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The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920
Transcript of The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920
Prominent time for American literature
- Realism: "truthful treatment of material"
- Looked at social change
Authors: Horatio Alger, Mark Twain, Katie Chopin
The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt
Made the presidency more powerful
"Trust Buster" - opposed unfair business practices; good vs. bad
Settlement houses for the poor - Jane Addams
Civil Rights Leaders - Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington; fight Plessy v. Ferguson
Child labor abolished
Working conditions improved
- Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
- Opinions of unions changed
Women's Suffrage Movement
1848: Seneca Falls Convention - women used Dec. of Independence to declare they are equal to men & deserve right to vote.
Roots of the Progressive Movement
Who were the Progressives?
Middle-class people tired of inequality, corruption
Goal: Correct injustices of industrialization
Use gov't power to weaken trusts, political bosses
Improve conditions of poor to avoid socialism
Progressivism arose from:
Social Gospel Movement - called for social reforms; Christian duties
Muckrakers - exposed problems/corruption
Supported by T.R.
Continued T.R. p
olicies, but n
ot as aggressive.
Busted more tr
usts than T.R
by Progressives &
Won 1912 election after Taft/Roosevelt split the Republican Party
Also favored strong presidency
Attacked the "Triple Wall of Privilege:" tariffs, banks & trusts
Government Reforms at city, state, federal level:
more gov't control/intervention
secret ballots (caused political bosses to lose power)
initiative, referendum, recall
direct primary & direct election of senators (17th amendment)
Pendleton Act: fought the "spoils system," created Civil Service Commission
We should seek
Booker T. Washington
We deserve immediate
Roosevelt's Square Deal
Protects Public Health
- Meat Inspection Act (1906)
- Pure Food & Drug Act (1906)
Regulates Transportation & Communication
- Gave ICC more power over RR, telephone
Conserves Natural Resources
- Added millions of acres to national parks
- Drew attention to need to conserve resources
Progressive leaders limited the laissez-faire economy
Wilson's New Freedom
Underwood Tariff (1913): reduced tariffs
Graduated Income Tax (1913): 16th amendment created income tax
Federal Reserve Act (1913): reformed & regulated banks & money lent.
Antitrust Legislation: Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) & Federal Trade Commission Act
Created the National Park Service
T.R.'s criticism of W.T. led to division in Republican party.
Bull Moose Party (Roosevelt)
Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton - led the Nat'l American Woman Suffrage Assoc.
19th Amendment (1920)
Passed as women played prominent role in WWI
Last notable reform of Progressive Era
Art: Focus on realism & American west
Fix social injustices of industrialization (get rid of political bosses, improve living/working conditions, etc)
Give people a more direct voice in government (17th amendment; initiative, referendum, recall)
Business regulation to protect consumers & promote general welfare (ICC, FTC, Food & Drug Admin)
Muckrakers - exposed problems (Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair)
Presidents - Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson
Women's Suffrage & Civil Rights Leaders - Susan B. Anthony, Jane Addams, Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington
1. What do you think the term "Progressive" means (hint: don't think Flo the Progressive girl)
2. Based on your definition of progressive, name 5 issues you think the Progressives might want to address.
What are the 3 major pillars of Progressive reform?
(what were the goals they wanted to achieve?)