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Transcript of Russia
Revolutions of 1989 / Collapse of the USSR
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many prominent political figures disagreed on the direction of the nation.
September/October 1993 – President Boris Yeltsin dissolves parliament, calls for new elections and subsequent adoption of a new constitution.
Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by national referendum in December of 1993.
Constitution aimed to create a strong Presidential system, while also representing the diversity of parties/factions in Russia.
Creates a Federal Semi-Presidential Republic.
President of Russia is the Head of State.
Prime Minister is the “Chair” of Government.
Appointed by the President.
Politics and History
During the 90s in particular, there was tension between the executive and legislative branches.
Yeltsin came in with high expectations – however, upon leaving office had dismally low approval ratings as a consequence of corruption, economic collapse and socio-political issues.
Boris Yeltsin – President from 1991 to 1999.
Vladimir Putin – President from 1999 – 2000 (Finishing Yeltsin’s Term), then 2000-2008.
Dmitry Medvedev – President from 2008-2012.
Vladimir Putin – President from 2012 - …
The President is the Commander of Armed of Forces, has the ability to veto bills, assigns the Cabinet, appoints the Prime Minister, and generally has strong executive enforcement powers.
Bicameral legislative structure – State Duma (lower) and Federation Council (upper) – adopts laws, treaties and war declarations. Also has the “power of the purse.”
Constitutional Court and Supreme Court.
"Tandemocracy" or Tandem Rule
Vladimir Putin first finishes Yeltsin’s term, who resigned due to health reasons and approval ratings as low as 2%.
Putin therefore serves two consecutive 4-year terms according to the constitution.
During this time, his Prime Minister is Dmitry Medvedev, who runs and is publicly supported by Vladimir Putin in the 2008 Elections. Vladimir Putin is the PM for Medvedev.
Medvedev’s Presidency is referred to as Tandemocracy, or Tandem rule, given it is unclear the extent to which Putin held informal powers of the president.
Towards the end of Medvedev’s term, a constitutional law is passed extending the term of a president from four years to six.
Vladimir Putin runs in 2012 with Medvedev as his Prime Minister, and wins the election.
All of Putin’s elections have been met with allegations of corruption/vote-rigging/manipulation, particularly the 2000 and 2012 elections.
March 5th, 2015