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The Temperate Deciduous Forest

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Emily Hillman

on 30 May 2014

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Transcript of The Temperate Deciduous Forest

The Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome
Biome Information
Details on Abiotic Factors
Biotic Organisms
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Temperate Deciduous Forests appear near the Tropic of Capricorn in places such as the east coast of the United States. The ecosystem is filled with organic matter and fertile soil, allowing for the environment to support strong growth. Temperatures are moderate in the forest's regions of location, and on average, the amount of rainfall received ranges from moderate to high, depending upon the season. This is because Temperate Deciduous Forests have four seasons with varying climates.Within the biome of the forest, there are five different zones, containing plants of differing heights, requiring different amounts of sunlight. The amount of sunlight in the biome changes throughout the year, causing the Deciduous Trees of the forest to lose their leaves during cooler seasons with less sunlight for more energy efficiency. Temperate Deciduous Forests are a healthy natural biome filled with many abiotic and biotic factors that contribute to its well being.
Abiotic Factors of the Temperate Deciduous Forest
1. Moderately Cold Winters and Warm Summers with temperatures between 0-30 degrees Celsius

2. Year Round Precipitation: 30-60 inches a year

3. Fertile Soil rich with Humus; pH=4-7.5

4. 200 Days of Sunlight in top zone of biome

5. Four Seasons; 4 to 6 Month Growing Season

6. Oxygen Content: 21%+

7. Nitrogen Content: 78%; Forest requires Nitrogen Cycle

8. Organic Matter covering ground

9. Low elevation on average: around 7,000 feet

10. Risk of fire from Lightning
Biotic Factors of Temperate Deciduous Forest
1. Oak Trees/ Maple Trees/ other Deciduous Trees

2. Bacteria

3. Fungi

4. Pathogens (Rabies)

5. Parasites (Ticks)

6. Moss/ Ferns/ Lichens

7. White-Tailed Deer, other large mammals

8. Insects

9. Mice and other rodents

10. Berries
Temperature
Temperatures are moderate within the Deciduous Forest and tend to never reach extremes. Temperatures can range from 0-30 degrees Celsius throughout the year, and the average temperature is around 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Weather patterns vary throughout the temperate deciduous forest because of its four seasons. The biome is commonly located in coastal regions, causing changes in climate, season, and wind patterns. Temperatures may reach below freezing in the winter, but the spring, summer, and autumn seasons are moderately warm.

Impact:
Certain temperatures allow for certain animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, and protists to live productively and comfortably. A change in temperature could cause organisms that are important to the efficiency of the ecosystem to die off or migrate.
Oxygen Content
Soil pH
Growing Season
Producers
Maple Trees
Oak Trees
Club Mosses
Ferns
Omnivores
Black Bears
Sources
Precipitation
Elevation
Weather Patterns creating Destruction Risks
Average Oxygen Content: 21%+
The oxygen content in the atmosphere of forests increased as plant species evolved and began releasing more oxygen during photosynthesis.

Impact: Oxygen is required for the life processes of several biotic organisms. An increase or decrease int he amount of oxygen in an ecosystem could cause new organisms to become prominent and others to become extinct.







The Temperate Deciduous Forest receives a high to adequate amount of rainfall each year. The winter months have less precipitation than the summer months, but only by a small margin. Yearly rainfall ranges from 30-60 inches, allowing plants within the biome to be well watered and green.

Impact:
Precipitation is important for the deciduous forest to maintain a stable amount of plant growth that is available for consumers to eat, and it is important for the ecosystem to have enough drinking water, but not an excess amount of precipitation that may cause flooding and destruction.
Deciduous forests can easily be destroyed by natural occurrences, including volcanic eruptions, lightning strikes, or fires.
Climate Statistics
Locations of Deciduous Forests
Nitrogen Content
Impact: Nitrogen is essential for life and allows for the Nitrogen Cycle to take place, and without the correct amount of nitrogen in the ecosystem, plants and animals would die and no longer be capable of surviving and reproducing.

Ground Matter
Sunlight
Average Nitrogen Content in Deciduous Forest: 78%
Impact:
Growing Seasons allow plants to grow an adequate amount that is still sustainable with the amount of energy they require, and plants must grow enough to be a source or energy for other organisms.
Impact:
Each plant within the Deciduous Forest Ecosystem requires a certain pH or percent hydrogen within their soil to grow and develop. If a soil's pH changed, then some plant species would become obsolete, and new species would become prominent, causing a dramatic change in the ecosystem's balance.
Impact: The ground composition in an ecosystem affects which organisms can live there. Different organisms require different nutrients to grow and reproduce, and a different variety of organisms would inhabit an ecosystem if the ground's composition was changed.
Impact:
Organisms require light from the sun for energy to perform life processes, and for plants, it is required for photosynthesis. Without an adequate amount of energy, an organism will die, causing the consumers of this organism to die. Sunlight allows for photosynthesis to occur, so the levels of different needed elements in the atmosphere to be controlled.
Impact: The ecosystem could be completely destroyed!
Impact: At different elevations, the amount of each gas in the atmosphere varies. Because of this, organisms requiring a particular amount of oxygen for function must live at a certain elevation.
Biogeochemical Cycles
Latitude:
Between 23 degrees North and 38 degrees South
Longitude:
Across all longitudes
Countries/Continents:
United States, Canada, parts of Europe and China and Japan
Major Cities:
Atlanta, Chicago, New York, Boston, Beijing, Paris, London, Wellington
Food Web
Nitrogen Levels may be higher during litter fall.
Mineral Cycles
- cycle in which elements move through the soil, living organisms, air, and water
Hydrologic Cycle
- the continuous water cycle where water is circulating among various compartments
Nitrogen Cycle-
a chain of reactions in which the element nitrogen and its compounds pass continuously through Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere , and hydrosphere
Carbon Cycle-
recycling of carbon through the biosphere involving both living and nonliving things

"Nitrogen Cycle.", "Mineral Cycle", "Hydrologic Cycle", "Carbon Cycle". UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2002. Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
Herbivores
White-Tailed Deer
American Bald Eagle
Carnivores
Eastern Chipmunk
Deer as well as rodents, birds, and insects consume producers such as trees and ground covering plants, but animals such as bears may also consume autotrophs/producers. Animals such as large birds or opossums and skunks will consume 1st level consumers who eat producers, and large carnivores such as cougars will consume the 2nd level consumers who eat the 1st level consumers.Many times detritivores and decomposers such as beetles and mushrooms who eat other organisms may be placed at at several locations the food chain, since they may be consumed by lower level consumers or consume higher level consumers.
Adaptations within the Temperate Deciduous Forest
Organisms of this biome have acquired adaptations to help them survive efficiently through the changing seasons. Deciduous trees within the forest lose their leaves in the colder seasons, so that the trunk and roots can receive any small amount of sunlight or water obtained by the tree. This adaptation helps the tree preserve all its resources and prevent water loss through transpiration. Deciduous Trees have thrived in their ever-changing ecosystem because of their adaptation to lose their leaves in cold seasons. In addition, Deciduous trees have aqcuired broad leaves that are capable of absorbing lots of sunlight needed for the process of photosynthesis, in order to create energy and food for the plant. Many animals also adapt within the biome. Birds and other mammals often migrate to warmer ecosystems when temperatures drop, and some other animals hibernate as they await a more comfortable climate. Animals who found a way to cope with the shortage of resources in winter were able to continue surviving and reproducing within the deciduous forest biome, while other species were forced to extincition.
Energy Flow
Human Impact
Decomposers
Detritivores
Impact of Producers:
Producers such as large trees and ground covering plants control the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere, and they provide the herbivores within their ecosystem with food and energy. They also feed animals who consume the remains of organisms. Without producers, most other organisms in an ecosystem would die off.
Impact of Herbivores:
Herbivores consume producers in order to obtain energy, but they also control the plant population by doing so. Their remains also provide a source of food for decomposers, scavengers, or detritivores.
Impact of Omnivores:
Omnivores consume both producers and herbivores in order to obtain energy and nutrients. They are higher up on the food chain, and therefore, control the populations of lower trophic levels with consumption. They are also a source of food for other organisms.
Impact of Carnivores:
Carnivores such as the Bald Eagle remain at the top of the food web, feeding on other animals. They impact their biome by consuming a portion of the larger populations of animals in lower trophic levels, but they may be consumed after death by other organisms, including microscopic organisms.
Tawny Milkcap Mushroom
Impact of Decomposers:
Without decomposers, the deciduous forest floor could become littered with the remains of dead organisms. They contribute to the breaking down of organic material in order to keep their ecosystem healthier as a whole. They benefit from the consuming of dead remains as well. The dead or decomposing remains of animals provide decomposers food and nourishment.
American Burying Beetle
Impact of Detritivores:
Detritivores are commonly another food source for consumers, but they themselves consume dead leaves, dead animals, and feces. Detritivores help clean ecosystems and control the build up of waste within a habitat. They play an important role ,along with decomposers to keep a habitat healthy.
Building Plans
Floor Plans
Elevation Plan/Front View
Site Plan
Over the last 10 years, humans have destroyed millions of acres of forest, including deciduous forests. The forest provides an ecosystem of various resources, and humans have felt the need to utilize these resources in large quantities. Forests provide valuable lumber for constructive purposes as well as for creating paper. The forest floor also has extremely fertile soil, which has led to the clearing of deciduous forests for farmland. Because of the destroying of deciduous forests, the habitats of many organisms have been obliterated, causing many species to die or migrate to another location. In addition, humans have destroyed both the abiotic and biotic factors of this biome through pollution. Pollutants released by humans and their machinery have turned much needed precipitation into destructive acid rain, which kills many plants. Humans have also released large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which could be contributing to global warming and blocking sunlight from reaching the deciduous forest biome. Humans cause a great deal of harm to all natural environments, including the temperate deciduous forest, with their destructive way of life. In order to fix the destruction they have caused, humans must discontinue expanding industry and work to protect all untouched natural habitats still in good health. Humans need to become less dependent on natural resources, and cut down their use of resources by not wasting water or conserving electricity. If humans stopped burning fossil fuels, the environment would become dramatically healthier, and many species and resources could last for many years.
Human Impact on Forest Biomes
3rd Level Consumers


2nd Level Consumers


1st Level Consumers


Producers
The Flow of Energy
The Deciduous Forest is filled with producers; plants such as oak trees and mosses that convert photons of light from the sun into energy for use. As these plants perform their life processes, a portion of that energy is used and a part of it is lost as heat. At each trophic level, 90% of the original amount of energy received is lost before being passed on to another organism by consumption. As producers are consumed by herbivores or 1st level consumers such as rabbits or rodents, the consumer only acquires 10% of the total energy in the previous trophic level of producers. This continues to occur throughout each trophic level of consumers until the third level consumer receives only .1% of the energy that was originally in the first trophic level of producers. Therefore, large predators making up the higher trophic levels, including cougars and birds of prey receive little energy from each animal they consume.
Life Sustaining Properties
Cladistic
Analysis
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Each organism within the biome plays an important role in keeping the deciduous forest a healthy and functioning environment. Every organism is a food source for another organism, and every organism ensures the environment stays clean, and population sizes are controlled. The abiotic factors such as the consistent amount of sunlight and precipitation, as well as consistent climate, allow animals to remain living in a similar way to some of their ancestors. However, humans could impact these life sustaining properties, causing species of the deciduous forest to suffer or die off.
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