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Jamie Lesher

on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of Autism

What is Autism?
Autism spectrum disorder(ASD) is a common, early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by devastating difficulties in social interactions, communication, and repetitive or restricted interests and behaviors.
"We'll Get by(The Autism Song)" by Jason Orr Band
Presented by Jamie Lesher
What causes Autism?
General Challenges for an ASD Individual

Difficulty with transitions and change in routines
Understanding non-verbal forms of communication
Facial expressions, body language
Poor eye contact/conversation skills
Understanding unstated rules or expectations
Concrete style of thinking
Unaware of how their behavior affects others
Self advocacy
Making friends, setting boundaries
1. Bennett, R., Cordeaux, C., Eilbott, J., Feldman, R., Gordon, I., Leckman, J…Wyk, B. (2013, December 24).
Oxytocin enhances brain function in children with autism
. Social Sciences: Phychological and Cognitive Sciences, 110(52), 20953-20958.doi:10.1073/pnas.1312857110

Although no definitive facts have been found, research has revealed greater risk for the following:
1. Environmental (in-utero included) & Genetic
Influences(abnormalities within one or multiple neural systems)
2. Vaccinations
3. Advanced parental age
4. Children of recent immigrants
5. Living close to a freeway
6. Pesticide exposure
7. Infections during pregnancy
8. Medically related exposure
9. Certain air pollutants
"Is a "spectrum disorder" that affects individuals differently and to varying degrees."

Physiological Interventions
1. Medical Treatment
-help manage attention, arousal,
aggression, and self-injury
2. Diets
-theory that opiate peptides(gluten &
casein) digested are passed through stomach and travel to parts of the body, including the brain.
3. Sensory Activities
hyper- and hypo-sensitivity to environmental stimuli are common
Autism Prevalence
Effective intervention strategies to support inclusion:
1. Priming, or prepracticing
For example, if a child is having difficulties
during circle activities where the teacher is reading the class a story,
each day’s story could be read to the child individually before the child
experiences the story in the presence of the entire class. It
links individual instruction to larger classroom group activities
2. Prompt Delivery
When teaching children with autism, in order to elicit an appropriate response in a targeted academic or behavioral activity, one must provide prompts that supplement the general instructional routine.
3. Picture Schedules
-Picture schedules can serve as effective cues
alerting students with autism to upcoming
changes in activities
4. Delayed Contingencies
-Provide unpredictable supervised schedule and levels of on-task behavior and productivity were significantly higher during periods of no supervision than when a predictable schedule of supervision was in place.
5. Self-Management Strategies
-Consists of teaching the student to (a) discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate behaviors, (b) evaluate her or his own behavior, (c) monitor her or his behavior over time, and (d) reinforce her or his behavior when prespecified criteria are met.
6. Peer Mediated Interventions
-Peer tutoring: consists of pairing two students together to work on any instructional strategy, with one student providing assistance, instruction, and feedback to the other
-Utilize Peer Supports: teachers prompt and reinforce social
initiations made by identified peer supports
-Cooperative learning: teaching social and academic skills to children with autism and their nonhandicapped peers in cooperative groups in integrated settings results in increased frequency, duration, and quality of social interactions
2. Dunlap, G. & Harrower, J. (2001).
Including children with autism in general classrooms: a review of effective strategies.
Behavior Modification, 25(5), 762-784. 10.1177/0145445501255006
1. Define Autism
2. Identify the general challenges for individuals with ASD
3. Identify the physiological interventions availabe to individuals with ASD
5. Indicate the four sensory processing responses of children with ASD and how to address their needs in the classroom
4. Identify the effective intervention strategies that can be incorporated into the classroom
The Role of the Teacher
1. Recognize differences
2. Interrogate the Use of Labels:
3. Reconfigure expertise
4. Perserve student dignity
5. Look for complexity in learners
6. Serve as an advocate and teach
7. Act as teacher and learner
8. Listen
9. Practice subversive pedagogy(ask questions
if something doesn't seem right)
For example: some individuals with autism appear to welcome touch, while others find it painful. Some students crave interaction and social situations, while others need more space and time alone. Some are extremely talkative, while others cannot use speech reliably. It is critical to remember that students with autism vary widely in experiences, skills, abilities, interests, characteristics, gifts, talents, and needs. If you know one person with autism, you know ONE person with autism.
Quick Check:
1. What does ASD stand for?
2. Individuals with ASD struggle with transition. True or false
3. All ASD individuals love to give hugs. True or false.
1. Define Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD)
Effective intervention strategies to support inclusion:
Effective intervention strategies to support inclusion:
Audience: Staff
at CW West

3. Hall, L. (2013).
Autism spectrum disorders from theory to practice
. (2nd Ed.) New York, NY: Pearson.
4. Kluth, P. (2003).
"You're going to love this kid!" teaching students with autism in the inclusive classroom
. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
5. Raisor, J. & Thompson, S. (2013).
Meeting the sensory needs of young children.
Young Children. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/yc/files/yc/file/201305/Meeting_Sensory_Needs_Thompson_0513.pdf.
Children’s Sensory Processing Responses
Sensory Processing Pattern
Common Characteristics
Low Registration
Does not actively seek out experiences to meet sensory needs

-Shows little interest in surroundings
-Rarely participates, especially when there is a lot of activity
-Requires extra motivation

Sensory sensitivity
Does not actively change environment; reaction to overstimulation might not be immediate

-Is easily startled by noises, visual stimulation, touch, movement
-Protests about things like a tag on a shirt, trying new foods, loud noises
-Is easily distracted by the environment, even minor changes

Sensation seeking
Engages in behaviors to meet high neurological threshold

-Fidgets a great deal
-Is active and excitable
-Seeks out sensory experiences: visual, auditory, tactile, and vestibular stimulation

Sensation avoiding
Engages in behaviors to avoid overstimulation due to low neurological threshold

-Is very sensitive stimuli
-Clings to routines; has difficulty with transitions and changes
-Has difficulty engaging in novel experiences

Classroom Suggestions to Address Sensory Processing Differences
1. Low Registration:
- keep children alert by letting them know that adults are near by
- making eye contact when talking to children, and wait for their responses after asking a question
- vary your voice level and facial expressions to help these children
- encourage children to work in groups. They may need extra encouragement to socialize
- use a variety of activities to keep active in the classroom
- have these children sit in the middle of the classroom, which offers more stimulation to help them focus
-provide many activities and experiences that require movement, have children leapfrog to the door and skip to the bathroom
2. Sensory Sensitivity
-Monitor your volume and speed of talking and your activity level
-Avoid strong scents, such as perfumes, lotions, and room sprays
-Maintain predictable routines
-Provide short breaks, such as using the bathroom, stretching, or going to the library, to help prevent sensory overload
-Provide a quiet area for children to go to when they start feeling overwhelmed. Make sure an adult can supervise this area.
-Place these children at the beginning or the end of the line to maintain a predictable routine
-Discuss ways for children to communicate their needs and distress
-Avoid touching these children. For example, use verbal reinforcement for positive behavior rather than a pat on the back
-Help prepare children for transitions, such as clean up time
Classroom Suggestions to Address Sensory Processing Differences
Classroom Suggestions to Address Sensory Processing Differences
3. Sensation seeking
-Give children active jobs, such as taking notes to the office, erasing the board, and helping arrange the desks
-Encourage friendships with peers who are physically active and can help direct these children's energy into a purposeful activities
-Let children stand, move, and pace around in the classroom. Have them sit on exercise ball while doing work at their desks
-Let children use a fiddle toy during activities that do not provide a lot of sensory input
-Use lots of kinesthetic and hands on activities
-Have children sit in the back of the classroom to provide them with lots of visual stimulation and decrease the likelihood that they will distract their peers
-Use positive behavior interventions. For example, redirect children by having them go around the room and help organize materials
Classroom Suggestions to Address Sensory Processing Differences
4. Sensation avoiding

-Monitor your voice and your activity level to avoid overwhelming them
-Maintain predictable routines
-Post an overview of the day's schedule to let children know what to expect
-Give children time and space to recover when they feel overwhelmed
-If children work in groups, place these children with a small number of peers
-When moving toward these children, approach them from the front instead of from behind to avoid startling them
-Keep the classroom as calm and organized as possible. Bright colors or lots of objects on the walls are distracting to these children
-Provide many opportunities for children to make simple choices. This helps them feel in control.
Quick Check:
Turn to a friend and discuss the follow quesitons:
1. Why would parents try the physiological interventions?
2. What intervention strategies shown do you currently use in your classroom? Would you use any of the suggested given?
3. Discuss any interventions that were not mention that you use in the classroom.
Be prepared to discuss as a large group!
-In the 1940's, 4-5 cases of Autism per 10,000 people
-Mid-1990's, 10 cases of Autism per 10,000 people
-In 2009, Autism spectrum disorders in the United States, or the number of cases identified, to be 1 in 110
-Research indicates that regression, or loss of skills such as use of language, occurs in 1 in 4 children diagnosed with ASD and is associated with more severe symptoms
-More boys than girls are classified with ASD, with the ration of approximately 4 or 5 boys to 1 girl.
What a tribute to the parents and individuals with autism spectrum disorder.
Reflect on the words to this song...words like prison, heal me, cry, and get by are all said during the song.
6. We'll Get By (The Autism Song) [Video File}. Retrieved fromhttp://youtu.be/cBOSr7JK8OA
7. Autism related images. www. google.com(pictures)
Quick Check
1. Did any student come to mind when looking at children's sensory processing needs?

2. If so, what strategies could you use to decrease stimuli?

3. If a student did not come to mind, what strategies could you use in your classroom in the future for a student who has low registration?
Discuss as a grade level or group of specialists. Come up with 3 strategies per child whom you were thinking of. Be ready to share but we will keep names confidential.
Individually answer each question on the paper provided.
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