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Food Deserts

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Kristie Kuebler

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of Food Deserts

Operation Food Desert Storm
What is a food desert?

Area Code : 63104 -- St. Louis City
Street borders: Grand, Chouteau, Sidney Street and the Mississippi River
This area was narrowed down by looking at the USDA website and looking for a food desert with low vehicle access.
A community food garden will promote:
Access to quality food
Health education
Community involvement
Job creation
"A Mission to Better Health"
• The City of St. Louis (2014) defines food deserts through the following statements:

"The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines food deserts as "urban neighborhoods and rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food".

"For urban areas, not having access to a full-service grocery store within one mile is how the USDA defines a food desert".

"For rural areas, not having access to a full-service grocery store within 10 miles is indicative of a food desert".

City of St. Louis. (2014). Food deserts in St. Louis. Retrieved from https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/news-media/newsgram/Food-Deserts-in-St-Louis.cfm
5 Major Bio Statistical / Environmental Factors

1.
Persons below poverty level:
Persons below poverty level have less access to healthy foods. It is much cheaper to purchase fast food and snacks at convenience stores than it is to buy fresh, healthy foods.

2.
Households with no vehicles
: People in food deserts live more than a mile from a full-service grocery store, and therefore people with no vehicle access have a more difficult time getting to the grocery stores.

3.
High rates of obesity
: The high obesity rates correlate with this location being in a food desert. People living in food deserts have less access to healthy foods, and therefore have a higher risk of being obese.

4.
Crime
: High levels of crime in this community have an effect on the health of the community. If people are not safe in their community, they will spend less time outside walking to the grocery store or being active.

5.
Unemployment rate
: The high level of unemployment in St. Louis affects the health of the community. If you are unemployed, you have less resources available to purchase healthy foods.


Bus Routes
Crime Rates
Childhood Obesity
Ethical Issues
Healthy People 2020 Objectives
Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents aged 2-19 who are considered obese
Reduce the proportion of adults who are obese
Increase the proportion of Americans who have access to a food retail outlet that sells a variety of foods that are encouraged by the dietary guidelines for Americans
Community Nursing Diagnosis
Risk for imbalanced nutrition related to limited health food sources for the community as evidenced by:


WHAT SPECIFIC IMPACTS DO SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH HAVE ON YOUR COMMUNITY?
Economic stability:
The average household income in 2011 was $41,473 but the majority of households have at least two people and some have as many as 7 or more.
Education:
41.2% of people in 63104 have less than a high school degree
Social and community context:
Violent crime rate in this area is almost five times the U.S. average
Healthcare:
There are a variety of healthcare centers within this zip code including a general health center, Planned Parenthood and urgent care
Neighborhood and built environment:
The lot is placed in an area with mostly houses and a few businesses
Statistics at National, State and Local levels
Community of Focus
Agency of Focus: Old North Restoration Group
Our Garden
3427 Park Ave. St. Louis, MO 63104
3,472 square feet
Cost to lease: $1.00 per year
Bus stop locations near the garden
Bus Routes
The Hand Off
Suggestions for future students:

Recruit support from community leaders and local politicians
Alderman: Marlene E. Davis
Phone: 314-622-3287
Website: https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/aldermen/ward-19/
Neighborhood Stabilization Officer: Vernita Mullins
Phone: 314-657-1369
Website: https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/public-safety/neighborhood-stabilization-office/profiles/Vernita-Mullins.cfm
Commercial District Manager: James Buchanan
Phone: 314-657-3776
Commercial District Manager: Alexandra Durdello
Phone: 314-657-3778

Gatewaygreening.org
St. Louis organization that helps communities set up and establish community gardens

The community garden will use the Minnesota model public health interventions of outreach, collaboration, and health teaching.
Outreach
-Through outreach we will locate our population of interest, gather information about food availability in the area, use a community garden to address the lack of fresh food, and organize a co-op to sell the garden grown food to local residents at an affordable cost.
Collaborate
-We will collaborate with the community as a whole as well as individuals in the community to allow the garden to be a success.
Health Teaching
-Health teaching will be used to provide nutrition education, knowledge of how to care for the garden, and healthy recipes for foods grown in the garden.


Minnesota Model
Minnesota Model
-Limited food stores located in the recommended radius
-While locations such as Fields and Save-A-Lot have produce, the majority of stores in this area lack quality produce.
-28.1% of the community population lives below the poverty level
-The community population lacks sufficient transportation to food stores
-Lack of access to quality produce, causing lack of knowledge on what constitutes a healthy diet

References for Table and Bio statistical Analysis
City of St. Louis. (n.d.).
63104

Zip Code Detailed Profile
. Retrieved
from http://www.city-data.com/zips/63104.html
Missouri Public Health System at a Glance. (n.d.). Retrieved January
28, 2015, from http://health.mo.gov/living/lpha/07pheducationproject/HealthProfile- STL_City_STL_Co.pdf
Missouri State Highway Patrol. (n.d.). Crime index. Retrieved from http://
www.mshp.dps.missouri.gov/MSHPWeb/SAC/crime_data_crime_index_960grid.h tml
United States Census Bureau. (n.d.). Household size by vehicles available.
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_5YR_B08201&prodType=table
United States Census Bureau. (n.d.). Selected economic characteristics.
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_1 3_5YR_DP03&prodType=table

City of St. Louis. (n.d.). 63104 Zip Code Detailed Profile. Retrieved from http://www.city- data.com/zips/63104.html
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Healthy people 2020: Topics and objectives. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/default
Mission: To “revitalize the physical and social dimensions of the Old North community.”
Community Location: North city with street borders of Highway 70, Cass Ave, N. Florissant and Branch Street
Community Food Access:
Minimal access to grocery stores
Lack of access in transportation, creating an issue in access to food
Old North Restoration Group has been working with the community to:
Target neighborhood cleanup
Decrease crime rate
Supply fresh healthy foods in the community
Old North Location
Old North Community
Matson, J. (2012). High and dry in the food desert. Scientific American, 306(5), 96.

Missouri Public Health. (n.d.). Health profile for St. Louis city. Retrieved from http://health.mo.gov/living/lpha/07pheducationproject/HealthProfile- STL_City_STL_Co.pdf

Defining the Community:

In general, the neighborhood is split 80% African American and 20% Caucasian. We have residents of all ages, religions, races and socioeconomic backgrounds intermixed into the neighborhood. Some are homeowners; some are renters and a decent number live in area senior housing. The neighborhood children attend more than 40 different schools across the St. Louis area and the others are home-schooled. We have residents that are new to the neighborhood and residents who are the 5th generation of their family to live here. It’s a very diverse mix.” (Jessica Payne, personal communication, January 22, 2015).
Old North St. Louis Restoration Group. (2015). 2014 board of directors. Retrieved from http://onsl.org/index.php?title=board-of-directors
Old North Community
Main Contact:
Jessica Payne is the Health Initiatives Coordinator of AmeriCorps VISTA.
Correspondence was through email and she was very informative and supportive of our project.
Focus:
The Old North Restoration Group is focused “on comprehensive revitalization strategies including housing preservation, new housing development, economic growth through new businesses, safe streets, and addressing a variety of social issues that may arise, like healthy living and access to food. Our goals change with the goals of our residents. They are very involved in the process of developing their community.”
The data showed five main issues for the 63104 community:
Poverty, obesity, crime, unemployment and low vehicle access
As Jessica said, the goals of the community depend on the residents. We feel it is important to focus on unemployment and poverty rather than economic growth at this time.
Jessica Payne, personal communication, January 22, 2015.
Interventions
As part of our intervention a plot of land was identified in our zip code to build a community garden by future community students. This will increase participation in the community and increase availability of fresh produce and healthier options.


We contacted Old North Restoration Group to see what worked for their community garden in North City and brainstorm for what could work in our zip code. Our group would try to collaborate with Old North to start a project in our zip code so that we have experts on our side. We had to look into the city’s government lands that were available to rent for our project.

City of St. Louis. (n.d.). Garden lease program. Retrieved from https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/sldc/real-estate/garden-lease.cfm
Gateway Greening. (n.d.). Find a garden near you. Retrieved from http://www.gatewaygreening.org/grow/communities/map-of-gardens/
Minnesota Department of Health. (2001). Public health interventions: Applications for nursing
practice (the "wheel" manual). Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf

Minnesota Department of Health. (2001). Public health interventions: Applications for nursing
practice (the "wheel" manual). Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf

Group Memories
When reflecting on our experiences creating the community garden, our group shared many memorable moments. We enjoyed creating a project that would benefit the health of our community. In corresponding with Jessica Payne, we were able to interact with an organization member who has had success creating a similar community garden in the Old North area. Speaking with her taught us that our goals (as well as future community students) were not only attainable, but would have great impact on the community.
A lot of memories were made during brainstorming and group meetings. We were able to learn more about each of our group members. We worked well together as a group and enjoyed each other’s company!
Favorite day: when Colleen brought donuts

Moving Forward

Host educational presentations on healthy eating options in local community centers with topics including:
Identifying unhealthy foods versus healthy food options
Weekly to monthly meal planning for families
Incorporating family budget related to food purchases
Cooking classes for healthy food preparation
Medical issues related to malnourishment/obesity

Community involvement
Volunteer to work in the community garden - could be included in Goldfarb's Community course
Spread the word about the community garden via social media and fliers
Connect local grocers and small market businesses to sell the produce from the garden
Contact local schools to involve them in the process of the community garden

Justice refers to the equal and fair distribution of resources, based on analysis of benefits and burdens of decision
According to Phillips, food deserts “are most commonly found in communities of color and low-income areas (where many people don’t have cars). Studies have found that wealthy districts have three times as many supermarkets as poor ones do, that white neighborhoods contain an average of four times as many supermarkets as predominantly black ones do, and that grocery stores in African-American communities are usually smaller with less selection.”
The goal is to provide a place for growing healthy food within the community, which is within walking distance and close to bus routes. Communication was done with an organization (Old North Restoration Group) to collaborate on working to restore the area overall.
Racial Disparity
“In seven of the ten indicators of racial disparity, the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) ranked in the top 10 regions.”
The seven indicators include: unemployment, rental cost, infant mortality, segregation, household income, high school drop out rate, and poverty.
With a community garden and co-op, jobs could be created for some members of the community. By putting the community in charge of the garden, there would be less opportunity for racial discrimination in the workplace. Even if only a small amount of jobs can be created, the garden would still bring attention to the community and give us the opportunity to talk to politicians about the low-income situation in our area.
Food Empowerment Project. (2015). Food deserts. Retrieved from http://www.foodispower.org/food-deserts
Phillips, C. (2014, September 24). Report: When It Comes To Racial Disparity, St. Louis Falls Behind Its Peers. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/report-when-it-comes-racial-disparity-st-louis-falls- behind-its-peers
References
Ethical Issues continued

Beneficence is the act of compassion; taking positive action to help others; a desire to do good; core principle of patient advocacy.
St. Louis falls behind on helping communities achieve healthy lifestyles. Our focus on promoting food access and health to the community can help change this.
Politicians would be contacted in our zip code and surrounding areas to ask what they are doing to lobby for healthier food options in our area. Statistics would be provided and this would hopefully give them insight on the needs of the community.
Justice
Food Empowerment Project. (2015). Food deserts. Retrieved from http://www.foodispower.org/food-deserts
Phillips, C. (2014, September 24). Report: When It Comes To Racial Disparity, St. Louis Falls Behind Its Peers. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/report-when-it-comes-racial-disparity-st-louis-falls- behind-its-peers
Beneficence

Model for a Future Garden
Population: 19,088
Households: 18,392
-Family:11,962
-NonFamily: 6,430
Race
-White: 8,506
-Black: 8,987
-Other: 1,163

Population Breakdown
Mileage is approx. 3.5 mi East to West
Mileage is approx. 2 mi North to South

Community Resource Garden: These gardens are the “helpful older sibling” and provide resources and know how to smaller community and youth gardens. These gardens can supply a variety of materials.

Community Gardens: These gardens come in a variety of shapes and sizes and improve the appearance of neighborhoods while also inspiring, educating and reflect the pride of the participants.

Youth Gardens: Work directly with schools and organizations to teach kids about gardening, agriculture and healthy eating through hands on outdoor lessons and activities.

Gateway Greening. (n.d.). Gateway Greening Gardens and Programs. Retrieved from http://www.gatewaygreening.org/grow/gardens/
Already Existing Gardens
Median Household Incomes
Low Vehicle Access
Unemployment Rates
Defining Social Determinants
Social determinants of health include economic status, education, and environmental factors that affect the health status of a population.
Evidence Based Research for Interventions
• Adults with a household member who participated in an urban community
garden:
o Consumed fruits and vegetables 1.4 more times per day than those who did
not participate
o Were 3.5 times more likely to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times
daily
• Thus, participation in urban community gardens in at risk areas is positively
correlated with:
o Increasing the amount of fruits and vegetables consumed on average in the
community
o Establishing healthy eating habits and routines
• Two complementary studies provide evidence that:
o Community gardens are a promising strategy for promoting fruit and
vegetable consumption in rural communities because individuals who work in
their community garden were more likely to eat the fruits and vegetables.

Addressing Healthy People 2020 Objective: Reducing Obesity in Adults
Alaimo, Katherine et al. (2008). Fruit and vegetable intake among urban community gardeners.
Journal of
Nutrition Education and Behavior
, 40(2), 94-101. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2006.12.003
Barnhart, K., Barnidge, E., Brownson, R., Duggan, K., Estlund, A., Hipp, P. (2013). Association between
community garden participation and fruit and vegetable consumption in rural Missouri.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
. 10:128 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-128.

Evidence Based Research for Interventions
• Successful implementation of community Garden in Denver Public Schools:
o “In our Seed-To-Seed School Food program, students learn how to feed
themselves (Taste Education), feed their school (GTC), and feed their
community (YFM), thus learning the inherent nature of healthy food and the
importance of it to the welfare of society (Nowak, Kolouch, Schneyer &
Roberts, 2012).
o “As active participants in the growing, cooking and eating of healthy food,
the children have developed a set of skills and knowledge that will allow
them to more fully analyze their food choices and increase the chances that
they will make better choices that will lead them to healthy
lifestyles” (Nowak, Kolouch, Schneyer & Roberts, 2012).
o “By placing the child at the center of food production, cooking of food, selling
of food and sharing food with their community, SFD’s projects are helping to
increase food literacy among students so that they value healthy food in
their lives” (Nowak, Kolouch, Schneyer & Roberts, 2012).

Addressing Healthy People 2020 Objective: Reducing Childhood Obesity
Nowak, A. J., Kolouch, G., Schneyer, L., & Roberts, K. H. (2012). Building food literacy and positive relationships
with healthy food in children through school gardens.
Childhood Obesity
, 8(4), 392-5. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2012.0084
• What other effects does participation in a community garden have on children?
o Creates a transformation of school food culture
o Activity becomes integrated into their routine
o Self-sustaining project for the future
• SLPS Contacts
o Office of Institutional Advancement: (314) 345-2353
o Rachel Seward, Deputy Superintendent:
Rachel.Seward@slps.org
o Operations Office: (314) 345-4669
o Mary Houlihan, Deputy Superintendent of
Operations: Mary.Houlihan@slps.org

Student Impact and SLPS Contacts
Saint Louis Public Schools (2015). Departments and Staff: Central Office Phone Numbers. Retrieved from http://www.slps.org/domain/11
Schools of Interest
L'Ouverture Middle School
Google Maps. (2015). L'Ouverture Middle School, 3021 Hickory Street, St. Louis, MO 63104. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps/dir/3427+Park+Ave,+St+Louis,+MO+63104/L%27Ouver ture+Middle+School,+3021+Hickory+Street,+St.+Louis,+MO+63104/@38.6207766,- 90.2304961,16z/data=!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m1!1s0x87d8b48fe838eb83:0x2fb3ec87e0de1 791!2m2!1d- 90.234952!2d38.620519!1m5!1m1!1s0x87d8b49ce8fdf58d:0x1fb8bf9b30f8607c!2m2!1d -90.227544!2d38.622798!3e2
Schools of Interest
Hodgen Elementary School
Google Maps. (2015). Hodgen Elementary School, 1616 California Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63104. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps/dir/3427+Park+Ave,+St+Louis,+MO+63104/Hodgen+Ele mentary+School,+1616+California+Avenue,+St.+Louis,+MO+63104/@38.6184915,- 90.2292194,16z/data=!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m1!1s0x87d8b48fe838eb83:0x2fb3ec87e0de1 791!2m2!1d- 90.234952!2d38.620519!1m5!1m1!1s0x87d8b481f84e1421:0x512964dad5dad20f!2m2!1 d-90.22454!2d38.616604!3e2
Our Garden's Location
Relevance of Social Determinants of Health
Economic stability:
Persons of lower economic status consistently see poorer health outcomes than those of higher economic status. The following factors play a significant role in economic stability in relation to health:
Poverty
Employment
Food Security
Housing Stability

Education:
A positive correlation exists between high education completion and positive health outcomes. The following factors play a significant role in education in relation to health:
High school graduation
Enrollment in higher education
Language and Literacy
Early childhood education and development
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Healthy people 2020: Topics and objectives. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/default
Grocery Stores in our Community
Social and Community Context:
A sense of community, equal participation within the community, and a sense of responsibility for the community fosters an environment that allows for positive health outcomes. The following factors play a significant role in social and community context in relation to health:
Social Cohesion
Civil Participation
Perceptions of discrimination and Equity
Incarceration/Institutionalization
Health Care:
Communities without access to quality health care have poorer preventative, secondary, and tertiary care, leading to decreased health status. The following factors play a significant role in health care in relation to health:
Access to Health Care
Access to Primary Care
Health Literacy
Neighborhood and Built Environment:
Communities with poor neighborhood development and environmental conditions have decreased health outcomes. The following factors play a significant role in neighborhood and built environment in relation to health:
Access to Healthy Foods
Quality of Housing
Crime and Violence
Environmental Conditions
Relevance of Social Determinants of Health
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Healthy people 2020: Topics and objectives. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/default
Already Existing Gardens
Grocery Stores in our Community
Funding:
Private Foundations
Fundraisers
Grants
Private Contributions.
Leadership:
Executive community consists of three neighborhood residents and a senior financial analyst from Heritage Home Group.
Board of directors consists of ten neighborhood residents and two members of the church. The board is made up of business owners, engineers, attorneys, community activists and many more.
Old North St. Louis Restoration Group. (2015). 2014 board of directors. Retrieved from http://onsl.org/index.php?title=board-of-directors
Direct Communication with Health Initiatives Coordinator:
Old North Restoration Group
Cultural Aspects
o Learned behaviors are an element
of culture
o There is an equal distribution of
whites and African Americans in
our selected community
o It's important to consider both of
these cultures when educating on
food preparation and choices
Alaimo, Katherine et al. (2008). Fruit and vegetable intake among urban community gardeners.
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 40(2), 94-101. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2006.12.003
Barnhart, K., Barnidge, E., Brownson, R., Duggan, K., Estlund, A., Hipp, P. (2013). Association
between community garden participation and fruit and vegetable consumption in rural Missouri. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 10:128 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-128.
City of St. Louis. (n.d.). Available land reutilization authority owned vacant lots. Retrieved
from https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/sldc/real-estate/upload/1-2-15-Vacant-Lot-List-2.pdf
City of St. Louis. (2014). Chapter 26: Zoning. Retrieved from https://www.municode.com/
library/mo/st._louis/codes/code_of_ordinances?searchRequest=%7B%22searchText%22:%22commercial%20zoning%22,%22pageNum%22:1,%22resultsPerPage%22:25,%22booleanSearch%22:false,%22stemming%22:true,%22fuzzy%22:false,%22synonym%22:false,%22contentTypes%22:%5B%22CODES%22%5D,%22productIds%22:%5B%5D%7D&nodeId=TIT26ZO_CH26.44GLOCOOFDI
City of St. Louis. (2014). Food deserts in St. Louis. Retrieved from https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/news-media/
newsgram/Food-Deserts-in-St-Louis.cfm
City of St. Louis. (n.d.). Garden lease program. Retrieved from https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/
departments/sldc/real-estate/garden-lease.cfm
City of St. Louis. (n.d.). 63104 Zip Code Detailed Profile. Retrieved from http://www.city- data.com
/zips/63104.html
Ethics in Community Health Nursing Practice [PowerPoint Presentation].
Retrieved:http://blackboard.barnesjewishcollege.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_group=courses&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Fcontent%2Ffile%3Fcmd%3Dview%26content_id%3D_265508_1%26course_id%3D_2741_1%26framesetWrapped%3Dtrue
Food Empowerment Project. (2015). Food deserts. Retrieved from http://www.foodispower.org/food-
deserts


Matson, J. (2012). High and dry in the food desert. Scientific American, 306(5), 96.
Metro St. Louis. (2015). Missouri System Map. Retrieved from http://www.metrostlouis.org/
PlanYourTrip/SystemMap.aspx
Minnesota Department of Health. (2001). Public health interventions: Applications for nursing
practice (the "wheel" manual). Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/opi/cd/phn/docs/0301wheel_manual.pdf
Missouri Public Health. (n.d.). Health profile for St. Louis city. Retrieved from http://health.mo.gov
living/lpha/07pheducationproject/HealthProfile- STL_City_STL_Co.pdf
Missouri State Highway Patrol. (n.d.). Crime index. Retrieved from http://
www.mshp.dps.missouri.gov/MSHPWeb/SAC/crime_data_crime_index_960grid.h tml
National Minority Quality Forum. (2008). Prevalence of childhood obesity. Retrieved from ‪http://
maps.zatlas.com/ChildhoodObesityIndex/main.cfm‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Nowak, A. J., Kolouch, G., Schneyer, L., & Roberts, K. H. (2012). Building food literacy and
positive relationships with healthy food in children through school gardens. Childhood Obesity, 8(4), 392-5. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2012.0084
Old North St. Louis Restoration Group. (2015). 2014 board of directors. Retrieved from http://onsl.org/
index.php?title=board-of-directors
Onboard Informatics. (n.d.). 63104 zip code detailed profile. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/
zips/63104.html
Phillips, C. (2014). Report: When it comes to racial disparity, St. Louis falls behind its peers. Retrieved
from http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/report-when-it-comes-racial-disparity-st-louis-falls-behind-its-peers
Public Health Law Center. (2012). Community garden policy reference guide. Retrieved from
www.publichealthlawcenter.org
Saint Louis Public Schools (2015). Departments and Staff: Central Office Phone Numbers. Retrieved
from http://www.slps.org/domain/11


Gateway Greening. (n.d.). Find a garden near you. Retrieved from http://www.gatewaygreening.org/grow/
communities/map-of-gardens/
Gateway Greening. (n.d.). Gateway greening gardens and programs. Retrieved from http://
www.gatewaygreening.org/grow/gardens/
Google Earth. (2015). Street View, 3427 Park Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63110. Retrieved from https:/www.google.com/
maps/@38.620231,- 90.235068,3a,90y,16.09h,84.63t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1si3LZ1ntEOztOmUdeGq9mUQ!2 e0
Google Maps. (2015). 3427 Park Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63110. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps/
place/3427+Park+Ave,+St+Louis,+MO+63104/@38.6205 19,- 90.234952,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x87d8b48fe838eb83:0x2fb3ec87e0de1791
Google Maps. (2015). Grocery store near St. Louis, MO, 63104. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps/
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Our Garden
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Policies
Water Access
• In order for a garden to thrive, there must be access to an adequate water supply.
• Provide a system that captures rainwater for when there is no access to a water source.
• Meters should be installed to determine water usage and monitor costs.

Fences
• Fencing placed around a community garden provides protection from animals and minimizes vandalism and trespassing.
• Follow local community guidelines on installing a permanent fence.

Signage
• Permanent signage promotes and identifies the garden.
• The signage includes information on what is permissible and the rules that are to be followed.
• Review local community codes to ensure that signs are permitted.




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Google Maps. (2015). Grocery store near St. Louis, MO, 63104. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/maps/search/grocery stores/@38.5927868,- 90.2292547,14z/data=!4m5!2m4!3m3!1sgrocery stores!2sSt Louis, MO 63104!3s0x87d8b3775dec12b1:0x8142cad8d0abe30e
Jessica Payne, personal communication, January 22, 2015.
Gateway Greening. (n.d.). Find a garden near you. Retrieved from http://www.gatewaygreening.org/grow/communities/map-of-gardens/
Ethical Issues continued
Autonomy
Fidelity
Loyalty, fairness, truthfulness, advocacy, and dedication to the client. Involves the agreement to keep promises.
Based on the virtue of caring. We can help the garden get started and we can help keep our promise of enabling the community to make health choices.
We can advocate for the community and act in the community’s best interest.
The agreement to respect another’s right to self-determine a course of action; support of independent decision making.
The members of the co-op can make the decisions of what to grow and how to distribute the produce. They can decide on who can work the garden and can elect leaders.
The community will decide how they want to run the garden

Ethics in Community Health Nursing Practice [PowerPoint Presentation].
Retrieved:http://blackboard.barnesjewishcollege.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_group=courses&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Fcontent%2Ffile%3Fcmd%3Dview%26content_id%3D_265508_1%26course_id%3D_2741_1%26framesetWrapped%3Dtrue
Full transcript