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The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920
Transcript of The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920
Prominent time for American literature
- Realism: "truthful treatment of material"
- Looked at social change
Authors: Horatio Alger, Mark Twain, Katie Chopin
The Progressive Movement: 1900-1920
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt
Made the presidency more powerful
"Trust Buster" - opposed unfair business practices; good vs. bad
Goals & Successes
Women's Suffrage Movement
1848: Seneca Falls Convention - women used Dec. of Independence to declare they are equal to men & deserve right to vote.
Roots of the Progressive Movement
Who were the Progressives?
Middle-class people feeling squeezed from above (giant corporations) & below (immigrants & poor)
Goal: Correct injustices of industrialization
Use gov't as an "agency of human welfare"
Attacked monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, social injustice
Laissez-faire doesn't work; stop socialism from taking hold
Influences to Progressivism:
Social Gospel Movement - called for social reforms; Christian duties
Socialist ideals (European immigrants)
Muckrakers - exposed problems/corruption
expansion of cities caused rise of newspaper business
exposed problems w/o solutions, sold papers
Supported by T.R.
Continued T.R. p
olicies, but n
ot as aggressive.
Busted more tr
usts than T.R
by Progressives &
Won 1912 election after Taft/Roosevelt split the Republican Party
Also favored strong presidency
Attacked the "Triple Wall of Privilege:" tariffs, banks & trusts
Settlement houses for the poor - Jane Addams
Civil Rights Leaders - Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington; fight Plessy v. Ferguson
We should seek
Booker T. Washington
We deserve immediate
Roosevelt's Square Deal
Protects Public Health
- Meat Inspection Act (1906)
- Pure Food & Drug Act (1906)
Regulates Transportation & Communication
- Gave ICC more power over RR, telephone
Conserves Natural Resources
- Added millions of acres to national parks
- Drew attention to need to conserve resources
Progressive leaders limited the laissez-faire economy
Wilson's New Freedom
Underwood Tariff (1913): reduced tariffs
Graduated Income Tax (1913): 16th amendment created income tax
Federal Reserve Act (1913): reformed & regulated banks & money lent.
Antitrust Legislation: Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) & Federal Trade Commission Act
Created the National Park Service
T.R.'s criticism of W.T. led to division in Republican party.
Bull Moose Party (Roosevelt)
Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton - led the Nat'l American Woman Suffrage Assoc.
Carrie Chapman Catt (2nd president of NAWSA)
Alice Paul - formed National Woman's Party
Margaret Sanger - founded "Planned Parenthood"
19th Amendment (1920)
Passed as women played prominent role in WWI
Last notable reform of Progressive Era
Art: Focus on realism & American west
Fix social injustices of industrialization (get rid of political bosses, improve living/working conditions, etc)
Give people a more direct voice in government (17th amendment; initiative, referendum, recall)
Business regulation to protect consumers & promote general welfare (ICC, FTC, Food & Drug Admin)
Muckrakers - exposed problems (Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair)
Presidents - Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson
Women's Suffrage & Civil Rights Leaders - Susan B. Anthony, Jane Addams, Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington
What are the 3 major pillars of Progressive reform?
(what were the goals they wanted to achieve?)
Direct primary elections
Initiative, Referendum, Recall
End system of graft
Direct Election of Senators (17th Amendment - 1913)
Muller v. Oregon
Supreme Court accepted constitutionality of special laws protecting women and children in the workplace because (he argued) of their weaker bodies
Looking back, the ruling seems discriminatory (giving women special protections that men did not get) and it blocked women from some “male” jobs
Fire in a clothing factory in New York City
Locked doors and other violations of fire code
146 immigrant women burned or jumped from 8 - 9-story building
By 1910, women's suffrage granted in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho
Why were western states more likely to allow female suffrage?
Opinions of unions changed
Child labor abolished
Working conditions addressed
Muller v. Oregon
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Socialist Party of America
Eugene V. Debs brings ideals of Party to labor unions
By 1912, candidates being elected to office
Debs runs as party's presidential candidate 4 times
HIPP This Cartoon
Compare the Progressive Movement to the Populist & Labor Movements
Progressives borrowed ideas from the Populist and labor movements.
All wanted to make reforms that would benefit society
- Populist = farmers
- Labor movement = factory workers
- Progressives = middle class city dwellers.
What is the Social Gospel Movement?
A new movement of the late 1800s led by Protestant clergymen.
It called for social reforms
Instead of accepting the existence of social problems as God's will, they emphasized the Christian duty to help those who are less fortunate.
Think about each of the problems of industrialization that we discussed in Unit 3. Which of these was the most threatening in your opinion and why?