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Elements of Drama

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Khristy Kielman

on 23 March 2016

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Transcript of Elements of Drama

that occurs especially in literature

an original model or pattern; prototype
literary device that employs the use of a famous concept, person or object to convey a wealth of meaning.
Elements of Drama
For OEU 2: Module A we will be looking at a variety of terms that will directly apply to Romeo and Juliet, Shakespearean Theater, as well as other plays. It is your responsibility to make sure you copy down the terms and check this prezi if you are absent. We will cover a term (or multiple terms) per class.
Tragedies focus around the classic tragic hero.
A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances.
Romeo Montague
Classic Tragic Hero
noble birth
audience feels pity & fear for the character
suffering has meaning
doomed from the start --fate?
one tragic flaw that brings about his downfall
Tragic Flaw
A character defect of the protagonist of a tragedy that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrow.

Romeo's impulsiveness is what brings about his downfall. It is an issue throughout the entire play which causes his suicide.
For examples on archetypes:
14 line poem
Comprised of...

1 Rhyming Couplet
line stanza
lines that rhyme
First Quatrain
Gives introductory information
Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
Second Quatrain
Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
elaborates on the details given in the first quatrain
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life;
Whole misadventured piteous overthrows
Do with their death bury their parents' strife.

Third Quatrain
introduces conflict & shifts the tone
The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love,
And the continuance of their parents' rage,
Which, but their children's end, nought could remove,
Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage;
Rhyming Couplet
concludes the sonnet
The which if you with patient ears attend,
What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend.

an actor’s speech, directed to the audience, that is not supposed to be heard by other actors on stage.
let the audience know what the character is about to do or what he or she is thinking
Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?

Aside to GREGORY
] Is the law of our side, if I say

The purpose of Sampson's aside to Gregory is to see the law would favor him if he admits to making the inciting gesture (biting his thumb).
A type of speech presented by a single character in order to tell what he or she is thinking.
...but how is this different than an aside?
for the audience
Even though the other characters are on stage, they don't hear the aside.
one character speaks to another at length
the conversation happens on stage and does not consider the audience even though the audience hears it through their performance
MERCUTIO: O, then I see Queen Mab hath been with you.
She is the fairies' midwife, and she comes
In shape no bigger than an agate stone
On the forefinger of an alderman,
Drawn with a team of little atomies
Over men's noses as they lie asleep;
Her wagon spokes made of long spinners' legs,
The cover, of the wings of grasshoppers;
Her traces, of the smallest spider web;
Her collars, of the moonshine's wat'ry beams;
Her whip, of cricket's bone; the lash, of film;
Her wagoner, a small grey-coated gnat,
Not half so big as a round little worm
Pricked from the lazy finger of a maid;
Her chariot is an empty hazelnut,
Made by the joiner squirrel or old grub,
Time out o' mind the fairies' coachmakers.
And in this state she gallops night by night

Through lovers' brains, and then they dream of love;
O'er courtiers' knees, that dream on curtsies straight;
O'er lawyers' fingers, who straight dream on fees;
O'er ladies' lips, who straight on kisses dream,
Which oft the angry Mab with blisters plagues,
Because their breaths with sweetmeats tainted are.
Sometimes she gallops o'er a courtier's nose,
And then dreams he of smelling out a suit;
And sometimes comes she with a tithe-pig's tail
Tickling a parson's nose as 'a lies asleep,
Then dreams he of another benefice.
Sometimes she driveth o'er a soldier's neck,
And then dreams he of cutting foreign throats,
Of breaches, ambuscadoes, Spanish blades,
Of healths five fathom deep; and then anon
Drums in his ear, at which he starts and wakes,
And being thus frighted, swears a prayer or two
And sleeps again. This is that very Mab
That plats the manes of horses in the night
And bakes the elflocks in foul sluttish hairs,
Which once untangled much misfortune bodes.
This is the hag, when maids lie on their backs,
That presses them and learns them first to bear,
Making them women of good carriage.
This is she!

a type of
spoken when the character is thought to be alone
is different than a
because a monologue is said (and expected to be heard) in the presence of the other characters in the play. Audience is not considered but still hears it through the actor's performance.
[JULIET appears above at a window]
But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
Who is already sick and pale with grief,
That thou her maid art far more fair than she:
Be not her maid, since she is envious;
Her vestal livery is but sick and green
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.
It is my lady, O, it is my love!
O, that she knew she were!

She speaks yet she says nothing: what of that?
Her eye discourses; I will answer it.
I am too bold, 'tis not to me she speaks:
Two of the fairest stars in all the heaven,
Having some business, do entreat her eyes
To twinkle in their spheres till they return.
What if her eyes were there, they in her head?
The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars,
As daylight doth a lamp; her eyes in heaven
Would through the airy region stream so bright
That birds would sing and think it were not night.
See, how she leans her cheek upon her hand!
O, that I were a glove upon that hand,
That I might touch that cheek!
Iambic Pentameter
type of meter
10 syllables in each line
five pairs of alternating stressed & unstressed syllables
basic rhythmic structure of a verse
Sounds like
ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM

Two HOUSE/holds BOTH/ aLIKE/in DIG/niTY
an example from the text
What's the point?
upper class characters will usually speak in iambic pentameter
lower class characters will speak in prose
Blank verse
is any verse comprised of unrhymed lines all in the same meter, usually iambic pentameter.
Example from the text
Hark! What light in yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun.'
...a reference
Put simply...
The reference can be real or imaginary and may refer to anything, including paintings, opera, folk lore, mythical figures, or religious manuscripts. The reference can be direct or may be inferred, and is usually well known.
broaden reader's understanding and add depth to the text
Blue Oyster Cult's Don't Fear the Reaper
All our times have come
Here, but now they're gone
Seasons don't fear the reaper
Nor do the wind, the sun or the rain
(We can be like they are)

Come on baby
(Don't fear the reaper)
Baby take my hand
(Don't fear the reaper)
We'll be able to fly
(Don't fear the reaper)
Baby I'm your man

La, la la, la la
La, la la, la la
Valentine is done
Here but now they're gone
Romeo and Juliet
Are together in eternity
(Romeo and Juliet)

40,000 men and women every day
(Like Romeo and Juliet)
40,000 men and women every day
(Redefine happiness)
Another 40,000 coming every day
(We can be like they are)
Come on baby
(Don't fear the reaper)
Baby take my hand
(Don't fear the reaper)
We'll be able to fly
(Don't fear the reaper)
Baby I'm your man

La, la la, la la
La, la la, la la

Love of two is one
Here but now they're gone

Came the last night of sadness
And it was clear she couldn't go on

Then the door was open and the wind appeared
The candles blew and then disappeared
The curtains flew and then he appeared
(Saying, "Don't be afraid")

Come on baby
(And she had no fear)
And she ran to him
(Then they started to fly)
They looked backward and said goodbye
(She had become like they are)
She had taken his hand
(She had become like they are)

Come on baby
(Don't fear the reaper)s
Allusions in R & J
Well, in that hit you miss: she'll not be hit
With Cupid's arrow; she hath Dian's wit;
And, in strong proof of chastity well arm'd,
From love's weak childish bow she lives unharm'd.
When Romeo talks about Rosaline...
Dian is the Roman goddess of chastity
Cupid is the Roman god of love
Act 1 Scene 1
Dramatic Irony
plot device in which the audience’s or reader’s knowledge of events or individuals surpasses that of the characters.

The words and actions of the characters therefore take on a different meaning for the audience or reader than they have for the play’s characters.
Examples from the text
Act 4, scene 5
- Juliet is found dead in her bed - they all think that she is dead
she is not dead:

"Lady, lady, lady!—
Alas, alas! Help, help! My lady's dead!"
Act 3, Scene 2
- the nurse weeps (for Tybalt), but at first she never openly states who she is weeping for. Juliet misinterprets her and thinks that Romeo has been killed. (it's actually Tybalt)

"Alack the day! He's gone, he's killed, he's dead!"
Act 3, Scene 5
- Lady Capulet thinks that Juliet is crying over Tybalt's death when she is actually crying over Romeo. "Evermore weeping for your cousin's death?" Juliet mixes her words in order for Lady Capulet to think that she is speaking badly of Romeo when actually she is proclaiming her love for him.

"Indeed, I never shall be satisfied With Romeo, till I behold him—dead—"
Full transcript