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The Dangers of Blue Holes
Transcript of The Dangers of Blue Holes
in order to survive without oxygen the bacteria in the zone just below the fresh water feed on sulfate (one of the salts in the water), generating hydrogen sulfide as a by-product this means that biological remains
(namely fossils)in blue holes are
almost perfectly preserved hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas that in high doses can cause delirium and death for a diver BLUE HOLES ARE UNIQUE why? in blue holes a thin layer of fresh water —supplied by rainfall— lies atop a denser layer of salt water the top freshwater layer blocks the salt water underneath from atmospheric oxygen Department of Geoscience, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America. firstname.lastname@example.org
Staligmites http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1357666/James-Camerons-Sanctum-Underwater-realm-inspired-new-3D-film.html Stalagmites stick up from the ground
Stalactites hang down from the ceilings or sides of the cave.
Found in either nature made caves or man-made caves and tunnels. Stalacites Stalactites form when ground water above the cave that is rich in carbon dioxide, dissolves the mineral calcite, or calcium carbonate, from the limestone directly above the cave.
As water drips into the cave, it looses carbon dioxide to the cave atmosphere
Leaves behind very little quantities of calcite.
Calcite accumulates very slowly forming stalactites.
Process takes over thousands of years, just to form a stalactite. Stalagmites are formed when drops of water don’t evaporate from the ceiling of the cave.
Builds stalagmites as the water adds to the limestone on the bottom of the cave.
Stalagmites usually have a broader base and a blunter tip than the stalactites.
Build slower than the stalactites
Become chunky and thick.
Grow so tall,may join together with the stalactites above. Staligmites and Stalacites http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/08/bahamas-caves/todhunter-text http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/08/bahamas-caves/skiles-photography http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/12/071217-bahamas-fossils.html Sources this is also important because... REWARDS RISKS Other Risks Include... Cave collapse
Loss of direction Other Rewards Include... clues to past geography
discoveries concerning past climate changes