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Brains of The Nation
Transcript of Brains of The Nation
In the book, Resil Mojares traced the genealogy of modern knowledge by giving emphasis on the generation of intellectuals that has long lived in the shadow of Jose Rizal and other famous writers. These three pioneering individuals were Pedro Paterno, T. H. Pardo De Tavera, and Isabelo De Los Reyes. These people were not given the spotlight and were even exposed to ridicule because of their ideologies. Another that was given attention in the book was the history of works and literature by Filipinos which gave birth to the Filipino knowledge –found in the latter part of the book.
The point of the book is to enhance the knowledge of modern Filipinos that had always lived in the present and cannot access history beyond their lifetime which caused them to rely on what was taught or laid in front of them. This gives a refreshing view of the roots of Filipino ideology.
Because of the absence of indigenous written records, we are forced to rely on accounts of the Europeans and biased works of Pardo and Paterno.
European account on our history are based on intellectual frames of Biblical history and Europe’s speculative sciences on race and religion.
As a result, written grammars differed considerably from actual native speech.Even the Ilocano epic Lam-ang and Bicolano Ibalon were both written down and possibly edited by Europeans.
For spaniard, their influence in the Philippines can be seen in every aspect of the Filipino life, in arts, science, laboratory, infirmary and model country house.
The Rise Of An Intelligentsia
COLONIAL EDUCATION - spreaded to Indios. The education systems brought by the Spaniards.
ELABORATION OF CIVIL BUREAUCRACY- raised the semblance of a rationally organized state, created a demand for new professional and technical skills and became an arena for the encounter of native and foreign language.
Freemasonry - most significant association. became attractive to Filipinos. Their lodges became the "school" of enlightenment thought, forwards points of modernity from traditional forms of authority.
The Filipino Enlightenment
Brother of The Wild
Isabelo De Los Reyes was definitely a brother of the wild. He was, after all, the country’s most eminent nonconformist intellectual.
Some of his remarkable doings were when he waged a campaign against Spanish and American rule.
Was imprisoned in Manila’s central prison and Barcelona’s infamous Montjuich Castle.
A prodigious pamphleteer, he wrote on diverse topics in history, folklore, language, politics, and religion.
Isabelo de los Reyes
A Man Apart
Trinidad Hermenegildo Pardo De Tavera is largely associated with the Federal party for distancing himself from the Aguinaldo government and serving in the American Colonial Administration.
Pardo had strongly believed that the establishment of American sovereignty in the Philippines is for the good of its “ignorant and uncivilized people.
Pardo was the most eminent man of Science and modernity.
He was someone who did so many great things but was never credited because of it. Even in his own time, he was a personality who was distant and cold.
Apostles of Reason
This chapter mainly focused on the achievement of Pardo de Taverna in the field of science and literature which made it appear that he is ahead of Rizal in intellectual manner.
He pushed science in the Philippines to make the citizen updated on the advances of the western medicine to also make them aware with health management.
When he resigned on his job, he focused the rest of his life with his primary concern on education and the economy.
T. H. Pardo de Tavera
This chapter centered the contribution of Pardo de Tavera in the political life of Philippines.
During the Spanish time, he criticized the works of Spanish authors like Vicente Barrantes and Wenceslao Retana for the lapses scientific method and racist bias.
The U.S occupation marked an important qualitative change in Pardo's writings. He traces the disabling as well as enabling influence of Spanish colonialism in the form of a "national" spirit that would result in an elite-led independence movement.
He criticized and opposed the teaching of religion .
Rizal and Pardo do have similarities: they criticized superstitions and quackery, they blamed some of the latter on Spanish author of popular medicine, they believed in the great human and social benefit of modern medicine.
Pardo was involved in education to a greater degree than were Rizal .
Constituting The Nation
Brains of The Nation
ni Resil Mojares
Dela Cruz, Janet
Flores, Ma. Margaret A.
Flores, Pauline V.
Lajera, Mark Joseph
Lim, Ernel Joyce
Lofamia, Michelle Ann
LORD OF LUZONICA
This is all about Pedro Paterno’s biography, one of the country’s premier intellectuals century ago. History has not been kind to him so now he is ignored. Historiography casts him as symbol of class that betrayed the Philippine Revolution. He wrote books that reveals his mind and personality./ Books that illustrates the danger of educating natives in a new environment.
CONJURING A CIVILIZATION
Pedro Paterno’s writings were somehow beneficial to the Filipinos. His book Ninay (1885) that embodied the spirit of early nationalism, claims the diverseness, similarity with other cultures in the world and a dynamic history before the arrival of spanish colonizers. But inspite of the nationalist ideas, many overblown lubrications can be found in his works.
His works has two impulses, one of which is to render visible to the world the Philippines as a seat of distinctive civilization. In contradictory to the “distinctive civilization”, the norms of the characters in his book Ninay are similar to that of the Europeans.
Instead of his opinion/belief as Filipino about his own culture and history, he only extracted Spanish histories and missionary accounts in his book Antigua Civilizacion Tagalog (1887).
He put other nations’ culture in the pedestal and take them as the bases of civilization instead of celebrating the culture of his country.
But his works served justice to his pupose: to locate the Philippines in the flow of universal history and that universal history, he believes is Spain’s attempt to contibute a brick to the edifice of universal culture.
Paterno used to have a nutritive ingestion of a foreign body of knowledge which seems to be opportunistic disassembling and resembling parts of other thought system in his writings.
Paterno had used different ideas from many European as well as people from the West including Americans. He recycled it, paraphrased and which been liked taking all his inputs from different intellectual property, putting it together and claiming the output as his great work.
Paterno was the asimilacionista who imagined the Phillipines as an exotic province of Spain.
No matter how closely he identifies himself with metropolis- speaking its speech, affecting its manners, vicariously participating in its power, believing in its essential rightness- he could not erase his 'color'
Deploying Local Knowledge
Isabelo being a home-grown intellectual.
He is known for being a good journalist, so he took this opportunity to foreground the role of Ilocanos in history.
When the Spanish era started, he also started writing articles with provocative statements, criticisms on the maltreatment and discrimination of Spaniards on Filipino clergy.
His fondness in history is clearly shown in his articles. He tackles the origins of race and language, such as the Malay sub races and understands language thru the genealogy of people.
The peculiar thing about Isabelo's histories is the touch of Filipino folklores.
Isabelo was not awed nor privileged by/with the Western knowledge; instead he enhanced his articles about our history with the help and guide of local knowledge.
Writing about Ourselves
From the title of the chapter itself, this is all about the Filipinos who contributed a lot in our history, mostly in written works. This chapter had also mentioned the aforementioned personalities, Pedro Paterno, Pardo de Tavera, and Isabelo de los Reyes.
The passage is also about the roots of Filipino knowledge - tackled about illustrados who were said to be the 'educated' (the three men belong in this strata as said).
It is said there that the production of modern knowledge in the Philippines was driven by shifting and over-lapping motives; and was determinative in the rise of nationalism.
Lastly it concluded/ talks about Rizal talking of the "brains of the nation". He had compared our nation with the nervous system, and said that a nation can't be self sufficient, therefore adapting to outer forces and connects to it.