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Swedish Immigrants in America
Transcript of Swedish Immigrants in America
Lack of available farmland
Mandatory military service
Religious, political, and societal freedom Swedish Immigrants
in America Factors for Immigration Scale and Scope
of Immigration Settlement Immigrant Life Education Bibliography “Aspiration, Acculturation, and Impact: Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930.” Harvard University Library Open Collections Program. http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/timeline.html (accessed February 10, 2013).
Blanck, Dag. “Swedish Immigration to North America.” Augustana College. http://www.augustana.edu/x14897.xml (accessed February 9, 2013).
Granquist, Mark A. “Swedish Americans.” Everyculture.com. http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Sr-Z/Swedish-Americans.html (accessed February 13, 2013).
Jenkins, Jeremiah W., and W. Jett Lauck. The Immigration Problem: A Study of American Immigration Conditions and Needs. 5th ed. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1992.
http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/3720467?n=5&printThumbnails=no (accessed February 11, 2013).
Kellog, Amy. “Sweden’s Immigration Debate.” FoxNews.com (October 28, 2011): page nr. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/10/28/swedens-immigration-debate/ (accessed February 9, 2013).
“Swedish Immigration.” Spartacus Educational. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEsweden.htm (accessed February 8, 2013).
Hans Mattson, Reminiscences: The Story of an Emigrant (1892)
http://www.genealogi.se/roots/about_sweden_and_emigration.htm (accessed February 8, 2013).
Johnson, F.W. "The Review." New Ulm Weekly Review, August 13, 1890. chroniclingamerica.loc.gov (accessed February 8, 2013). Sweden had nearly universal literacy
Immigrants embrace the public school system
Made private universities
Augustana College (Illinois)
Gustavus Adolphus College (Minnesota)
Bethany College (Kansas)
North Park College (Illinois)
Bethel College (St.Paul, Minnesota)
Swedish-American literary journals, books, etc. Peak Years were in the late nineteenth century
1887: 46,000 Swedish immigrants came to the US
1880s: 330,000 emigrants left Sweden for the US
1850-1930: emigrants comprise 20-25% of Swedish population
1910 census: 1.3 million total citizens of Swedish descent
665,000 of that 1.3 million were born in US Scale and Scope From 1851-1930
1.2 million Swedes immigrated to America
2 Significant waves of immigration
1868-1873: 100, 000 immigrants
1880-1893: 475,000 immigrants This is a nineteenth-century painting of a Swedish farmer saying goodbye to his friends and family before he goes to the United States. "We put our little emigrant trunk in father's old cart, and with many tears and the breaking of tender heart-strings we bade farewell to our brothers and sisters. Mother went with us as far as to the churchyard, so that we could say that she had followed us to the grave. When we were a little past the farm called Branslan, I turned to take a final look at our village, Norrback, and I felt as if my heart was being torn from my bosom. When we passed the dear old church, my soul was again stirred to its depths as I recalled that it was here I had been baptized and confirmed and had taken part in the worship, and now I would most likely never see it again."
-Hans Mattson, Reminiscences: The Story of an Emigrant (1892) Immigration Restrictions Emergency Quota Act (1921)
Immigration Act of 1924 Wax and Wane? Why did they Settle There? $$$ Who Was Affected and How Did They Respond? Sweden has the second largest foreign language press in the US
Fairly left political outlook
Assimilation - a (fairly) smooth ride
common linguistic base
WWI Politics Early 1800s - Swedes tend to be Democrats
Disagree about Slavery
Late 1800s - Swedes take active role in local politics. As a whole, almost entirely support Republicans.
1886- John Lind (MN) is the first Swedish-American elected to Congress. First Swedish-American Governor of Minnesota in 1898
Socialism gathers a minor following
Representative of beliefs
Rights of individual
Wary of big business + bureaucracy This anti-emigration poster was made in 1869. Preservation of Culture Swedish immigrants made and preserved their own culture
Playful rivalry with other immigrants from other Nordic countries
Summer Solstice/Midsummer's Day/Swede's Day - June 21
Picnics with ethnic food
Folk dancing/music, especially around the maypole
Traditional Costumes Employment Men worked on farms, in factories, and in mines
Well-liked for work ethic
High demand for Swedish women as maids. The New Ulm (Minnesota) Weekly Review pointed out a decrease of 9,000 Scandinavian immigrants into the US, opposite of the influx of over 50,000 immigrants from Eastern Europe and Italy in just one year. Then, they commented on the troubling nature of this shift, noting that the "quality of the immigration [was] really deteriorating" and suggesting restrictions on immigration from Congress. Religion Religion was hugely important to a large portion of the immigrants.
Most immigrated as members of the Church of Sweden - Lutheran
Some changed after arriving
Baptism, Methodism were especially popular
Augustana Synod, more religious but less orthodox group, becomes largest religious group in Swedish-America
Good assimilation Swedish Lutheran Church (1907)
Kearney, Buffalo County, Nebraska. Pictures http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons