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Art Nouveau

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by

Martina Catalano

on 4 April 2015

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Transcript of Art Nouveau

LAUTREC
MUCHA
LALIQUE
GUIMARD
PERRET
GALLE'
René Lalique (1860-1945)
Apprenticed to the jeweller Louis Aucoc
Experimented with glass
Designed perfume bottles
Undertook commissions for the incorporation of glass objects in various buildings around the world
During WWI, the glass factory of Lalique manufactured many practical items (plain glass bottles and containers for hospitals and medicines)
Designed car mascots (ex. The Vitesse Mascot)
Louis Aucoc
Coty Building, Fifth Avenue (NYC)
Interiors for the Orient Express Railroad dining cars
Peace Hotel, Shanghai
Doors for the Imperial Palace of Prince Asaka, Tokyo
LIFE and WORKS
FEATURES and THEMES
Lalique's primary jewelry design motif was the natural world (the French countryside, Japanese natural world art motifs)
Materials not widely used (glass, semi-precious stones)
Lalique brought art into the lives of ordinary people
Émile Gallé (1846 - 1904)
Son of a furniture producer
Studied botany and drawing, later glassmaking
Soon developed a new technique in glassmaking
LIFE and WORKS
FEATURES and THEMES
Interest in Japanese art
Free, asymmetric naturalism and symbolistic overtones of Art Nouveau
Predominance of floral elements
Study of botany, the source for his natural designs
Furniture designs based on the Rococo period
Meubles parlants (“talking furniture”)
A closer look at Lautrec's world
Toulouse Lautrec (1864-1901)
Aristocratic family:
-houses in Paris and in the countryside
-health problems due to marriages between relatives
Could not take part to many activities and started painting a lot
Fernand Cormon, mentor (Van Gogh)


Fascinated by Montmartre:
-"Artistes Incohérents” -Moulin Rouge
Liaison with Suzanne Valadon (Degas & Renoir)
1888: “Les Vingts”
Alcool and syphilis

FEATURES and THEMES
Interest for the less well-heeled social classes that lived in Montmartre
Parisian nightlife (brothels, theaters, cabarets..)
Focus on the human figure more than the surrounding
Sense of spontaneity but studies of compositions (photography, drafts…)
Dark colours that give a sense of melancholy
Clear contour
Eroticism

The Kiss
(1892)

Oil on cardboard, 60 x 80 cm
Private collection
La modiste
(1900)

Oil on canvas, 61 × 49 cm
Musée Toulouse-Lautrec
La toilette
(1896)

Oil on cardboard, 67×54 cm
Musée d'Orsay
Dance at the Moulin Rouge
(1890)

Oil on canvas, 115 cm × 149cm
Philadelphia Museum of Art
At the Moulin Rouge
(1892-1895)

Oil on canvas, 123 cm × 140 cm
Art Institute of Chicago
La Goulue arriving at the Moulin Rouge with two women
(1892)

Oil on cardboard, 79 × 59 cm
MOMA
Auguste Perret (1874-1954)
“The Eiffel of reinforced concrete”
French origins, but born in Brussels
Studied architecture in Paris
1945: asked to rebuild the city of Le Havre (City Hall & St. Joseph Church), but he died before his project was accomplished
After this enormous enterprise, the UNESCO inserted Le Havre between the World Heritage Sites

FEATURES and THEMES
Buildings made of very rigid materials
Inspired by Hellenistic Art and French Classicism
Sense of harmony using well defined geometrical shapes such as crosses, rectangles and octagons
Use of very cheap material
Integration of the framework in the façade

St. Joseph Church (Le Havre)
City Hall (Le Havre)
House in Rue Franklin (Paris)
Advertising posters
Mucha
Lautrec
Salon des Cent
was a commercial art exhibition in Paris.
The Salon sold color posters, prints and reproductions of artwork to the general public at reasonable prices.
Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939)
LIFE and WORKS
Singing allowed him education
Decorative painting jobs (theatrical scenery)
1879 - Vienna, work for a major theatrical design company
A Count hired Mucha to decorate Hrušovany Emmahof Castle and sponsored at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts
Gismonda
(1894), lithographed poster
FEATURES and THEMES
Fatured beautiful young women in flowing Neoclassical-looking robes, surrounded by lush flowers (pastel colors)
Use of photography as a base for drawing
Decorated the Bosnia and Herzegovina Pavilion and Austrian Pavilion, but he attempted to disassociate himself from Art Nouveau, "my paintings are entirely a product of himself and Czech art"
Stamps, notes, medals
Slav ans Czech nationalism
Champenois
(1896), calendar
Four Moments of the day
(1900), decorative pannels
Carpet
Wall paper
Snake
(1898)
The Season
(1896), color lithograph
La Brunette
and model (1901)
Emerald
and model (1900)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Pavilion
Austrian Pavilion
Stamps
Notes
Medals
The Slav Epic
(1910-1928)
Madonna of the Lilies
(1905)
The Moon and the Stars
(1902), ink and watercolor on paper
Hector Guimard (1867-1942)
LIFE and WORKS
1882-85 - École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs (Paris), École Nationale et Speciale des Beaux-Arts
Visit Hôtel Tassel (Brussels) by Victor Horta (inspira-tional model)
Designed the lettering and street numbers (1893) for the Hôtel Villa de la Réunion
1894 - Castel Béranger
1898 - Coilliot House,Lille (double-frontage)
1899 - Castel Henriette (asymmetrical "free plan”)
1901 - Concert hall Humbert-de-Romans
1909 - Hôtel Guimard (furniture = integral parts of building)
Paris Métro Stations
Fear of war and anti-Semitism (wife was Jewish) and exile in 1938
FEATURES and THEMES
The Evening Star
,
The Moon
,
The Morning Star
,
The Pole Star
Hôtel Tassel
(1892)
Victor Horta
architect, father of a new architectural vision
Maison du Peuple (Brussels, 1897, destroyed) - visible metallic structure
Lettering and street numbers
Hôtel Villa de la Réunion
(1893)
Ideal of harmony and continuity (design the interior furnishings and decoration of buildings)
Free-hand commission to put up buildings, apartments (cheap building materials: cut stones for shell, prefabricated materials for balconies railings)
Precursor of industrial standardization (diffuse the new art on a large scale eg. Paris Métro Stations)
"Art pour tous, Art de la rue"
English merchante Bing: 1896, workshop-gallery, furnisched by Van de Velde, expositions of contemporaries (Bardsley, Rodin, Tiffany, Gallé, Lalique)
Street façade
Recessed
façade
Porte Dauphine
,
Abbesses
,
Châtelet
1887 - Paris, magazine and advertising illustrations
New advertising poster for a play featuring Sarah Bernhardt (6-year contract)
paintings, posters, advertisements, book illustrations, designs for jewelry, carpets, wallpaper
Catalano
Fiore
Molinari
Full transcript