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Resource on Learning Theories

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amanda strike

on 11 September 2015

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Transcript of Resource on Learning Theories

Social constructivism Definition
An Informational Resource on Learning Theories.
By: Group 1
A theory based on the beliefs that children can construct understanding and knowledge on their own of the world, through experiences and reflection on those experiences.
John Dewey has often been sited as the founder for Constructivism.
Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner are considered Constructivisims chief theorist.
(UCD Dublin, n.p.)
Reference list
Learning by doing,consisting of "hands on approach" to learning.(Dewey)
Learning from the needs and interest of the child
Construction of new knowledge based on prior knowledge.
Explanation ,evaluation and reflection on experiences or information (Thirteenorg, 2015).
Social interaction
Learning consistent with the Stages of Human Development.
Scaffolding is provided to help and support learners.
A Learning Theory is the framework(s) of how information is absorbed,processed and retained during learning.
(Slideshare, Jan17, 2014).

Educators construct teaching and learning models based on Learning theorists from the past. Knowledge of these Learning Theories allows educators to put them into practice as a basis for exploring and understanding how children learn. Dominant theories of the past will continue to operate as the default framework affecting and driving current practices and perspectives. (Shepard, 2000:4).

That learning is a personal act to fulfill one’s potential. Also called self- centered,
self - developing education, where human interests, values, and dignity predominate. As an example in an early childhood teaching environment where a child may be disengaged from a formal math lesson plan, a teacher would find that child's interest, lets say basketball, and plan the lesson for that child around the child's love of basketball, thus engaging the child through their passion. Humanising the teaching.

emphasis is on freedom
dignity and potential of humans
in a supportive environment
self-directed learning and evaluation
Student Centered and personal
Develops self-actualised people,
Leads to a desire to learn
Students learn how to learn
Creates lifelong learners
Behaviorism is a learning theory that focuses on objectively observable behaviors.It discounts independent activities of the mind. (O'Donnell 2012). Behaviorists define learning as the acquisition of new behavior based on the environment and application of stimulus. (Watson,1913)
B.F. Skinner - came up with Operant Conditioning
I Pavlov - discovered Classical Conditioning.
E.L Thorndike - discovered Law Of Effect.
J.B Watson - Psychology's original Behaviorists .
( O'Donnell, 2012 )
Its primary contention is to identify elements of the environment to predict behavior and be able to use this information to control the behavior (Watson 1924)
It assumes a learner is a clean slate, therefore operates on principle that all behavior is learnt or altered by application of stimuli, classical and operant conditioning (Watson 1924)
Classical conditioning is the response to environmental stimuli and operant conditioning is when learning occurs through reinforcement (both positive and negative) and through punishment (O'Donnell 2012)
Benefits of a Behaviorism Pedagogy
It is easier to quantify information for research.
It is used for therapeutic techniques such as behavior analysis and in dealing with anxiety disorders.
it is used in changing maladaptive behaviors.
The principles of behaviorism are used by parents with their children and by teachers in classrooms.
(O'Donnell 2012)
Definition of Constructivism.
Benefits of a Constructivist

concentrates on the learning and thinking process (Thirteenorg, 2015)
enables students to express knowledge in various ways.
takes into consideration cultural factors and past experiences (Learning-theoriescom, 2015)
gives student ownership of their learning.
students activley engage with their environment .
Learning-theoriescom.(2015). Learning Theories and Models Summaries(in Plain English). Retrieved 25 August, 2015, from http://learning-theories.com/constructivism.html.
O' Donnell, A.M. (2012). Educational Psychology (1st ed). Milton,Qld: John Wiley & Sons.
Slideshare. (Jan 17, 2014). Theories of Learning. Retrieved 3 September, 2015, from http://www.slideshare.net/santiniescolini/theoriesof-learning?related=3
Slidesharenet. (2015). Slidesharnet. Retrieved 3 September , 2015 from http://www.slideshare.net/Cardet1/powerpoint-presentation-1-overveiw-of-learning-theories
Thirteenorg. (2015). Thirteenorg. Retrieved 17 August, (2015), from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivisim/index.html
Trigg, S. (senoritasophs13). (2013, Feb 12). Constructivist Learning. (Video file). Retrieved from
UCD Dublin. (n.p). Education Theory. Retrieved 14 August, (2015).
Ucdoerie. (2015). Ucdoerie. Retrieved, 28 August, 2015, from http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/Education_Theory/Constructivism_and Social_Constructivism
Watson, J.B. (1924). Psychology: From the standpoint of a Behaviorist (2nd ed). Philadelphia, PA, US: JB Lippincott Company.com
Maslow, A ,H. (1934), Humanistic Theory of Learning, Univ. of Wisconsin
William E. Glassman, Marilyn Hadad (2002), Rogers' Humanistic Theory of Personality, Boundless
Elkind, D. (2012) Psychology, (Vol.3, No.6, 457-466), Retrieved from: SciRes (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/psych)
Shepard, A. (2000:4). Educational Researcher, (Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 4–14), retrieved from: https://www.ied.edu.hk)
Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Bubblews,. 'Interactionist Approach By @Murcielago'. N.p., 2013. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.Clay, M. (1966). Emergent reading behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Auckland University, Auckland.Connor, J. (2011).
The early years learning framework professional learning program: Becoming literate. EYLLFPLP e_Newsletter. [e-newsletter] Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/nqsplp/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/EYLFPLP_E-Newsletter_No18.pdf
Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR]. (2009). Belonging, being and becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Gillen, J. (2004).
The language of children. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.Hill, S. (2012). Developing early literacy: Assessment and teaching (2nd ed.). Melbourne VIC: Eleanor Curtain Publishing.Kearns, K. (2010). Frameworks for learning and development (2nd ed.). Sydney: Pearson.Lancy, D. (Ed.). (1994).
Children's emergent literacy from research to practice. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.Machado, J. M. (2013). Early childhood experience in language arts (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.Machado, J. M. ( 2013).
Growth system affecting early language ability. In Early childhood experience in language arts (10th ed., p. 582). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.McLeod, Saul. 'Zone Of Proximal Development - Scaffolding | Simply Psychology'. Simplypsychology.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.McLeod, Saul.
'Vygotsky | Simply Psychology'. Simplypsychology.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 12 Aug. 2015.Rhyner, P. M., Haebig, E. K., West, K. M. (2009).
‘Chapter one Understanding Frameworks for the Emergent Literacy Stage’, In Rhyner, P.M., Emergent Literacy and Language Development: Promoting Learning in Early Childhood, New York: Guilford Publications (p. 5-9).
Tony Campana 2011,
Retrieved from http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMwyfbPUstM
LEEPRYKE (2013), INSPIRATIONS, LOVE, PERSONAL THOUGHTS, Retrieved from: http://www.iamican.ca/the-story-in-your-head/
80 words
Humanism Definition

Abraham Maslow one of the founders of humanistic psychology and is best recognised for developing the theory of human motivation now known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow argued that each person has a hierarchy of needs that must be satisfied.http://www.biography.com/people/abraham-maslow-9401669

Carl Rogers was an American psychologist known for his influential psychotherapy method known as client-centered therapy. Rogers was one of the founding figures of humanistic psychology and widely regarded as one of the most eminent thinkers in psychology. http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_rogers.htm
Benefits of a Humanism
(Slidesharenet, 2015)
The Social Constructivist Theory states that it is social and biological aspects of a learner's development that stimulates language development.

In essence, children and learners make efforts to communicate from the time they are born through social interaction

Lev Vygotsky (1978) : Main tenet that a more experienced teaching partner can scaffold learning
Jean Piaget: Interaction with peers is critical to language developement
Jerome Bruner (1966): Through social experiences, children make a framework though which they interpret learning experiences.


To develop, children need to learn socially; collaboratively. Adults can help by the proximal zone of development.- scaffolding the bridge between the known and unknown to enable the process of learning. Through the increased interaction with other people in the environment, knowledge is increased.

Knowledge is not passive; it is learned actively- through social interaction. Children evolve and develop over time. There are specific learning stages that children go through. People create meaning through their interactions with each other and the objects in the environment.

Benefits of a Social Constructivism Pedagogy
Although the above learning theories have a different approach to how people learn, it is clear that they all play a vital role in how information is absorbed, processed and retained. Modern day teaching will argue that some of these approaches are restrictive, but the fact remains that some elements of these approaches will remain influential in the way we teach and learn. Each theory has its place and together they fill the gaps where others do not. They all have a position in the learning development spectrum and they all explain different maturation processes. By taking elements of each theory and incorporating them with individual experiences and existing skill, we ensure for a well-rounded and complete contribution to maturity and productive learning for all.

Children enjoy learning when actively involved in the process.

Social Constructivism promotes communication and collaboration in the classroom; skills that are vital to progress in development.

Social constructivism
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