recover and reconstruct these histories. Yuniors retelling Beli's history acknowledges the Dominican culture as fragmented and silenced and ultimately subject to Diaspora idenitities which can add and overcome Trujillian history. Yunior is first referenced by name in the fourth chapter of the novel by Lola. Revealing Yunior as the narrator, and not Díaz, situates Yunior as a character subject to effects of Diaspora. His first interaction with the reader establishes him as the typical Dominican Diaspora male. But he is referred to as Yuni and not Yunior. Calling him Yuni and not Yunior creates a character that is affectionately tied to the story and removes some of the power he had in the beginning as soley narrator. As a narrator- character, Yuniorbegs his readers to reconize his postion as a narrator but also recognize his limitations as a character. Unreliable Narrator, Polyvocal Narration, In "The Brief Wondorous Life of Oscar Wao" recreated history does not follow a chronological linear pattern. Its narrative structure but jumps between the past and present. Yunior, influenced by his upbringing in America, which is never static and always changing and mixing (Rushdie), brings new life to the history of the DR. His narrative devaites off course and creates space for unofficial histories. Yunior's narrative opens up conversations that concentrate on the polarity between what can be true/untrue, left said/unsaid, forcibly silenced/voluntarily silenced and everything in between. “The footnotes then serve purposes beyond undercutting the narration, most obviously providing an outlet for Yunior’s historiographical impulse: his secret history becomes marginal in multiple ways, a history told from the margins and in the margins” (Miller 96). The footnotes serve as a way for Yunior to further situate himself in Dominican history. But what Yunior adds is not always an official history and is composed of primarily fictionalized fact, fictionalized memory and an actual history. The actual structuring of footnotes emphasizes Yunior’s position as marginal and the history as marginal. Marginal as defined by Ashcroft is the “positionality that is best defined in terms of the limitations of a subject's access to power” (Ashcroft 135). “It is the internalization of the Trujillan historiography that Yunior battles throughout the text by positing an alternative based on memory and inclusion” (Hanna 506).
Unlike the traditional footnote which only serves to recount and clarify content Yunior interjects with opinionated content on Trujillo. This insertion by Yunior serves to complicate Dominican history by inserting popular, yet silenced, voice and not the official one (which is reinforced at this point because we don’t know the narrator). He insists that what we are about to be told is fact and that the history is unknown. “In a mandatory two second history lesson” Yunior makes the assumption that Trujillo would be included and not the voice of the marginal. But he manages to reconcile both perspectives in the footnote. “Yunior’s narration as well as his footnotes imitate the style of oral storytelling with numerous digressions, comments, exclamations, and gestures of directly addressing the reader. ” (Ziarkowska, 142)
Once again Yunior interjects personal opinion within the footnote, positing fiction as fact. During this footnote he states the reason for diaspora. That it was “oversaw/initiated” instills a fantastic quality in the making of diaspora. He tells also tells us about “paginas en blanco” at the end of the footnote which creates a sense of doubt about truth and consistency in Dominican history which is not only framed by Yunior but by Dominican officials. Yunior’s account of Abelard’s alternative history is a secret history, so it begs to answer the question: How does Yunior have access to the “secret” history of Abelard? The quotation,“If we are to believe the whispers,” includes the audience, which makes the reader a part of Yunior’s story. How Yunior draws the reader in reflects the interconnectedness of Diaspora with the new world. He invokes magical tales that he does not state as true, it is "(so the story goes)," but he allows the tale some merit by not acknowledging the story as untrue either. Historical Context (i.e. footnotes), Recreated History, & Fiction The protagonists within the novel "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao," by Junot Díaz, are part of the Dominican Diaspora because of their movement from the Dominican Republic to the United States. Scholars interpret Díaz’s novel and its narrative approach as one way to represent the many complexities of the diaspora identity, because the diaspora identity evolves due to cultural influences from both the West and United States. Scholar Bill Ashcroft explains that “the descendants of the diasporic movements generated by colonialism have developed their own distinctive cultures which both preserve and often extend and develop their originary culture” (Ashcroft 70). The multiplicity of Diaspora, created by mixing effects of colonialism and other cultures, makes the experience difficult to represent. The chronological linear pattern and magic realistic forms of narration, that were once the standard for Latin American writers who wanted to express history and identity of Latin American nations, are not as effective of conveying the multiplicity of Diaspora. "The Brief Wondrous life of Oscar Wao" effectively shows the transient properties of the diaspora identity because Díaz’s style of narrative hybridity, the juxtaposition of unlike narrative structures without transition that generates a blending of genres, subtly highlights the multipility of Diaspora. Through the use of distant narrative elements that are influenced by US references, scholar Daniel Bautista argues that Díaz “irreverently mixes realism and popular culture in an attempt to capture the bewildering variety of of cultural influence that define the lives of Díaz’s Dominican-American protagonists” (42). Like Bautista, most scholars look at Díaz’s use of narrative formation to explain how his literary techniques enhance the understanding of Dominican Diaspora.
Unfortunately, what is often overlooked is the role of the main narrator Yunior within the work. Yunior’s narration constructs an alternative history of the Dominican Republic on the basis of a diasporic perspective, which upsets the chronological linear pattern of narration. Yunior’s position within the Dominican Diaspora affects the way his narrative voice represents the past and present of the Dominican Republic. Scholar Bill Ashcroft defines diaspora as “ the voluntary or forcible movement of peoples from their homelands into new regions” (Ashcroft 68), or otherwise the scattering of people outside the homeland. Conclusion Yunior’s narrative voice, "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao" shows how cultural influences influence both identity and representation of identity in the Diaspora. Yunior’s narrative voice creates an alternative history which allows for silenced histories, diasporic histories and old world histories to coexist in conversation, which creates a better context for the true forces behind Dominican Diaspora. Díaz uses narrative hybridity to capture the variety of influences that define the lives of his Dominican-American characters including but not limited to: popular culture references of sci-fi, magical realism, polyvocal narration, narrator- character, unreliable narrator, historical fact and fictionalized memory . http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=95836721 translated lyrics: http://lyricstranslate.com/en/latinoamerica-latin-america.html-0#songtranslation Narrative hybridity is more effective at representing the multiplicities of Dominican Diaspora. Narrative hybridity parallels the hybridity of Dominican Diaspora in the novel because both foster space to express changes in culture affected by the social environment, historiography, and alternative cultural influences, all of which inevitably occur in reaction to Diaspora discourse. translated lyrics: http://lyricstranslate.com/en/latinoamerica-latin-america.html-0#songtranslation "In my first draft, Samana was actually Jarabacoa, but then my girl Leonie, resident expert in all things Domo, pointed out there are no beaches in Jarabacoa. Beautiful rivers but no beaches. Leonie was also the one that informed me that the perrito (see first paragraphs of Chapter one, "GhettoNerd at the End of the World") wasn't popularized until the late eighties early nineties, but that was just one detail I couln't change, just liked the image too much. Forgive me, historians of popular dance, forgive me!" (Díaz 132). "Due partially to Beli's silence on the matter and other folks' lingering unease when it comes to talking about the regime, info on the gangster is fragmented' I'll give you what I've managed to unearth and the rest will have to wait for the day the páginas en blanco finally speak" (Díaz 119). Even those nights after I got jumped she wouldn't let me steal on her ass for nothing. So you can sleep in my bed but you can't sleep with me? Yo soy prieta, Yuni, pero yo soy bruta. Knew exactly what kind of sucio I was (Díaz 169). First draft suggest there are multiple drafts Why does Yunior need an expert? Why is he apologizing to them and not the reader? Yunior’s narration incorporates science fiction allusions, notably allusions from US comic books, with other pop-culture references and Dominican folklore to create a narrative hybridity that brings together influences from the past with influences of the present. Yunior’s character relies on this subsection of narrative hybridity not only when he describes Oscar’s personality, but also to link distant historical events that happened in the DR under Trujillo’s regime to more recognizable allusions that science fiction enthusiasts understand. Scholar Daniel Bautista classifies this form of narrative hybridity, “the mix of sf [science fiction], fantasy, comic books and gritty realism”, as “comic book realism” (42). However, Bautista looks at the use of this genre through the lens of Díaz’s voice whereas I am curious about how Yunior’s use of “comic book realism” informs his audience about US influences on the creation of Dominican Diaspora on the characters in Díaz’s novel.

Yunior’s character, who self-define as the womanizing Dominican male, admits throughout his telling of the story that he knows a lot about Oscar’s science fiction interests. Yunior also uses science fiction references in his own definitions, which deters from the traditional idealized image of the “Dominican male” who is not influenced by ‘geek; imagery and the science fiction subculture. Yunior narrates about Oscar’s girl problems and, on his own accord, relies on science fiction metaphors and similes to create his description. Yunior’s reliance on this genre to express himself and his thoughts shows how the diaspora can affect self-representation and representation of others. Someone who grows up in one country and moves to another has influences from both living situations that impact his or her experience and expression of experience. Bautista explains that, "sf [sci-fi] and fantasy . . . are an integral aspect of Díaz’s vision of Dominican and Dominican-American reality and history. By incorporating them into the novel, Díaz suggests that the comic and sf world offer a wealth of parallels for the challenges faced by any Dominican-American who does not feel quite at home on either side of the hyphen". Yunior might not feel completely Dominican or completely American, but that is the nature of the diaspora; Yunior’s narration in this novel makes it clear that the diaspora is always influencing, changing and affecting the way people caught up in its net look at the world around them and themselves. “Where this outsized love for genre jumped off from no one quite seems to know. It might have been a consequence of being Antillean (who more sci-fi than us?) or of living in the DR for the first couple years of his life and then abruptly wrenchingly relocating to New Jersey – a single green card shifting not only worlds (from Third to First) but centuries (from almost no TV or electricity to both). After a transition like that I’m guessing only the most extreme scenarios could have satisfied. Maybe it was that in the DR he had watched too much Spider-Man, been taken to too many Run Run Shaw kung fu movies, listened to too many of his abuela’s spooky stories about el Cuco and la Ciguapa” (footnote (6) 21-21) By referring to Oscar as “Antillean” and then saying, “(who more sci-fi than us)”, Yunior reaffirms that fantasy is in integral part in the Antillean culture. It is possible that Oscar, affected by this culture when young, uses US science fiction after his move to compensate for this part of his heritage he lost. Or, the influences of US science fiction help Oscar’s heritage evolve because he is now of two places and not just one. The Diaspora is recognized in this quotation because Oscar’s personality is not dominated by the influences of his home country, but morphed by the influenced of fantasy culture in the US that takes place in the subculture of sci-fi. In this footnote at the beginning of the novel, Yunior ponders where Oscar’s interest in science fiction originates and how his interest relates to his move to the US. Within the footnote, Yunior commentates on Oscar’s movement from the Dominican Republic to the United States, the diaspora experience. According to Yunior, “after an experience like that” the science fiction influences that stuck with Yunior, must be significant to still take hold and affect Oscar’s personality. Yunior refers to both US science fiction references and old-world fantasy creatures from the DR when he expresses how Oscar becomes obsessed with the genre. By introducing Oscar as a character influenced by both fantastic elements from his home country and present home Yunior can imply that the diaspora experience is prevalent in Oscar’s interest in science fiction. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Antillean http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/peo_afr_dia_pop-people-african-diaspora-population Population Statistics for Dominican Republic movement in "Africa Diaspora": "(who more sci-fi than us?)" (21) US created “Spider-Man” appearing on TV in the Dominican Republic: Shows how influential the US is in Third world countries and how the influences of the diaspora don’t have to start with movement from mother country to foreign land. Spider-Man was just the beginning for Oscar, and Yunior’s blending of this US cultural influence with other Dominican fantasy creatures shows how Oscar’s culture is affected by multiple sources of influence, but even more so during the transition from one culture to another. http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/scale_small/5/56044/2423629-spider_man__1990__01a.jpeg http://www.comicvine.com/forums/battles-7/spiderman-and-colossus-vs-mr-fantastic-and-sabreto-1452008/ http://www.colonialzone-dr.com/important_stuff-myths_legends.html Dominican fantasy creatures out of island myth and legend. Yunior's reference to these creatures ties in old-world myths and still shows that Oscar is affected by his past in the Dominican Republic. Yet not dominated by this past because other relevant imagery from the US is connected to Oscar's interest in science fiction genre as well. http://www.hispanic-culture-online.com/el-cuco.html#axzz2SLPhXemt For a history of "El Cuco, visit this site: “What could Oscar Claim? That it was Sauron's fault? Dude weighed 307 pounds, for fuck's sake! Talked like a Star Trek computer. The real irony was that you never met a kid who wanted a girl so fucking bad . . . To him they were the beginning and end, the Alpha and the Omega, the DC and the Marvel" (173). DC vs Marvel http://lotr.wikia.com/wiki/Sauron?file=Sauron.jpg Beli's silence means there is some untold story Info is fragmented therefore the history is fragmented. Extent of research unwritten, untold, unspoken histories First mention of his name “1. For those of you who missed the mandatory two seconds of Dominican history: Trujillo, one of the twentieth century’s most infamous dictators, ruled the Dominican Republic between 1930 and 1961 with an implacable ruthless brutality. A portly, sadistic, pig-eyed mulato who bleached his skin, wore platform shoes, and had a fondness for Napoleon-era haberdashery, Trujillo (also known as El Jefe, the Failed Cattle Thief, and Fuckface) came to control nearly every aspect of the DR’s political, cultural, social and economic life through a potent (and familia) mixture of violence, intimidation, massacre, rape, co-optation, and terror; treated the country like it was a plantation and he was the master. At first glance, he was just your prototypical Latin American caudillo, but his power was terminal in ways that few historians or writers have ever truly captured or, I would argue, imagined (Díaz 2). Jarabacoa an inland city Samaná coastal city http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/caribbean/dominican-republic/ http://www.biography.com/people/joaqu%C3%ADn-balaguer-39822 http://books.google.com/books?id=hCb1HdxH_SAC&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=Although+not+essential+to+our+tale+per+se+diaz&source=bl&ots=3uylAgQ_Gf&sig=Oe8CFGgDTOKp28ciO5XGA8L9LUg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LZiFUcL4G4u-9QSqo4HwBg&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Although%20not%20essential%20to%20our%20tale%20per%20se%20diaz&f=false (Díaz 91) (Díaz 245) http://books.google.com/books?id=hCb1HdxH_SAC&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90&dq=Although+not+essential+to+our+tale+per+se+diaz&source=bl&ots=3uylAgQ_Gf&sig=Oe8CFGgDTOKp28ciO5XGA8L9LUg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LZiFUcL4G4u-9QSqo4HwBg&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=true Yunior uses his own science fiction references to characterize Oscar in this passage. Yunior’s narration style points to the extensive effect US culture has on his expression of the world. Instead of using more traditional Dominican metaphors, Yunior employs US themed characters and imagery to get his point across. Why does Yunior use sci-fi terminology to describe Oscar when he doesn’t have to? He could employ sarcasm and use US references to get a laugh because Oscar is into everything that is science fiction. This could be a possibility, but why then does Yunior use similar terminology when he narrates parts of the novel that have nothing to do with Oscar? Sauron is the evil force in J.R.R. Tolkien’s world of Lord of the Rings. Imagery from this fantasy world is often used by Yunior to describe the hardships faced by not only him but other characters in the novel. Lord of the Rings Comical Review of the Lord of the Ring Trilogy: DC and Marvel are rival comic book companies (similar to Coke and Pepsi in the restaurant business). In this context, Yunior uses the opposing force between DC and Marvel to talk about Oscar’s overwhelming love for women. Star Trek is a sci-fi entertainment franchise created by Gene Roddenberry that comprises of multiple TV series and movies. The preface of this universe takes place in the future where explorations of unknown worlds and cool gadgets are the norm. The latest movie in the Star Trek franchise is titles “Star Trek Into Darkness” and comes out in theaters May 17, 2013. Watch the trailer here: All images come from: http://www.starpulse.com/Television/Star_Trek/Pictures/ Star Trek “Those of you who know the Island (or are familiar with Kinito Méndez’s oeuvre) know exactly what I’m talking about. . . Outer Azuz is one of the poorest areas in the DR; it is a wasteland, our own homegrown sertão, resembled the irradiated terrains from those end-of-the-world scenarios that Oscar loved so much – Outer Azua was the Outland, the Badlands, the Cursed Earth, the Forbidden Zone, the Great Wastes, the Desert of Glass . . . it was Ceti Alpha Six, it was Tatooine” (footnote 256) In this passage, Yunior describes the part of the DR where Beli grows up. References to end-of-the-world and dystopia scenes from different fantasy worlds in sci-fi are employed. Yunior’s commentary on the history of the DR, under Trujillo, is guided by American cultural contexts and helps reflect Yunior’s upbringing in the US. Yunior demonstrates cultural understanding of what happened in the DR during the Trujillo Regime. Yet, his construction of the DR’s history relies on US cultural metaphors which shows the dependency the diasporic individual has on using other cultural influences instead of strictly influences from the home country. Scholar Joanna Ziarkowska says that Yunior’s narration strategy of grounding Dominican history in an American cultural context represents “Yunior’s double cultural allegiance” (141). Yunior’s narrative hybridity, that incorporates science fiction, is one way for him to express how the US influences his understanding of the past and present because both are impacted by US science fiction culture. Cursed Earth is part of the fantasy world “Judge Dredd”, a UK comic book series. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cursed_Earth_(Judge_Dredd_story) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cursed_Earth Ceti Alfa Six is a world in the Star Trek franchise. More information on this reference can be found below: http://memory-beta.wikia.com/wiki/Ceti_Alpha_V http://www.trekbbs.com/showthread.php?t=131712 Tatooine is a planet in the fantasy world of the Star Wars franchise. Luke, the main protagonist in the latter half of the Star Wars story, grows up on Tatooine. Here is a clip from the movie “Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope” where you can see the desert landscape of Tatooine: Definitions of "prieta" and "bruta" http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=prieto

http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=bruta El Baile del Perrito http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/49725/Joaquin-Balaguer http://www.theonering.com/galleries/the-lord-of-the-rings-movies/the-fellowship-of-the-ring/uncloaked-ringwraiths-new-line-cinema http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazg%C3%BBl Although this quote focuses primarily on historical content Yunior still manages to interweave scifi elements into his footnote. This emphasizes the interconnetedness and multipilicity of constructs used to tell this alternative history. Junot Díaz "Afro-Caribbean diaspora and machismo in the Latin community" http://www.npr.org/2012/08/30/160324187/guest-dj-pulitzer-prize-winning-author-junot-diaz http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=junot+diaz&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=junot+diaz&sc=0-18&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=2F23112E96861443FD71CF3CBF642CAA8E32EB5C&selectedIndex=0 Narrator-Character For this argument polyvocal narration is the use of multiple narrative voices. Yunior tells the story of "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao," through first, third and Lola's narration, even Lola's narration is subject to Yunior's narrative voice. Although Lola's voice is essential to the polyvocality of the novel, it is more prudent to focus on Yunior's polyvocality because he speaks for the silenced, unwritten, and unspoken narratives. This polyvocality creates a larger narrative in the novel that goes beyond both Lola's and Yunior's narration. http://www.cs.oswego.edu/~blue/xhx/books/semiotics/glossaryP/section151/main.html For further definition go to: http://narrative.georgetown.edu/wiki/index.php/Unreliable_narrator For the purpose of this argument the unreliable narrator is a character that openly admits limitations, fallacy and construction of the narrative due to different and sometimes opposing variables. The narrator- character is a character in the novel that also assumes the role of narrator. According to Ziarkowska, the idenity of Dominicans in "The Brief Wondorous Life of Oscar Wao" is changed by influences of the United States with remnants of it's national history. Although Scholar Ziarkowska argues that the mother country remains the dominate power in idenity politics, we posit that Dominican Diaspora as shown in Díaz's novel becomes subordinate to external influences of diaspora. The Dominican identity is no longer a product of solely the mother country's identity politics. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/607139/Rafael-Trujillo in "The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao" Kim M. & Liz S.
Hum 161: Cultures and Civilizations
Professors Churchill and González For the purposes of our conversation, Yunior narrates for the duration of the novel, while Díaz's role in this work is confined to the creation of Yunior's character. Díaz's Voice vs Yunior's Voice http://www.bewilderingstories.com/issue212/narration1.html#character-narrator According to Scholar Hanna “Yunior presents a narrative voice that diverges from that of the Trujillan model. In contrast to a univocal voice of narration ..., Yunior’s voice is self reflexive, conscious of alternative interpretations and eager to present other perspectives” (Hanna 504). Hanna implies that Yunior’s narrative is an account of history outside of a traditional history because it “diverges,” and therefore alternative interpretations of a history. This divergenece is evident through Yunior's unreliability, polyvocal narration and status as narrator-character.

Yunior’s narration seeks to compensate for the “páginas en blanco.” The “páginas en blanco,” the untold, unwritten and silenced Dominican histories by Trujillo that are referenced throughout the novel. The Dominican history is actually a compilation of many different experiences, its history does not begin and end with Trujillo. Although Yunior does have limitations of his own he emphasizes them sometimes asking the reader to question his motives.

Yunior shows how history can be rewritten and accommodate nontraditional histories that are inclusive of Diaspora. These histories are fostered by narrative hybridities because some of the alternative histories do not fit within the chronological linear narrative patterns or magical realistic forms. The effect of narrative hybridity is to reconcile various narratives, histories, memories and fictions. For the purposes of our argument we are defining narrative hybridity as a juxtaposition of unlike narrative structures without transition that generates a blending of genres. Previous scholars look at Díaz’s use of narrative hybridity in relation to other narrative structures and posit that the use of narrative hybridity, the blending of genres, adds to Díaz’s message which the limits of single genre narratives cannot replicate. Scholar Bautista explains, “there is much in the novel to suggest that Díaz’s use of [narrative hybridity] is ultimately much more pointed and complex . . . especially if we consider the novel in its proper historical and cultural context” (42). Díaz transforms his narrative structure by combining multiple genres and different literary elements to add meaning to the novel, which is more or less absent in linear and chronological models of narration. The chronological linear pattern in narrative structures is a more traditional method used by writers. In the study of narrative, or narratology, Scholar Meike Bal explains there is a “double linearity” where both the visual text and the fabula, or basic story material, follow a linear pattern of chronological events (52). “Double linearity” creates a chronological progression of events without intrusions from the future and past. Yet more and more writers look for ways to alter and change the narrative structure to add meaning to the fabula. As Bal states, “a preference for one of these forms entails a certain vision of the fabula, and often of reality” (38). Preference in narrative structure tells a lot about the message a literary work displays. ‘Order’ is defined in the field of narratology as the set of relations between the order in which events occur (are said to occur) and the order in which they are recounted (Dictionary of Narratology 69). Differences between the arrangement in the story and the chronology of the fabula are called chronological deviations or anachronies. Anachrony occurs through many methods. One of the more common is altering the order of the narrative. According to Bal, “playing with sequential ordering is not just a literary convention; it is also a means of drawing attention to certain things” and becomes significant “for the vision of the fabula”(52, Introduction). Writers like Díaz employ discordance in the order of the narrative and deviations from chronological patterns to add to the story. Susana Onega and Jose Angel Garcia Landa define narrative not as a “‘series of events’, but ‘the representation of a series of events’” (5). What is key to our argument is that narrative is used to represent story material in a specific way, that adds meaning to the events. We posit there is a reason why Yunior tells us the story of Oscar and Oscar’s family in a non-chronological order riddled with anachronies. Key Terms from A Dictionary in Narratology•Fabula: The set of narrated situations and events in their chronological sequence; the basic story material•Order: The set of relations between the order in which events occur (are said to occur) and the order in which they are recounted•Anachrony: A discordance between the order in which events (are said to occur) and the order in which they are recounted; ex: The unfolding of events may obey a non-chronological principle rather than a chronological one Invokes the experience of colonization. The faces that flash throughout the video feature people with African, Indigenous and European roots. “Las caras más bonitas que he conocido,
Soy la fotografía de un desaparecido,” Narrative Hybridity: Representing the Dominican Click to Play Audio Below: Disclaimer: This presentation was created for interactive use. The presentation does not function as a Power-point, so be sure to click and explore parts of the Prezi that the arrow keys do not automatically take you to. Enjoy exploring! For the purposes of our project all pictures, audio and video not central to our argument have been hyperlinked to their original sources. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/74114?rskey=G00jbE&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid
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