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Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

The two main cell types
by

Luke Sieburg

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes
Internal Structures
Appendages
Flagella
Pili
Used for motility
chemotaxis: the movement of a prokaryote towards or away from a chemical stimulant
Archaea use ATP to rotate the flagella, bacteria use the proton motive force
Shorter and thinner than flagella
Used for:
Attachment to surfaces
motility across solid surfaces
DNA transfer
Chromosome
Plasmid
Ribosomes
Cytoskeleton
Storage Granules
Gas Vesicles
Endospores
Minimal. Once thought there was none in prokaryotes.
Dormant cell used during sporulation
Used for buoyancy
Dense: Gases flow easily into the cell, but water does not
High-molecular weight polymers used to store excess supply molecules
DNA molecule that forms the nucleoid inside the cell
Supercoiled
Circular, supercoiled, double-stranded RNA molecules
Can be used for the production of enzymes that destroy certain antibiotics
Pili can transfer these plasmids to other bacteria
Synthesize proteins by joining amino acids
70S for prokaryotes
Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer
Serves as a barrier between the cytoplasm and the external environment
Contains sterols for strength
Protein receptors (for ligands)
Phospholipid bilayer
Transport Systems
Asymmetrical
Not used as a source of energy.
Proteins
Endocytosis
Learning Check
What is this bacterium lacking?
Learning Check
Explain why penicillin kills only actively multiplying cells, whereas lysozyme kills cells in any stage of growth.
How does the action of penicillin differ from that of lysozyme?
Explain why gram-positive cells retain the stain and gram-negative ones do not.
Why do gram-negative bacteria require porins while gram-positive bacteria do not?
Why is sporulation not a mechanism of replication?
How are the flagella of bacteria and archaea different?
Why do the 50S and 30S subunits of the 70S ribosome not make an 80S ribosome instead?
Learning Check
Contrast the eukaryotic and the prokaryotic cell.
Why is facilitated diffusion more prevalent in eukaryotic cells than prokaryotic ones?
What is the medical significance of ergosterol in fungal membranes?
In what medical ways can we exploit these differences?
Differential Staining
Simple Staining
Simple Stain
Gram Stain
Staining
Why might a gram-negative bacteria cell be less susceptible to antimicrobial medication?
Learning Check
Pili resemble what eukaryotic structure?
Compare and contrast pili and flagella.
Pinocytosis:
Endosome
+ lysosome = endolysosome

Phagocytosis:
Phagosome
+ lysosome = phagolysosome
Uses a single dye
Positively charged dye adheres to negatively charged cells.
Uses more than one dye.
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Pili/Flagella
Capsule and Slime Layer
Plasmid
Endospore

Cilia
Chloroplasts
Rough ER/Smooth ER
Golgi apparatus
Lysosome/Peroxisome
Mitochondria
Nucleus/Nucleolus/Nuclear Envelope
Cell Wall

Cytoplasmic Membrane
Serves as a barrier between the cytoplasm and the external environment.
Proton Motive Force
A series of protein complexes (electron transport chain) move protons out of the cell
This creates a proton gradient, called a proton motive force, that can be used to drive cell processes.
Transport Systems
Learning Check
Why is facilitated diffusion relatively uncommon in prokaryotes?
H+ ions are small. Why can't they cross the plasma membrane like other small molecules such as O2, CO2, N2, and water?
Why would you gargle with saltwater if you have a sore throat?
The Cell Wall
Peptidoglycan
Gram-Positive
Gram-Negative
Polymer sheet formed by chains of N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
Chains joined together by tetrapeptides
Archaea do not have peptidoglycan in their cell wall, but some have similar structures.
Penicillin prevents cross-linking between peptide bridges.

Lysozyme destroys the covalent bonds between the NAM and NAG subunits.
Thick peptidoglycan wall
Teichoic acids
Two membranes (inner and outer)
Thin peptidoglycan wall between the membranes (periplasm)
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)--cause inflammatory response
Capsules and Slime Layers
gel outside cell wall used for attachment and/or defense
capsule: distinct gel layer
slime layer: irregular gel layer
p. 58-61
What is this structure made of?
This is an image of a naked virus.
A. True
B. False
capsid
Sporulation is a type of reproduction.
A. True
B. False
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