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Psychology of Leadership
Transcript of Psychology of Leadership
Leadership 5. Draft Project Proposal Focus on finalization of research proposal
Selecting, approaching second supervisor and obtaining commitment
Networking, locally and internationally
Knowledge acquisition through lab visits, symposiums etc.
Continued Reviews with first supervisor
Preparation of the application for the Mind & Brain School
Submit application by Sep. 2012 5.1 Next Steps (Jul-Sep. 2012) ... 4. Summary and Conclusion 1. Introduction and Context Today's discussion items are drawn upon following literature:
The Psychology of Leadership: New Perspectives and Research (Messick, D. M., Kramer, R. M.,: Editors, (2005), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publ., New Jersey & London)
The New Psychology of Leadership: Identity, Influence and Power (Haslam, S. A., Reicher, S. D., Platow, M. J., (2011), Psychology Press, Hove & New York)
Leaders, Fools and Impostors: Essays on the Psychology of Leadership (Kets De Vries, M. F. R, (2003), iUniverse Inc, New York - Lincoln - Shanghai)
The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups: A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format (von Dawans, B., Kirschbaum, C., Heinrichs, M., Elsevier - Science Direct, Aug 2010) What is the (new) "Psychology of Leadership", i.e. what are the psychological and social processes that constitute leadership
Where are the boundaries with Neuroscience
A "Favorable Context" entails four enabling functions
existence of Real Teams (i.e. well defined tasks and responsibilities)
presence of Goals (i.e. compelling direction)
existence of Work Design (i.e. enabling platforms)
Expert Coaching (to minimize the process losses and generate synergies by working together as a team)
by focusing on 'Change' as a key leadership task. (Chapter 6, The Psychology of Leadership, 2005) Ahmet YALCIN, © Jul. 2012 2.1. Hackman's "Favorable Context" Leaders are rather needed:
in uncertain environments
in resource-poor organizations
when a favorable context is available.
Followers are willing to obey their leaders when:
they can identify themselves with the leader
psychological exchanges are well harmonized with the leader (mutual benefits)
they are fairly treated, respected, and leaders are acting morally firstname.lastname@example.org Research: What are the correlations between a leader's mental state a) with knowledge about mind-brain functions and cognitive neuroscience and b) without such knowledge in a glossophobic environment?
In other words, if we trained leaders in "neuroleadership" topics, they reduce their socio-evaluative stress and uncontrollability compared to those leaders without a neuroscience training.
Experiment: There is substantial evidence indicating that exposure to psychological stress alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, which regulates the release of cortisol, an important hormone associated with psychological and physical health condition.
The Trier Social Stress Tests (TSST) induces significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses in a laboratory setting (van Dawans, B, Kirschbaum, C., Heinrichs, M., 2010).
Using TSST on subjects in a predefined leader role and the audience (or committee as it is called in the TSST) in a follower role, we can examine the correlation mentioned above. Also, in a post-experimental survey, leader's ability to influence the audience could be analyzed in order to measure followers' willingness to obey. The content of the public speech could be related to a crisis situation like e.g. during finalization of a massive-layoff phase and motivating the "survivors" for new a direction. While a subject group left entirely without neuroscience knowledge, the other subject group could be trained upfront about neuroleadership research results, even highly speculative hypotheses, in related areas, like ACC, dPFC, Amygdala interplays and relations in those situations of employees. The leader then is "equipped" with "neuroscience cues", feeling a competitive advantage and higher self-confidence to those without it.
Project Title: Effects of seductive attractiveness of neuroscience on leader-follower relations and mitigation of glossophobia. Discussion Items
2. Psychological aspects of Leadership Relevance
3. Psychological aspects of Followers' Obedience
4. Summary and Conclusion
5. Draft Project Proposal and Next Steps Introduction and Context Hackman's research is suggesting that effective leadership is due to addressing the structural and contextual conditions within which groups form and develop over time, achieve its performance outcomes and so significantly influences the interaction processes between teams and leaders. He also found that leader's behavior is rather shaped by behaviors of those who are led, and not the opposite. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr 2. Psychological aspects of Leadership Relevance - Research Proposal Discussion
with Prof. Dr. John-Dylan Haynes and Dr. Robert Martin -
Berlin, Jul 17th, 2012 2.2 3.2 As a result of our 3rd meeting on June 27th, 2012, we decided to examine and highlight the leadership from psychological research perspective.
Thus, a detailed understanding of following topics was initiated: "Substitutes" idea did not hold water....
Kerr and Jermier (1978) argued that when substitutes are present like
a high need for independence of subordinates,
highly standardized, unambiguous tasks,
formal written work,
then leaders should become less relevant. An idea that proved wrong according to the exhaustive review by Podsakoff, MacKenzie and Bommer (1996). ...scholars from Harvard University (Hackman, J. D. & Ganz, M.) and London Business School (Peterson, R. S. & Behfar, K. J.) researched when leadership really matters and when it does not. Following the brief discussion of
Hackman's "Favorable Context" theory
Peterson & Behfar's "Uncertain Environments" theory, and
Ganz's "David-like Leaders" theory
we are more confident, and remaining in search for future empirical data for a more practical evidence. Therefore...
Conversely, in a stable environment, where
goals don't have to be adjusted or clarified,
amount of available resources does not fluctuate,
Leadership no longer matters and organizations self-regulatory systems keep routines on target. (Chapter 7, The Psychology of Leadership, 2005) 2.2. Peterson & Behfar's "Uncertain Environments" Drawing upon control theory (Carver & Scheier, 1982), they claimed that when a business environment is uncertain, the leader's role as "group regulator" is vital to organizational performance. Ganz has teased out conditions under which leadership matters simply by using "David vs Goliath" metaphor
where David proved with his resource-poor but creative strategic approach to triumph over
the resource-rich giant, Goliath.
Strategy is how we turn what we have into what we need to get what we want. (Chapter 10, The Psychology of Leadership, 2005) 2.3. Ganz's "David-like Leaders" Ganz claimed that by devising creative strategies to make the best and most efficient use of available resources play a vital role in shaping organizational outcomes. Definition of Leadership by psychologists
Leadership is all about the interaction between motivation and actions of the followers and the leader (Georg A. Akerlof, Berkeley, CA, 2009)
Leadership is not simply about getting people to do things. It is about getting them to want to do things. Leadership, then, is about shaping beliefs, desires, and priorities. It is achieving influence, not securing compliance (Haslam et al. 2011) What is the psychology of Leadership
If leadership centers on the process of influence ("getting things done through others"), then we need to focus on the mental states and processes
that lead people to listen to leaders
to heed what they have to say, and
to take on the vision of the leader as their own (Haslam et al. 2011) Psychology of Leadership What is the NEW psychology of Leadership
It is the paradigm shift from the "great men and the cult of personality" to
"in-group prototypes". Leaders must act as "being one of us, doing it for us, and crafting a sense for us".
Leadership is essentially a process of social identity management - and hence that effective leadership is always identity management. In this sense, leaders are engineers of identity (Haslam et al. 2011) "Thirst for Obedience", an instinctive need of the followers to comply with the wishes of leaders.Thirst is the result of
leader's personal qualities in the eyes of followers (e.g. prestige, forcefulness, persuasiveness), and
follower's identification with and idealization of their leaders' qualities and actions
Thus, disobedience occur, when followers fail to identify with and exalt their leaders (e.g. when leader is perceived as weak and unconvincing) or leader don't act as if they love each and every follower equally (unfairness, see also Tyler). (Goethals, Chapter 5, The Psychology of Leadership, 2005) 3.1. Goethals - Hogg - Haslam and "Identification" Despite their various starting points, we believe that these scholars' main point is: "Failure to identify with a leader is associated with disobedience" 3. Psychological aspects of Followers' Obedience Scholars - from Williams College (Goethals, G. R), New York University (Tyler, T. R.), Northwestern University (Messick, D. M.), University of Queensland (Hogg, M. A.), and from Exeter University in Australia (Haslam et al.) - illuminate the important issue of "When don't followers follow?": 2 1 3 4 5 Literature Identification with a leader is a product of how group prototypical the leader is perceived to be.
Group's prototype: Who most embodies the qualities of the group, deserves to be the leader. This member will be perceived more influential than others, and as a result, will be like more than others, and will be seen has having better leadership qualities than other members. This perception may then become a self-fulfilling prophecy; such a person derive more influence because of these perceptions (Hoggs,Chapter 3, The Psychology of Leadership, 2005) Followers feel a personal responsibility to obey the leader, since
they assume that their leaders make only "moral" demands, and
they have been treated fairly by the leader.
Conversely, if leaders make decisions based on unjust processes and treat followers without respect, then followers will disobey. (Chapter 8, The Psychology of Leadership, 2005) 3.2. Tyler, Messick and "Fairness" & "Give and Take" Tyler: "Fairness, Moral and Respect leads to obedience" If leader provides security to their follower, the follower would repay leader with gratitude and loyalty
When leaders violate the Give and Take relationships, then they will encounter disobedience. Followers follow because they get something from being follower.
Leaders "give" (and followers "take") 1. Vision & Direction 2. Protection & Security 3. Achievement & Effectiveness 4. Inclusion & Belonging 5. Pride & Self Respect.
Followers "give" (and leaders "take") 1. Focus & Self Direction 2. Gratitude & Loyalty 3. Commitment & Effort 4. Cooperation & Sacrifice 5. Respect & Obedience
(Chapter 4, The Psychology of Leadership, 2005)
Goethals' is starting from Freud's (1921) Thirst for Obedience theory (borrowed from LeBon, 1895). He claims "Identification" as the key determinant for obedience
Hogg's "Group Prototype" approach, and finally
Haslam, Reichert, Platow's "Leader-Follower-Relationships in the Social Group" based on Social Identity Theory
Tyler's "Fairness" theory as basis for a followership, and finally
Messick's "Give and Take" model as psychological exchanges of Leader-Followers If "Leaders are engineers of identity", as they shape beliefs, desires and priorities of people in order getting them to want to do things,
and, if we need to focus on the mental states and cognitive processes that lead people to listen and to heed,
then the public speaking ability is likely to be a key trait of effective leadership.
Thus, as an influential mass audience tool for leaders in their role as "identity engineers", fearless public speaking skills must be essential in creating relationships and obedience with followers. 3.2 On the other hand, it is well known, that public speaking causes anxiety and fear in most of people (Glossophobia). Messick: "Mutual beneficial relationships lead to obedience"