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Copy of SPED 5024: ADHD

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Aadeeba Bhuiyan

on 21 August 2016

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Transcript of Copy of SPED 5024: ADHD

Presented by Aadeeba Bhuiyan
11G1, Biology 2013
Is there a difference between ADD and ADHD?
Sometimes used interchangeably, ADHD is the official name used by the American Psychiatric Association, and it encompasses hyperactive, impulsive, and/or inattentive behaviors.

ADD is the older term thus in some older literature you will find this term as a synonym for ADHD
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates about 8 million children are affected with ADHD.
Types of ADHD
Combined Type: Inattentive/Hyperactive/Impulsive
Hyperactive/Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI)
Inattentive Type (ADHD-PI)
Children show both hyperactive and impulsive behavior, but are able to pay attention.
Children with this type of ADHD show symptoms from both types. This is the most common form of ADHD.
These children are not overly active. They do not disrupt the classroom or other activities, so their symptoms might not be noticed.
2-16% are school children
5 out of every 100 children in Australia have ADHD
Approximately 2-5% of adults are affected with ADHD
Although ADHD affects males at higher rate than females in childhood, but this ratio seems to even out by adulthood.
Common conditions that co-exist with ADHD:
Any questions?
What is it?
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is:

a psychological disorder

occurs mostly in children and many carry ADHD to adulthood.

3 types
On average, there are 1 to 3 children who have ADHD in every classroom of 30 students.
2-4 times more frequent in boys than girls
30-50% of childhood sufferers carry the symptoms
into adulthood
"I prefer to distinguish
as attention abundance disorder. Everything is just so interesting... remarkably at the same time.”
Tends to fidget or squirm
Finds it hard to be seated
Runs about or climbs inappropriately
Has difficulty doing things quietly
Often interrupts others
Finds it hard to wait for a turn
‘on the go’
or acts as if ‘driven by a motor'
Talks non-stop
Blurt out inappropriate comments
Show their emotions
without restraint
Act without regard for consequences
Finds it
hard to concentrate
during work/leisure/class
Makes careless mistakes in class/work


attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
Does not seem to listen


Misses details
and forgetful
Easily loses objects needed for a task e.g. pencils or paperwork
Struggle to follow instructions - can’t finish work
Daydreams, become easily confused

difficulty processing information
as quickly and accurately as others
Symptoms must be causing
significant problems
for at least 6 months
Before the age of
The symptoms must be evident in at least
2 settings
Doctors must consider what’s
for the child’s developmental level
Doctors must also conduct several tests to eliminate other possible
For a diagnosis of ADHD:
Genetic Factors:
Previously, it was thought there could be just one gene that makes someone develop ADHD.

Now experts think several genes probably cause the disorder.

The genes being those that control certain types of neurotransmitters.

Variation in a specific gene leads to thinner brain tissue
In studies of hereditary:
It was found that:

- 25% of children diagnosed with ADHD also have relatives with the same condition

- In identical twins, there is a 72 to 83 per cent probability that both will have ADHD

- In non-identical twins, the probability is 21-45%.
Environmental Factors:
Smoking while pregnant
Nicotine in blood
Neurotransmitters in the childs brain to not work properly and leads to
Lack of oxygen to the foetus
Very low birth weight, premature birth and exceptional early trauma increase the risk of the child having ADHD

At least 30% of children who experience a traumatic brain injury develop ADHD.

Lead exposure has also been suggested as a contributor to ADHD.
Other causes:
Researchers have found symptoms of ADHD in children who have suffered
violence and emotional abuse

Relationships with caregivers have an effect on cognitive abilities. A study of foster children found that a high number of them had symptoms closely resembling ADHD.

Some experts believe that
food additives
may be behind ADHD

Researchers have proposed that the high prevalence of ADHD may be due to
natural selection

the individual traits of ADHD, and only become
when these traits combine.
They come in pills, liquids or skin patches.

Side effects of the medications, which include decreased appetite, sleeping problems, heart and blood pressure problems.

Most commonly used are stimulants which have a 70% success rate.
To manage ADHD, recognizing its symptoms and seeking help early may help to reduce the severity.

It is important to maintain a combination of treatments to manage the disorder including:
Behavior modifications
Life-style changes
At home:
Setting priorities for the parents.
Establishing consistent rules for the child.
Managing aggression
Establishing a reward system
Improving concentration and attention
At school:
➢ Preparing the teacher➢ The role of the parent in the school setting.➢ Special education programs
Preparing the teacher
The role of the parent in the school setting.
Special education programs
ADHD is commonly accepted as genetic and so there are no definite preventative techniques.

However, some measures can still be taken:
> avoiding alcohol, drugs, and smoking during pregnancy.
> Early identification and sufficient treatment is needed to prevent the further development or the worsening of symptoms.
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