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Pedagogical Practice II - The Conceptual Basis of Second Language Teaching and Learning

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Adrian Contreras

on 31 July 2014

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Transcript of Pedagogical Practice II - The Conceptual Basis of Second Language Teaching and Learning

THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS
OF SECOND LANGUAGE
TEACHING AND LEARNING
david nunan
What is
education?
All cultures have their OWN concept of teaching, learning
and education
TRADITIONAL
MODEL
EXPERIENTIAL
MODEL
the function of education is
to create conditions where learners might generate their own skills and knowledge
education is the process whereby learners make their own meaning
the function of education is
the transmission of a body of facts
education is a matter of
making meaning for the learner
learners must reconstruct the skills and knowledge for themselves
learner's personal experiences are taken for deciding how to organize the learning process
Kohonen (1992)
experiential learning builds a bridge from the known to the new
Traditional Model
vs.
Experiential Model
Traditional
Model
Behaviorism
Transmission of
knowledge
Emphasis on teacher's authority
Frontal instruction

Passive recipient, individual work
Problem-solving

Static, hierarchical grading of subjects

Knowledge of facts, focus on content and product
Teacher-centered
Extrinsic
Product-oriented, achievement testing

Experiential
Model
Constructivism
Transformation of
knowledge
Teacher as learner among learners
Facilitator and collaborator
Active participator, collaborative work
Construction of personal knowledge
Dynamic, looser organization, integrative
Focus on process, learning, social and communicative skills
Learner-centered
Intrinsic
Process-oriented, reflection and
self-assessment




1. View of
learning
2. Power relation
3. Teacher's role
4. Learner's role
5. View of
knowledge
6. View of
curriculum

7. Learning
experience
8. Process
9. Motivation
10. Evaluation
Deductive!
Inductive!
the process of learning in which one begins with rules and principles and then applies the rules to particular examples and instances
the process by which the learner arrives at rules and principles by studying examples and instances
Communicative
Language Teaching

Learner-centered
Instruction

Task-based
Language Teaching

3
Learner-centered
education

describes a classroom in which learners are required to learn actively, through doing, rather than through focusing on the teacher
Key decisions
What?
When?
How?
Is the teacher's
role devalued
in a
learner-centered
system?

I hope
no!
The teacher´s role is enhanced in a learner-centered system
and the skills demanded of the teacher are also greater
Principles of Adult Learning
(formulated by Brundage & Macheracher)
Adults who value their own experience or whose experience is valued by others are better learners

Adults who are involved in developing learning objectives learn best.

Adults learn best when the contents and the learning process is relevant to them.

Adults learn best when the new information is presented through variations and repetitions.

The learner reacts to all experiences as he / she perceives it, not as the teacher presents it.

Adults do not learn when overstimulated or when experiencing extreme stress or anxiety.

NEGOTIATED
CURRICULA
Learners' contributions to
the learning process
Moving learners
along the
negotiation
continuum
Step : Make instruction goals clear to learners

Step Allow learners to create their own goals

Step : Raise awareness of learning processes

Step : Help learners identify their own preferred styles and strategies

Step : Encourage learner choice

Step : Allow learners to generate their own tasks
Task-Based
Language Teaching
Approach
point of departure
collection of
TASKS
TASKS




Pedagogical tasks
Target tasks or Real-World tasks
task
exercise
TASK
No linguistic outcome
'Listening to the weather forescast and decide what to wear'
EXERCISE
Linguistic outcome
'Responding to a party invitation'
Dimensions of task
Learning process
Language
Procedure
Learner
Principles of
task design
the authenticity
principle
the form-function
principle
Task-dependency
principle
View of
Knowledge
Evaluation
INDUCTIVE
Students participate actively
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