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The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920

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Ms. Rader

on 16 September 2016

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Transcript of The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920

American Literature & Art
Prominent time for American literature
- Realism: "truthful treatment of material"
- Looked at social change
Authors: Horatio Alger, Mark Twain, Katie Chopin
The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920
Progressive Presidents
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt
Made the presidency more powerful
"Trust Buster" - opposed unfair business practices; good vs. bad
Social Reforms/Reformers:
Settlement houses for the poor - Jane Addams
Civil Rights Leaders - Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington; fight Plessy v. Ferguson
Child labor abolished
Working conditions improved
- Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
- Opinions of unions changed
Women's Suffrage Movement
1848: Seneca Falls Convention - women used Dec. of Independence to declare they are equal to men & deserve right to vote.
Roots of the Progressive Movement
Who were the Progressives?
Middle-class people tired of inequality, corruption
Goal: Correct injustices of industrialization
Use gov't power to weaken trusts, political bosses
Improve conditions of poor to avoid socialism
Progressivism arose from:
Populist ideas
Social Gospel Movement - called for social reforms; Christian duties
Muckrakers - exposed problems/corruption
William Taft
Supported by T.R.
in 1908
Continued T.R. p
olicies, but n
ot as aggressive.
Busted more tr
usts than T.R
Too conservati
ve; criticized
by Progressives &
T.R; "New
Woodrow Wilson
Won 1912 election after Taft/Roosevelt split the Republican Party
Also favored strong presidency
Attacked the "Triple Wall of Privilege:" tariffs, banks & trusts
Government Reforms at city, state, federal level:
more gov't control/intervention
secret ballots (caused political bosses to lose power)
initiative, referendum, recall
direct primary & direct election of senators (17th amendment)
Pendleton Act: fought the "spoils system," created Civil Service Commission
We should seek
gradual equality
Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. DuBois
We deserve immediate
racial equality!
Roosevelt's Square Deal
Protects Public Health
- Meat Inspection Act (1906)
- Pure Food & Drug Act (1906)
Regulates Transportation & Communication
- Gave ICC more power over RR, telephone
Conserves Natural Resources
- Added millions of acres to national parks
- Drew attention to need to conserve resources
Progressive leaders limited the laissez-faire economy
Wilson's New Freedom
Underwood Tariff (1913): reduced tariffs
Graduated Income Tax (1913): 16th amendment created income tax
Federal Reserve Act (1913): reformed & regulated banks & money lent.
Antitrust Legislation: Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) & Federal Trade Commission Act
Created the National Park Service
1912 Election
T.R.'s criticism of W.T. led to division in Republican party.

Republicans (Taft)
Bull Moose Party (Roosevelt)
Democrats (Wilson)
Influential Women:
Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton - led the Nat'l American Woman Suffrage Assoc.
19th Amendment (1920)
Passed as women played prominent role in WWI
Last notable reform of Progressive Era
Art: Focus on realism & American west
Progressives Wrap-Up
Main Goals:
Fix social injustices of industrialization (get rid of political bosses, improve living/working conditions, etc)
Give people a more direct voice in government (17th amendment; initiative, referendum, recall)
Business regulation to protect consumers & promote general welfare (ICC, FTC, Food & Drug Admin)
Major Players:
Muckrakers - exposed problems (Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair)
Presidents - Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson
Women's Suffrage & Civil Rights Leaders - Susan B. Anthony, Jane Addams, Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington
1. What do you think the term "Progressive" means (hint: don't think Flo the Progressive girl)

2. Based on your definition of progressive, name 5 issues you think the Progressives might want to address.
What are the 3 major pillars of Progressive reform?
(what were the goals they wanted to achieve?)
Jacob Riis
Upton Sinclair
Full transcript