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muscular and skeletal system


Kenneth San Juan

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of muscular and skeletal system

MUSCULAR SYSTEM The muscular system is a system of tissues - called muscles - throughout the body which allow you to move. Most of the muscles in the body are under conscious control and are moved by commands sent to the muscles from the brain via the nervous system. ◘ Stabilizing Joints ◘ Producing Movement ◘ Generating Heat ◘ Maintaining posture Functions of the Muscle Structure
Skeletal Muscle Classification
- Skeletal muscle are called voluntary muscles. - Large cylindrical cells with striations and several nuclei each- attached to bones, moves the skeleton and produce heat. - A form of striated muscle tissue existing under control of the somatic nervous system. Skeletal Muscle - Is found in the heart. It is striated muscle and involuntary like the smooth muscle.

- It is involved in the rhythmic beating and contractions of the heart. Cardiac Muscle - It is responsible for movements such as muscular action that moves food and waste along the digestive tract or the contraction and dilation of the pupil of the eye, as well as countless other movements of the senses and internal organs with the exception of the heart. - It is an involuntary non- striated muscle. Smooth Muscle Multi- Unit Smooth Muscle Single Unit (Unitary) It is divided into two sub- groups: - Groups of skeletal muscle fibers are called fascicles and then bound together by a tough connective tissue envelope called perimysium. - The highly specialized skeletal muscle cells are covered by a dilate connective tissue membrane called endomysium. Structure of Muscle Fascia


Prime mover


Fixators Organization
of Skeletal Muscle Muscular and Skeletal System Attachment of muscles Most muscles span at least one joint and attach to both articulating bones

Origin – attachment of a muscle to the bone, which does not move when contraction occurs
Insertion – attachment of a muscle to the bone that it moves when contraction occurs Attachment of Skeletal Muscle Muscle Attachment Most muscles act in groups and not alone—some contract while others relax

Agonist (prime mover) – used to describe a muscle or group of muscles that directly performs a specific movement. Example: biceps brachii is the prime mover in the flexion of the forearm.
Antagonists – muscles that, when contracting, directly oppose prime movers – they relax while the prime mover is contracting Muscle Actions Synergists – muscles that contract at the same time as the prime mover

Fixator muscles – generally function as joint stabilizers

Most muscles function not only as prime movers but also as antagonists, synergists, and fixators. A prime mover in a particular movement , such as flexion, may be an antagonist during extension Dimples and Cleft chins which are signs of attractiveness or sexual attractions are kinds facial muscle deformity. And it may be genetically be inherited. They are indentation in the flesh of the human body. Most notably in the cheeks or chins. Cool Trivia: HOW ARE MUSCLES ARE NAMED With muscles, however, it is common to use either Latin or the English version of the Latin name. For example, the deltoid muscle can be correctly called deltoideus (Latin) or deltoid (Latin-based English). You can see that they both come from the same original name, but they are not exactly the same word. In this edition, we have strived to keep with the English names only. Latin-based muscle names seem more logical and therefore easier to learn when one understands the reasons for the names. Many of the superficial muscles of the body are named using one or more of the following features. Location – many muscles are named as a result of location, the brachiates (arm) muscle and gluterus (buttock) muscles are example. Function – the function of a muscle is frequently a part of its name. The adductor muscle of the thigh adduct, or move, the leg toward the midline of the body. Shape – shape is a descriptive feature used for naming many muscles. The deltoid (triangular) muscle covering the shoulder is delta, or triangular, in shape. Direction of fibers – muscles may be named according to the orientation of their fibers. The term rectus means straight. The fibers of the rectus abdominis muscle run straight up and down and are parallel to each other. Number of heads or divisions – the number of divisions or heads (points of origin) may be used to name a muscle. The word part –cep means head. The biceps (two), tricep (three), and quadriceps (four) refer to a multiple heads, or points of origin. The biceps brachii is a muscle having two heads located in the arm. Points of attachment – origin and insertion points may be used to name a muscle. For example, the sternocleidomastoid has its origin on the sternum and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Size of muscle – the relative size of a muscle can be used to name a muscle. For example, the gluteus maximum is the largest muscle of the gluteal (Greek glautos, meaning “buttock” region. Nearby, there is a small gluteal muscle, gluteus minimus, and midsize gluteal muscle, gluteus medius. SKELETAL SYSTEM Is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Almost all the hard parts of human body are components of human skeletal system. Joints are very important because they make the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of movements at different locations. If the skeleton were without joints, no movement would have taken place and the significance of human body; no more than a stone. DIVISIONS OF SKELETON
- it is consists of all body elements that form the body’s control axis, including the skull, vertebral column & rib cage. The axial skeleton (80 bones) is formed by the vertebral column (26), the rib cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum), and the skull (22 bones and 7 associated bones). Axial Skelton Appendicular - it consists of the bones of the arms , wrists, hands, and shoulder girdle. This also includes the bones of the legs, feet and pelvic girdle. The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) is formed by the pectoral girdles (4), the upper limbs (60), the pelvic girdle (2), and the lower limbs (60). FUNCTIONS
bones tissues store several minerals, including calcium and phosphorus PRODUCTION OF BLOOD CELLS
the red bone marrow inside some larger bones blood cells produce MOVEMENT
skeletal muscles are attach to bones, therefore when the associated muscles contract they cause the bones to moves PROTECTION
protects the delicate part of the body SUPPORT
bones serve as framework of the body DEVELOPMENT
BONES The cells that participate in the maintenance and remodeling of bone include:

Osteocytes (bone cells) that maintain bone as a living tissue;
Osteoclasts (bone breakers) that destroy bone; and
Osteoblasts (bone builders) that form the supporting matrix of new bone.     intramembranous bones  - bones are always flat bones
endochondral bones - the long, short, and irregular bones.   There are two ways that bone can ossify during embryonic development. The intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. Development of bone
    Ossification is the term for the formation of bone.
Endochrononal Ossification

Development of the cartilage model: 
Growth of the cartilage model: 
Development of the primary ossification center:
Development of marrow cavity: 
Development of the secondary ossification center:
Formation of the articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate Intramembranous Ossification

Connecting tissues forms in sheets
Forming spongy bone
Periosterum accumulate in the edges of the spongy bone Major Types of Bones Cells 1.OsteoBlast (bone-forming cell)
Small cells
Synthesize and secrete a specialized organic matrix (osteroid)
Formed by cell division of the osteogenic stem cells found in the endosteum and lining of the Harvesian Canals Osteroid - an important part of the ground substance of the bone.
-Have Collagen fibrils line up
- Serve as a Framework for the deposition of calcium and phosphate (accumulation of mineralized bone) 2.Osteoclasts (bone-reabsorbing cells
-Giant multinuclear cells (active erosion of bone minerals)
-Formed by fusion of several precursor cells (i.e. Monocytes)
-Contain large numbers of Mitochondrion and Lysosomes
-Responsible for Bone Resorption (removes bone tissue by removing its mineralized matrix and breaking up the organic bone) 3.Osteocytes (mature bone cells)
-Mature non-dividing osteoblasts
-Surrounded by matrix
-Lie within Lacunae
-Networked to each other via long cytoplasmic extensions that occupy tiny canals called Canaliculi (used for exchange of nutrients and waste through gap junctions)
-Surrounded by ground substance and mineralized bone with numerous collagen fibers
-Maintains metabolism, and participates in nutrient/waste exchange via blood Osteoclast, with bone below it, showing typical distinguishing characteristics: a large cell with multiple nuclei and a "foamy" cytosol. Transverse Section Of Bone
All Bone surfaces are covered with a continuous layer of cells, which is composed of relatively large numbers of osteoblasts interspersed with a much smaller population of osteoclasts. TYPES OF BONES Bones serve different needs and functions in the body, and their sizes, shape and appearance will vary to meet those needs. Structurally, there are FOUR types bones: 1.Long Bones
- easily identified (extended longitudinal axes)
-Expanded and often uniquely shaped particular ends
•Femur (thigh)
•Humerus (arm) 2.Short Bones
-Often described as Cube or Box-shaped Structures
-About as broad as they are long
•Carpals (wrist)
•Tarsal (ankle) 3.Flat Bones
-Broad and thin with a flattened and often curved surface
-In some flat bones, cancellous bone spaces are filled with Red Marrow
•Skull (certain bones)
•Scapulae (Shoulder blades)
•Sternum (Breastbone) 4.Irregular Bones
-Clustered in groups and come in various sizes and shapes
•Vertebral bones (Spine and facial bones) 5.Sesamoid Bones
-Unique irregular bones which often appear SINGLY rather than in groups
-Generally found embedded in the substance of tendons close to joints
•Patella (Kneecap) Bone Tissue
Bone differ not only in size and shape but also in the amount and proportion of Two different types of Bone Tissue that comprise them.
1.Compact Bone
-Dense and solid in appearance
-Contains Cylinder-Shaped structural units (Osteons or Harvesian Systems)

Osteon or Harvesian Systems
-Surround a canal that runs lengthwise through the bone
-Living bone cells in theses units are literally cemented together (constitute the structural framework of compact bone)
-Permits delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products from metabolically active but imprisoned cells FOUR Types of Structures that make up each Osteon:
- concentric, cylinder-shaped layers of calcified matrix
- small spaces containing tissue fluid in which bone cells lie imprisoned between the hard layers of the Lamellae
- ultrasmall canal radiating in all directions from lacunae and connecting them to each other and into a larger canal, the Harvesian Canal
4.Harvesian Canal
- extends lengthwise through the center of each Harvesian system, short distance of about 0.1mm of less., contains:
-blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves from the Harvesian canal;
-nutrients and oxygen move through canaculi to the lacunae and their bone cells

Volksmann’s Canals
- connect the lengthwise-running Harvesian Canals
-communicating canals that contains nerves and vessels that carry blood and lymph from the exterior surface of the bone to the osteons 2.Cancellous or Spongy Bone
-Characterized by open space partially filled by an assemblage of needle-like structures
-no osteons but instead consists of Trabeculae (needle-like bony spicule) REPAIR OF BONE FRACTURE BONE FRACTURE GROWTH OF CARTILAGE Interstitial growth Appositional growth Myofilaments
Composed of myofilaments (contractile protein filaments) whose highly organized arrangement results in the striations observed in the single muscle fiber.
a) Thick filaments - The thick filament is composed of myosin. The projections from the myosin filament are called crossbridges. The crossbridge is believed to be a molecular motor that converts chemical energy into mechanical work.
b) Thin filaments - The thin filament is composed of actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. The cyclic attachment and detachment of myosin crossbridges to actin produces muscle active force and/or shortening. The troponin and tropomyosin comprise the calcium sensitive regulatory proteins. In the absence of intracellular calcium, the troponin/tropomyosin prevent the interaction of actin and myosin. Size, Shape and Fiber Arrangement of Skeletal Muscles Skeletal muscles vary considerably in size, shape, and arrangement of fibers. They range from extremely tiny strands such as the stapedium muscle of the middle ear to large masses such as the muscles of the thigh. Skeletal muscles may be made up of hundreds, or even thousands, of muscle fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective tissue covering. Each muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the epimysium. Fascia, connective tissue outside the epimysium, surrounds and separates the muscles. Portions of the epimysium project inward to divide the muscle into compartments. Each compartment contains a bundle of muscle fibers. Each bundle of muscle fiber is called a fasciculus and is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the perimysium. Within the fasciculus, each individual muscle cell, called a muscle fiber, is surrounded by connective tissue called the endomysium. Skeletal muscles have an abundant supply of blood vessels and nerves. Before a skeletal muscle fiber can contract, it has to receive an impulse from a neuron. Generally, an artery and at least one vein accompany each nerve that penetrates the epimysium of a skeletal muscle. Branches of the nerve and blood vessels follow the connective tissue components of the muscle of a nerve cell and with one or more minute blood vessels called capillaries . Mechanism of Muscle Contraction *Excitation of the Sarcolemma
= motor neurons
=neuromuscular junction
=excitation * Contraction or Sliding Filament Theory

=the sliding filament theory is the explanation for how muscles produce force (or, usually, shorten). It explains that the thick and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another, shortening the entire length of the sarcomere. In order to slide past one another, the myosin heads will interact with the actin filaments and, using ATP, bend to pull past the actin.

1.The influx of calcium, triggering the exposure of binding sites on actin

2. The binding of myosin to actin

3. The power stroke

4. The binding of ATP

5. The hydrolysis of ATP

6. The transport of calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum *Relaxation
= almost imeediately after the SR releases its food of calcium ions into the sarcoplasm, it begins actively pumping them back into its sac once again. PROTECTION
protects the delicate part of the body STORAGE OF MINERALS
bones tissues store several minerals, including calcium and phosphorus
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