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Transcript of Asthma
What is Asthma?
What are its stages?
What are the effects of her usual asthma action plan?
Leaning Objective #4:
What lifestyle choices led to Susan's ultimate demise?
Leaning Objective 2:
What are the mechanisms linked to Susan's acute exacerbation?
Group 1 (Patho Bros): Justin Camacho, Jenna Cope, Erika Bove, Karelle Cote, Elias Gaoro, and Dara Brunette
Leaning Objective 3:
What were the additional management strategies used to treat Susan's acute exacerbation?
Single Mother of a 2 year old child
Over controlling mother
Lack of Self Responsibility
Dust and Allergens
Not compliant to treatment
Possible bacterial infection
Tapering of prednisolone
How do they get to the nucleus of the epithelial cell?
- transported via systemic circulation
- bind to glucocorticoid receptor in cytoplasm
- dimerize+ translocate to nucleus
binds to GRE
inc transcription of genes coding for anti-inf proteins :
soluble compound of theophylline +ethylenediamine
Direct relaxation of smooth m. of bronchial airways + pulmonary vessels
Possible effect on diaphramatic contractility Work of breathing
- inc phosphodiestarase= inc cAMP
- translocation of intracellular Ca2+
- prostaglandin antagonism
- stim catecholine endogenously
- dec cyclic guanasine monophosphate metabolism
- inhibition of adenosine receptor antagonism
Theophylline= also is anti-inflammatory at low therapeutic doses
respiratory distress=30 breath/min
Why administer oxygen?
Nonuniform reversible increase in airway resistance
Hyperinflation of the lung
Premature airway closure
Increased work of breathing
Decreased peak flow
Increased residual volume
Mismatch in V/Q
- Uneven ventilatory distribution
- Blood saturation irregularities
Changes in arterial blood gas pressures
- Hypercapnia (increased PaC02)
- Hypoxemia (PaO2 <95mmHg)
- Respiratory Acidosis (pH<7.35)
Acute Respiratory Failure
Aerobic > anaerobic metablism
Systemic routes of administration
- Prevent acute adrenal insufficency
return to normal function gradually of hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, adrenal cortex.
- Helps avoid exacerbation of inflammation
PaO2= not at a level that needs oxygen administration (aka 7.8kPa)
- Hyperactive immune system [Allergens and toxins e.g. Pollen spores, env. pollution, dust mites, smoke, animals, molds]
- Epi/Genetics [Childhood]
- Chronic Infections [Viral + Bacterial]
- Stress via immune sys.
- Bronchospasm [Transient Bronchoconstriction] via smooth muscle rings [CN X Vagus n. ACh]
- Airways inflammation response
- Mucus accumulation and edema
- Pulmonary plexus = Vagus + Sympathetic inn.
- Nore/Epinephrine = bronchodilators
* Both Para/Symp. sys.
can dilate and constrict airways [NTs]
Immunity of asthma and its signal transduction
Trigger = Antigen in air ways [Exogenous substance]
Th2 cells orchestrate the major inflammation cascades via interleukins [Immune sys. signaling proteins]
Abcam international inc. fluorescent proteins and antibodies lab
Dendritic cells [Antigen-presenting cell] signal Th2 cells via transmembranal proteins bound to the antigen [Cell-Cell recognition]
Eosinophiles and mast cells release inflammation biomarkers such as hitamine [h1 rec. Bronchocostriction],proteases, cytokines, leukotrienes [ Mucus] and prostaglandins [Regulator].
- immune reaction