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The Use of Fear and Persuasion to Fuel Hysteria
Transcript of The Use of Fear and Persuasion to Fuel Hysteria
In 1952, McCarthyism filled many United States citizens with fear.
Miller uses the same fear and accusations generated in the Salem Witch Trials to artistically address the rashness of communism and the McCarthyism in the 1950s. The Salem Witch Trials began in 1692 and the
hysteria died down in 1693.
A slave woman named Tituba was the first to be accused of witch craft.
In total, 342 were accused in all of New England.
Fears of witch craft spread over the residents of Salem; many residents began to accuse people they knew.
The "possessed" accusers gained power that they had never had before.
Fifty people saved themselves by confessing.
However, twenty people were executed because they refused to confess or betray other innocent people. Examination of a Witch Fear and Persuasion The use of fear and persuasion is a common theme in The Crucible. For example, Abigail uses a possessed act to persuade Danforth that Mary Warren is a witch. Mary Warren's fear causes her to accuse proctor. Turn to page 120 to see Abigail's use of persuasion and the hysteria that unfolds. Historical Events that Fear and Persuasion played a role Japanese Internment Camps
The Red Scare
The Chinese Cultural Revolution
The lobotomies of the 1950s
Satanic Day Care Scandals The interned japanese What was Executive Order 9066? On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive order 9066. The order would lead to the internment of around 120,00 American citizens with Japanese descent. The order allowed military personnel to ban a citizen from the fifty mile wide stretch from Washington to southern Arizona. The citizens were placed in internment camps that were governed by the military in Washington, Oregon, California, and Arizona. The Executive Order was a result of the result of fear. The United States government and many American citizens were fearful of dangerous Japanese persons and espionage. How the Japanese Internment relates
to the The Crucible 1. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126557553
8. http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-relocation/ Articles related to the Japanese internment World War Two Lecture http://college.cengage.com/history/lecturepoints/part02_lecture10/part02_lecture10.html In The Crucible, a hysteria descends upon the
residents of Salem, Massachusetts. The town's residents begin to suspect each other of witch craft and consorting with the devil. In the 1940s, a similar hysteria consumed Americans. Americans suspected every Japanese person of being a spy or dangerous to other Americans. Citizens in each situation turned on each other with out any thought of what would happen to the accused. President Franklin D. Roosevelt used his executive power to make the decision like Abigail uses her power to almost indict Mary Warren on page 114. Persuasive Tactics and Motives What were the lobotomies of the late 1940s and early 1950s? Pictures The connection between the lobotomies and The Crucible Persuasive Tactics and Motives The Crucible Major Themes A lobotomy is a neurosurgical popular in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The lobotomy cuts the connection of the prefrontal lobe of the brain. The procedure was thought to cure or ease a person's mental illness. Walter Freeman was the doctor who introduced the lobotomy to the United States. He refined the procedure and it was first used on January 17, 1945. The procedure only lasted around ten minutes and required no anesthesia. The lobotomies became so popular that Freeman would go on to lobotomize over 3,500 people. He frequently toured the United States to teach and showcase his revolutionary procedure. In total, over 18,000 lobotomies were performed in the US and in many other countries between 1939 and 1951.
People wanted to cure mental illness because they feared it and knew society at the time would not accept them. The Salem Witch trial hysteria described in The Crucible is comparable to the lobotomy craze of the early 20th century. Like Abigail accused residents of Salem for being witches, Walter Freeman condemned many to undergo a lobotomy without any say. The lack of evidence to indict a witch is nonexistent just as any substantial evidence to prove that lobotomies had beneficial effects is nonexistent. Judges in Salem required only Abigail's testimonies as Freeman's suggestions of lobotomy were all that was needed to convince a person to have an operation. Large numbers of people were accused in the witch trials, akin to the large number of lobotomies performed in the 1940s. Betty and the others were caught dancing, and in the 1940s, Freeman would have suggested a lobotomy for the girls in order to correct their personalities. Freeman enjoys the fame and recognition given to him by the media because of his procedure comparable to Abigail enjoys the attention and power she gets for testifying against others. Propaganda was used in the United States to convince citizens that it was for the best if the Japanese were interned.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt is motivated to pass Executive Order 9066 in response to Pearl Harbor and to ease the fears of American citizens who are growing scared of the Japanese in America. His motivations are similar to Danforth's motivation as partly revealed in the quote, "Postponement now speaks a floundering on my part; reprieve or pardon must cast doubt upon the guilt of them that died till now" (Miller 135).
The president draws on the Americans fear of the Japanese to gain approval for the Executive Order. Today, it may seem like a drastic measure, but at the time, Americans were genuinely afraid of what terror the Japanese might do to them. "I dance for the devil; I saw him; I wrote in his book; I go back to Jesus; I kiss his hand. I saw Sarah Good with the devil." (Miller 50) shows Abigail's manipulation of Parris' fear of witchcraft to gain power for herself. Walter Freeman's motivation to push his lobotomy procedure is similar to Abigail's motivation to gain more power in Salem. "I have been near to murdered every day because I done my duty pointing out the Devil's people-and--this is my reward? To be mistrusted, denied, questioned like a ,"(Miller 113) shows that Abigail is offended that she is not treated with more respect now that she has the power to condemn people to their death. Freeman also does not want to be disrespected because now he has received recognition as a scientist. He want the lobotomy to live in infamy and any criticism on the procedure bothered him. Walter Freeman wants to continue his lobotomies even after the popularity of the procedure has died down. He believes it is for the best and will not let the procedure stop. His viewpoint on the lobotomy is similar to Danforth's viewpoint of the court. "But you must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between," (Miller 99) shows that Danforth believes a person is either in favor of the court or against it. Being part of the court, Danforth supports its actions. Freeman can only see a world where his procedure is used and where it is not. Danforth and Freeman both persuaded others to continue the trials or the lobotomies. Freeman still claims the procedure cures mental illness, while Danforth persuades others that they can either side with the court or against it. Continued Japanese Internment Syllogism Major Premise: Japanese people are at war with America
Minor Premise: These people are Japanese
Conclusion: These people are at war with America. 1950s Lobotomy Syllogism Major Premise: Lobotomies cure mental illness.
Minor premise: This procedure is a lobotomy.
Conclusion: This procedure will cure mental illness. Japanese Internment Syllogism Major Premise: The bombers of Pearl Harbor are evil.
Minor Premise: The Japanese bombed Pearl harbor.
Conclusion: The Japanese are evil. Bibliography http://prezi.com/b7thhnw0-2vi/modern-day-mass-hysteria-gays-in-the-m
http://www.npr.org/2005/11/16/5014080/my-lobotomy-howard-dullys-journey Fun Articles http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5014576
http://listverse.com/2009/06/24/top-10-fascinating-and-notable-lobotomies/ Relevant Prezis The use of fear and persuasion to fuel hysteria The Lobotomist