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Transcript of William Shakespeare!
Inner stage found in the back of the main stage (double entrances and a stairway to the upper level balcony, called "the Heavens")
Trap door below the main stage
Retractable roof, which opened to the sky
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
Member of Rome's First Triumvirate - ruling government body of three individuals
Pompey Magnus (the main leader)
The Death of Julius Caesar
Marcus Antonius - Mark Antony
Calphurnia: Wife of Caesar
-Has terrible dream of Caesar
Statue of Caesar bleeds
Romans bathe in his blood
-Caesar ignores her plea not to leave the house on the Ides of March!
First agrees, but is convinced by the conspiracy!
Portia - wife of Brutus
Loyal to her husband, but stresses over his well-being
Shows Brutus a self-inflicted wound to prove her devotion to Brutus
Considered to be Rome's greatest leader
Soldier, strategist, military leader
Politician, representative of the people
Caesar was considered a god after overthrowing Pompey (his friend and superior)
Pompey supposedly married Caesar's daughter!
Did more good for the people than the Senators realized
Ancient Roman culture: Violent, war-like
Leader had to be a servant of the people (Caesar fit that very well!)
The Betrayal of the Senate:
Caesar is led by the conspirators to the Capitol to address legal matters
Marc Antony is detained to prevent him from rescuing Caesar
During his final speech, each senator stabs him
It is believed the last one to stab him was Brutus (
Et tu, Brute?
Supporter of Julius Caesar
Popular with the people
Celebrity among the Romans
Cassius actually fears him and thinks he should be killed as well! (Brutus disagrees and allows him to live)
Will become a member of Rome's 2nd Triumvirate
Caesar Octavian Augustus
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
Will become another of Rome's greatest leaders
Has important relationship with Cleopatra of Egypt (that's another play!)
Then fall Caesar
Ironically, Caesar dies at the foot of Pompey's statue, whom he overthrew
Brutus orders the senators to wipe Caesar's blood on their hands to show the people how proud they are for killing--Calphurnia's dream came true!
A loose end? Mark Antony remains alive (and true to Caesar)
Plots to turn the tides on the senators
Well-respected in the Senate and with the citizens of Rome.
Loyal and honorable, but is easily swayed (even manipulated).
Wishes to do what is best for Rome.
Organizes the conspiracy
Rescued Caesar from drowning when they were younger
Caesar rises to power, but Cassius remains in the Senate
Despises Caesar for all his success
Ghost of Caesar:
Appears to Brutus during his exile
Claims he will see Brutus at the Battle of Philippi
Symbolizes the guilt Brutus feels after what he did to Caesar
What does this foreshadow?
Cassius' plan (Defense)
Remain where they are
Let Antony's armies tire and use their resources
Brutus' plan (Offense)
Intercept Antony at Philippi
Surprise attack before Antony has a chance to rest/regroup!
The Battle at Philippi
14 years old
Only daughter of the Capulet House
"Looking to like", but not desperate for love
Juliet's caretaker and confidante
Considered to be uneducated / ignorant
Cares very deeply for Juliet - will do anything for her
The "Prince of Cats"
Hates the Montague family
Thrives on the family fued
Loves to duel (and is very good at it!)
Paris, the Count
Waiting in the wings for Juliet's hand
Handles the situation more traditionally
Speaks with Juliet's father
Has no real connection with Juliet
The Prologue foreshadows all that will occur in the story
Sets the background of the feud
Montague vs. Capulet
Sets the place
Indicates what happens in the play
Two lovers take their lives and end the feud between their families.
The Soothsayer: A blind prophet (of course, he is!)
Gives Caesar a warning:
"Beware the Ides of March!"
Caesar ignores the warning--thinks the old man is crazy! :-(
Conflict of Words: Brutus vs. Antony
Building the Conspiracy
What is the most important relationship (connection) that a person must build?
Biography: What we know...
Born April 23rd (?), 1564 (baptized April 26th) at Stratford-upon-Avon
Son of John Shakespeare - local merchant and shopkeeper (considered to be of higher status)
Attended grammar school, but no further formal education
Considered to be a literary genius!
Poetic & Dramatic Terms
Couplet: 2 consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme
Blank Verse: Unrhymed iambic pentameter
Note--Many of the nobility characters (lords, kings, queens, etc.) spoke this way. It was considered more eloquent / proper. Commoners spoke in
Iambic Meter: Pattern of unstressed/stressed syllables
Pentameter: 5 sets of iambic meter
Note--Shakespeare standardized this method of writing which matched the natural sound of English.
Imagery: language that appeals to the senses
Metaphor: comparison that does not use "like" or "as"
Personification: an inanimate or non-human object is characterized with human qualities
Pun: Play on words (using the double meaning of a word for humor)
Quatrain: a set / stanza comprised of 4 lines
Simile: comparison using "like" or "as"
Symbolism: the use symbols, items that represent ideas or elements of a story
Sonnet: 14 line poem = 3 quatrains + 1 couplet
Divided in two parts
Part 1: The problem
Part 2: The "Turn" = The solution (usually it's at the couplet)
End-stopped line: Has punctuation at the end of the line
Run-on line: Does not have punctuation at the end of the line.
Archaic language: Language that is no longer common
: soon; right away
: Good evening (said in the late afternoon)
: common fellow
: unmarried girl
: listen to
: "By the Virgin Mary"
: trivial; foolish
: confession of sins to be forgiven by priest
: quiet; hush
: with that
Married Anne Hathaway in 1582 (8 years older than he)
3 children: Susanna, Judith and Hamnet
1585-1592: Not much is known about his history / whereabouts
1592: He was already an established actor/ businessman / playwright
Died April 23rd, 1616 (at age 52)
Buried at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford
Archaic language: Language that is no longer common
: call to arms
: from time to time
: more (in terms of number/amount)
: pray thee (beg thee)
: small amount
: truth; factual detail
Advisor to Romeo
Helps with love problems (Rosaline)
Wants the Montague/Capulet feud to end
Servant of Romeo
Messenger / Ward
Romeo's best friend
Discovers Romeo's heartbreak
Will defend Romeo, but wants peace (foil to Tybalt)
relative of Prince Escalus
Fun-loving, carefree, entertaining (foil to Romeo, who is more serious)
Famous "Queen Mab" speech:
Discusses how ridiculous dreams of love can be
Makes fun of those who fall in love--people can be hurt by love.
Lord and Lady Montague
Parents of Romeo
Notice that he seems depressed
Lord Montague continues the feud
Lady Montague prevents him from getting in trouble.
16 years old
Only son of Montague family
Wants to fall in love
Fell in love with Rosaline, who broke his heart by entering a convent.
Most plays were performed during the day--for lighting effects (curtains and blinds could control the amount of light).
Actors were male (women roles played by younger boys)
Sets / props were mostly indicated in the script and imagined by the audience! (Ex: "We're in this lovely forest!")
Sounds effects, musicians, small lights/candles and cranes were used (but these also led to the first burning of the Globe, so Shakespeare made changes to special effects).
1594 - Performance Company: Charter member of
Lord Chamberlain's Men
, which became the
(sponsored by King James) in 1603
Published 154 sonnets and 37 plays: Histories, Comedies, Romances, Tragedies
Masterpieces include Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Henry V, and Macbeth
Today's Globe Theatre!
Founded by the pioneering American actor and director Sam Wanamaker, Shakespeare's Globe is a unique international resource dedicated to the exploration of Shakespeare's work and the playhouse for which he wrote, through the connected means of performance and education.
Together, the Globe Theatre, Globe Exhibition & Tour and Globe Education seek to further the experience and international understanding of Shakespeare in performance.
Nurse witnesses the marriage between Romeo and Juliet
Why doesn't she come forward?
Apothecary - druggist
Sells Romeo poison
Warns him that this will kill him
Romeo does not care
Sees Juliet buried
Believes she is dead
Friar Lawrence did not inform Balthasar of the "plan"
Tells Romeo what he saw at the funeral
Now Romeo believes Juliet is dead!
Friar Lawrence's Plan
Take a potion which will put her to sleep and fake her death
Sends letters to Romeo telling him to retrieve her in the Capulet tomb
Newly united, they will end the feud!
Seek refuge in Mantua
Await letters informing him what will happen next
Tybalt challenges Romeo, but he refuses (they are now cousins!)
Mercutio believes Romeo will not fight because he is still heartbroken over Rosaline!
Romeo tries to stop the fight, but fails.
Tybalt kills Mercutio. :-(
Angered, Romeo challenges Tybalt and defeats him!
Mercutio challenges Tybalt in Romeo's place!
Lord and Lady Capulet
Wishes to marry Juliet to the Count Paris.
Believe Paris is a good match for Juliet!
Very intelligent and cunning
Caesar fears him for he "thinks too much, such men are dangerous" (Act 1)
Cannot lead the conspiracy himself (Why not?)
Needs a figurehead to lead them
Targets and convinces Marcus Brutus to join them
Members of the Senate
Dislike Caesar's quick rise to power
Still loyal to Pompey Magnus
Some believe that the people should rise against Caesar (most of them are too afraid of Caesar)
Caught between the two choices presented to him:
1. Serve the Roman people and overthrow Caesar
2. Remain true to Caesar, but betray the people's will.
Brutus joins the conspiracy
Believes Caesar could become a tyrant
Killing Caesar would be for the greater good
Cassius and Brutus are run from Rome.
Antony assumes the leadership of Rome and plots to bring Cassius/Brutus down and complete his revenge for Caesar.
Claimed that Caesar was "ambitious"
Killed Caesar because he loved Rome
Offered his own life should the people be dissatisfied with his rule
Verbal Irony: Indicated how the senators were "honorable".
Provided evidence that Caesar was not ambitious
Showed Caesar's body and his will to the people.
The Tragedy of Macbeth
The "Weird Sisters"
Note: Technically, they're not identified as "witches", but...
They concoct spells and heretic practices (witchcraft)
They make prophesies
They're old and they act weird!
Thane of Glamis - Lord of Inverness
Recognized by King Duncan
Vicious fighter & Excellent military leader
Respected by all for leadership and nobility
Could he be king? Why not?
Who stands in his way?
How can he maintain his power?
Reads Macbeth's letter
Believes Macbeth can be king!
BUT he must take action now or lose the opportunity!
Plots to kill King Duncan when he visits Inverness!
-Macbeth sees the bloody dagger before killing King Duncan!
Point of no return?
1. First Apparition: Armored Head!
Beware Macduff - Thane of Fife!
Counter: No problem! Macbeth plots to kill him first!
Kills Macduff's wife and child at Castle Fife - but Macduff is not there!
Macduff travels to England to speak with exiled Malcolm!
"Out, out damned spot!"
Lady Macbeth sees the blood on her hands, but others around her do not!
Fall of Banquo:
-Macbeth moves to kill Banquo and Fleance. Why?
First prophesy: "Banquo will beget kings, though he be none!"
-Banquo haunts Macbeth!
What does this mean?
Does Macbeth feel guilty killing his best friend?
Is Macbeth going mad?
3. Third Apparition: Crowned boy, holding a branch!
Macbeth will no longer be king when Birnam Wood moves upon Dunsinane!
Counter: Again - none! Trees can't move anywhere!
"All hail Macbeth!"
1. You shall be Thane of Cawdor!
2. You shall be KING!
"Lesser than Macbeth...and greater."
3. You shalt beget kings, though thou be none."
Best friends with Banquo
Listens to the witches prophesies!
Listens to his wife, who pushes him over the edge!
Wants to become & remain king!
The Witches' Second Prophesy!
Macbeth - reigning supreme - returns for answers!
2. Second Apparition: Bloody child!
Macbeth cannot be defeated by anyone born of woman!
Counter: None! Macbeth can't be defeated because everyone is born from a woman! :-)
Malcolm and Donalbain
True heirs to the throne and still alive after Duncan's murder!
Malcolm flees to England / Donalbain to Ireland
Points of Discussion
What is power? What is corruption?
What leads to an abuse of power? What leads to corruption?
Is human failure a result of internal flaws or external forces?
How do relationships impact power, abuse of power, and/or failure to utilize power?
Can corruption be avoided?
Best friend of Macbeth
Does not have the same lordship as Macbeth, but he is noble and loyal
Father to Fleance (son)
Witches' First Prophesy!
Othello - Moor of Venice
refers to a Muslim from Africa
Respected as a military leader and gentleman
Worldly and knowledgeable
Articulate and expressive
Secret Wedding (shhh!)
Othello and Desdemona marry in secret!
Othello clarifies that he and Desdemona fell in love - Desdemona confirms! :-)
Roderigo - Rich Suitor
In love with Desdemona
Jealous of Othello (position, character, etc.)
Believes Iago can help him if he pays him!
Michael Cassio - Lieutenant Elect
Othello's right hand man!
Young, handsome, popular (especially with ladies!)...BUT
He has a temper and often gets drunk!
Bianca - The Harlot
Is in love with Cassio
Not taken seriously because of her status
Cassio tells her they will marry!
Iago's Intricate Web
Othello was published 1565 and first performed in 1603-1604.
Othello was not played by a black man until 1833 (more than 200 years after Shakespeare's death)!
"A single snowflake can cause an avalanche."
Emilia - Iago's Wife
Unaware of her husband's actions
Attendant of Desdemona
Loyal to Desdemona, but suspicious of Othello
Is jealousy stronger than love?
Desdemona - Othello's wife
Fell in love with Othello after hearing his heartfelt stories of war, loss, and overcoming tragedy.
Brabantio - Desdemona's father
Believes Othello has bewitched her!
Eventually convinced that Othello is honorable and that Desdemona and Othello are in love!
Iago - Venetian veteran
Wanted the position of lieutenant
Othello picked Cassio instead of him
Believes Othello slept with Emilia (Iago's wife)
Is suspicion more powerful than trust?
Iago represents the central conflict of the play.
He manipulates everyone (including his own wife) without remorse or regret.