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Chapter 6

ryan connors

on 12 May 2017

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Transcript of Memory

6.1 What are the three processes
of memory and the different models of how memory works?
Here are the Rules!
- You have 30 seconds to
memorize as many figures
as possible.

- You may not write down what you see.

- No partner memorization

- No cheating!
How did you do?
- Research shows that the average
young adult (18-24) cannot memorize
more than 9 items in the time frame

- Did you memorize more than 9?

- How did you do it?
What is Memory?
an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.
Three Memory Processes (ESR)

Putting It In: Encoding (E)
the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information (sight, sound, etc.) to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems.
Keeping It In: Storage (S)
Holding on to the information for some period of time. Depending on the stage of memory this could be 20 seconds, or more or less permanently.
Getting it Out: Retrieval (R)
Getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used. Ex. hand in a test and remember things after.
6.1 The Information-Processing Model: Three Stages of Memory
Information-Processing Model
model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages.
the brief memory of something a person just heard.
Ex. The "What" phenomenon.

Echoic memory's capacity is limited to what can be heard at any one moment and is smaller than the capacity of iconic memory, although it lasts longer about 2-4 seconds.

Echoic memory is very useful when a person wants to have meaningful conversations with others. It allows you to hold onto info long enough to process it and respond to it.
Short term memory tends to be encoded in auditory (sound) form. People tend to "talk" inside their own heads. Some images are also stored in STM in a kind of "visual sketchpad"
Long Term Memory(LTM)

6.4 How is long-term memory different from other types of memory?
6.2 How does Sensory Memory work?
Two kinds of sensory memory

LTM is the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently. LTM capacity is unlimited. Maintenance Rehearsal will eventually make the memories long-term but we have to go through the same steps to retrieve that memory.

Elaborative Rehearsal
is a method of transferring information from STM into LTM making that information meaningful in some way. Its all about MAKING CONNECTIONS to something that is meaningful, e.g., maison = mason. The more deeply you process or attend to something the better you can remember it at a later date. It really is important to listen and participate in class.

Mneumonics help as well. SOH CAH TOA
Culture and Long-Term Memory
6.6 Can culture influence what gets encoded into long term memory?

Studies have shown that culture affects the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information in long-term memory. Wager and Cohen (2003) found that European Canadians were faster to recognize individual traits but slower to recognize collective traits than Asian Canadians. Brain-imaging has also shown different patterns of brain activation on memory recall tasks.
Types of Long-Term Information

6.5 How is information organized that is stored in long-term memory?
Research suggests that long-term memory is organized in terms of related meanings and concepts.

Collins and Quillan (1969) developed the
semantic network model
, which assumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related.
6.9 Other Models of Memory
Levels of Processing Model
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)Model
A model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections. (McClelland& Rumelhart, 1988). This process enables people to retrieve many different aspects of a memory all at once.
Getting it Out:Retrieval of Long-Term Memories
6.6 What kinds of cues help
people remember?
Recognition isn't foolproof. A
false positive
occurs when a person thinks that he or she has recognized something or someone but in fact does not have that something or someone in memory. Individuals continually update and revise their memories and they incorporate information gained after the actual event. 25% of wrongful convictions involve faulty eyewitness testimony.
What role does memory play in the classroom and studying?
Wrongfully Convicted
6.7 How reliable are
our memories of events?
Chapter 6

Model of memory that assumes information that is more "deeply processed," or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time. Craik & Tulving 1975
Memory Test
Read the list of related words.
After 30 seconds, write down all
the words you can remember.
stories pencil paper
ocean folder stapler
school pages eraser
pen binder study
How did
you do?
Concept Quiz!
What are the three signs that show
that you retained a memory?
What are the three steps of information
processing and retention?
What are some strategies
for effortful processing?
What is working memory?
What are some factors that influence memory processing?

in the Classroom
Studies show that there are ways to improve student performance in the classroom.
Students who actively participate in class and take notes, do significantly better in the class than their peers who do not do the same.
Recall, Recognition, and Relearning
Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval
Chunking, Mnemonics, Hierarchies, Distributed Practice
The active processing of short-term memories
to form it into a long-term memory.
without working memory, short-term
memories do not last long.
Emotions, Synaptic Changes, Sleep, Stress

We cannot retain
information unless
we put priority on it!

taking notes and rehearsing
the information every day after every class.
Sensory memory is the first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems - eyes, ears, and so on.

Information is encoded into sensory memory as neural messages in the nervous system. Ex. double takes are the formation of a brief memory.
Iconic Sensory Memory (Visual)
Echoic Sensory Memory (Auditory)
Icon is the greek word for "image". This is a visual sensory memory lasting only a quarter of a second. The capacity is everything that can be seen at one time.

Eidetic Imagery
(aka Photographic Memory)- is the ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more.

The function of Iconic Memory is to help the visual system view surroundings as continuous and stable in spite of saccadic movements.
6.3 What is short-term memory, and how does it differ from working memory?
Information moves from sensory memory to the next stage of memory called short-term memory through the process of
selective attention
, or the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.

This is responsible for the "cocktail party effect" where you're at a party with lots of noise and conversations going on, and you are still able to hear your name called across the room.
Short-term memory (STM)
is the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.
6.5 What are the different types of long-term memory?
Long-term memories include general facts and knowledge, personal facts, and even skills that can be performed. Long term memory falls into at least two categories:
Type of long-term memory that includes memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behaviour.
Examples: Tying shoelaces, and riding a bicycle.
Procedural (Non-declarative) Memory
Procedural memory is often called
implicit memory
because memories for these skills, habits, and learned reflexes are not easily retrieved into conscious awareness.
Declarative LTM
Type of long term memory containing information that is conscious and known.
Examples: planets of the solar system, the definition of a noun, etc.

Two types of declarative memory include:
Semantic memory
: type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education.
Episodic memory
: type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events.

Episodic and Semantic memories are forms of
explicit memory
, memories that are easily made conscious and brought from long-term storage into short-term memory.
Long-Term Memory Organization
Analogous to the internet.
Maintenance rehearsal doesn't get info into LTM as it gives only one kind of
retrieval cue
(a stimulus for remembering). When people try to remember a piece of information by thinking of what it means and how it fits in with what they already know. The more cues stored the easier the recall of the information will be.

Encoding Specificity

tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved. e.g., Walk into a room and forget why you are there, go back and start again.

State-Dependent Learning
Memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state. e.g., When fighting with someone it is easier to remember all the bad things that person has done rather than the good things.
6.7 How do recall and
recognition differ?
Memories are retrieved with few or no external cues, such as filling in the blanks in an application form. Examples: essay questions, short answer, fill in the blank tests.

Retrieval Failure: Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
Whenever people find themselves struggling for an answer, recall has failed. If the answer seems so very close to the surface of conscious thought that it feels like its "on the tip of the tongue"
Forget about it!!

The Serial Position Effect
Information at the beginning and the end of a list, such as a poem or song, tends to be remembered more easily and accurately.

Primacy Effect
- Words at the very beginning of the list tend to be remembered better than those in the middle of the list. This is due to the fact that the listener has nothing already in STM to interfere, and words will receive far more rehearsal time.

Recency Effect

Words at the end of the list tend to be remembered better as they were just heard and are still in STM for easy retrieval.

Tell me the names of all the Canadian prime ministers.
The ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact.

Recognition is usually much easier than recall because the cue is the actual object, word, sound, and so on that one is simply trying to detect as familiar and known.

Examples of tests that use recognition are multiple choice, matching, and true-false tests. The answer is right there and simply has to be matched to the information already in memory.

Recognition tends to be accurate for images, especially human faces which may explain why many people are good at recognizing a person's face but not at remembering the name that goes with the face.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/tmt/test_1.shtml?x=57&y=8 (Face Memory Test)
Short term memory is a "working memory" and is a very active system that processes the information it contains at any given moment. e.g., files on a desk analogy.
Capacity: The magical number seven

George Miller used a memory test called a digit span test to measure how much information humans can hold in short-term memory at any one time.
The capacity of STM is about seven items or pieces of information, plus or minus two items.
7 +/- 2
Automatic Encoding: Flashbulb Memories
6.7 What is a flashbulb memory?
Automatic encoding
is the tendency to encode certain kinds of information into long-term memory with little to no effect. (Unconsciously noticing things)
Flashbulb Encoding
is a type of automatic encoding that occurs a very strong emotional event occurs for someone. For example, what you were doing the day 9/11 happened? What were you doing the day of the Boston Marathon bombing?

- Emotional reactions stimulate the release of hormones shown to enhance long term memory
6.8 How are Long Term Memories Formed and can this process lead to inaccuracies in memory?
Every memory is a blend of knowledge and inference. Remembering is a problem solving activity, where the problem is to give a coherent account of some past event, and the memory is the solution to that problem.
As new memories are created in LTM, old memories can get "lost", but they are more likely to be changed or altered in some way.
Constructive Processing:
memories are literally "built" from the pieces stored away at encoding. Each time a memory is retrieved, it may be altered or revised in some way to include new information or to exclude some information.
Hindsight Bias:

tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted an outcome without having been told about it in advance.
The Misinformation Effect

Misinformation effect- tendency for misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself. This is why eye-witnesses to crimes are isolated after the crime until they can be interviewed.

Examples: You hear a joke and then someone tells you that one part of the joke is different but you re-tell the joke that way next time, even if it's wrong. Or, you hear someone sing incorrect song lyrics, and you start singing it that way in place of the right lyrics.
6.10 Why do we forget?
6.17- How can implementation of false memories be used beneficially?

~Dr.Daniel Bernstein researched and focused his studies on the health benefits of false memory.

~Bernstein performed an experiment where participants took a questionnaire about past eating and drinking experiences and were told a computer analyzed their results. The computer made a personal profile for everyone except all of them said they said they had a past sickness induced by rum. People were then asked to explain this event which in result caused 30-40% of participants to believe is actually happened. Causing the participants rating towards rum to decrease.
Herman Ebbinghaus was one of the first researchers to study forgetting. He memorized a list , waited a specific amount of time, and then tried to retrieve the list graphing his results each time. The
curve of forgetting
is a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually.

People forget things for several reasons.

One of the simplest is that some things never get encoded in the first place.
Encoding Failure
is the failure to process information into memory. Example: Your friend says something to you on his/her way out the door, you don't selectively attend to what was said so it never gets past the sensory memory stage.

Memory trace decay theory
assumes the presence of a physical memory trace (physical change in the brain, perhaps in neuron or activity between neurons) decays with disuse over time.

Interference Theory
A possible explanation of LTM forgetting is that these memories may not always be accessible to attempted retrieval because other information interferes. Even memories that are accessible are subject to constructive processing, which can lead to inaccurate recall. A great deal of research indicates that interference is the key process in forgetting.

Proactive Interference
- memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information.

Retroactive Interference
- memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information.
A way to fool STM into holding more information than the magic number allows. If bits of information are combined into meaningful units, or chunks, more information can be held in STM.
Examples include: Television networks TSN, CBC, or social insurance numbers, credit card numbers (chunk in groups of three)
Why do they call it short term?
Research has shown that STM lasts from about 12-30 seconds without rehearsal. After that, the memory seems to rapidly "decay" or disappear. Need to REPEAT TO REMEMBER.

Maintenance Rehearsal
- practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one's head to maintain it in short-term memory.

With this type of rehearsal, info will stay in STM until rehearsal stops, or it is interfered with. Try to associate the information with something more meaningful to move it to LTM.
6.9 What is False Memory Syndrome?
6.11- How and where are memories formed on the brain?
6.12 How does amnesia occur?
6.13 What are the facts about Alzheimer's Disease

Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease usually begin with changes in memory, which may be rather mild at first but become more severe over time, causing the person to become more and more forgetful about everyday tasks. Eventually, more dangerous forgetting occurs. i.e. forgetting to turn off the stove.

The primary memory difficulty in Alzheimer's is anterograde amnesia, although retrograde amnesia can also occur as the disease progresses.

There are various drugs in use or in development for use in slowing or stopping the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

The new guidelines will change the criteria so that advanced brain imaging techniques and different processes, such as examining spinal fluid, will be used to detect early stages of the disease.

Early detection will make possible the testing of new preventative vaccines or even treatments that can be used on fully affected patients. In addition, other pharmacological treatments that can be administered in the early stages of the disease to reduce symptoms can also be tested.
False memory syndrome
The creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis.
- Research has shown that although hypnosis may make it easier to recall some real memories, it also makes it easier to recall false memories (also increasing the amount of confidence people have in their memory regardless of whether those memories are real or false).
- Recent evidence shows that false memories are created in the brain in much the same way as real memories are formed.
-Using MRI scans, peoples brain activity was monitored when looking at a real visual image and again when asked to imagine the visual image they had just seen. It was found that people were often unable to later distinguish between the real and the imagined image.
- People are able to remember details of traumatic events over time in much more accuracy than remembering details of positive events. (ex. where were you on 9/11 ?)
- Some implausible false memories have successfully been implanted as real memories. These events could be made more plausible by receiving false feedback.
retrograde amnesia
, memory for the past (prior to the injury) is lost, which can be a loss of only minutes or a loss of several years.

ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) can disrupt consolidation and cause retrograde amnesia.

anterograde amnesia
, memory for anything new becomes impossible, although old memories may still be retrievable.

Most people cannot remember events that occur before age 2 or 3. This is called
infantile amnesia
and is most likely due to the implicit nature of infant memory.

As children are able to talk about shared memories with adults, they begin to develop their
autobiographical memory
or the events and facts related to one's personal life story.
Different memories are stored in different parts of the brain.

Procedural memories appear to be stored in the cerebellum.

Both short-term memories and long-term memories are stored in the frontal and temporal lobes, but not in exactly the same places nor in the same location.

Memories relating to fear are stored in the amygdala.

Consolidation consists of physical changes in neurons that take place during the formation of a memory.

The hippocampus appears to be responsible for the storage of new long-term memories. If it is removed, the ability to store anything new is completely lost.
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