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Russian Historical Timeline

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Kiarah Parrales

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Russian Historical Timeline

Russian Historical Timeline
Kiarah Parrales

Adoption of Eastern Orthodoxy
Prince Vladimir of Kiev adopted Eastern Orthodoxy from Byzantium
originally centered in Kiev, but shifted to Moscow after the Mongol invasions (1237-1240)
Moscow was then seen as the Holy City by its people
Prince Rurik ruled who was seen as a man ruled by the "grade of god"
Ivan III
Little is known of his early reign activities
In 1467, his bride died, leaving him only his son. He needed to be married in case his son would try to steal his heir
In 1469, Cardinal Bessarion wrote from Rome offering Ivan the hand of his ward and pupil, Zoe Paleologus, niece of the last emperor of Byzantium
Conquered Novgorod in 1478 and Tver' in 1485
In 1480 Ivan had to cope with the danger of rebellion by his two brothers Andrey and Boris, who had been very angry at the sum of money Ivan III had of their deceased elder brother's estates
member of a wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, which was led by Lenin, seized control of the government in Russia (October 1917) and became the dominant political power
Participated in the Russian Revolution of 1905
In 1912, Lenin formed a distinct Bolshevik organization splitting the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Power
Bolsheviks became popular among urban workers and soldiers in Russia after the February Revolution (1917) when Lenin returned to the country, demanding immediate peace and the workers' councils, or Soviets, assume power
Immediately after the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks refused to share power with the other revolutionary groups, with the exception of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries; eventually they suppressed all rival political organizations
They changed their name to Russian Communist Party (of Bolsheviks) in December 1925; and to Communist Party of the Soviet Union in October 1952
The Rise of Muscovy
[14th century to 17th century]
Muscovy drew people and wealth to the northeastern boundaries of Kievan Rus'; established trade links to the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, and the Caspian Sea and to Siberia; and created a highly to centralized and autocratic political system
More important to Moscow's development in what became the state of Muscovy, was its rule by a series or princes who were ambitious, determined, and lucky
In the fourteenth century, the princes of Muscovy began gathering Russian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule
After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the city of Smolensk from Poland in 1632, Muscovy made peace with Poland in 1634
Muscovy continued its territorial growth through the seventeenth century
Russo-Japanese War
a war between Russia and Japan fought in Korea and Manchuria
Russia had long sought and ice-free, year-round port on the Pacific and desired control in China. Japan's expanding population needed territory, food, raw materials, and new markets. Both countries wanted control of Manchuria and Korea
Russia, backed by Germany and France, forced Japan to return the won Liotung Peninsula back to China in 1895. Then in 1898, Russia took over the peninsula. It was obvious Russia intended to keep the peninsula permanently
Japan objected to Russia's moves and, after unsuccessful negotiations, broke off relations on February 6, 1904. Two days later Japan opened the war.
The Russian defenders, under General Anatoli M. Stesel, surrendered the city on January 1, 1905
Theodore Roosevelt offered to help make peace, both sides accepted
Representatives of Russia and Japan met at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and on September 5, signed the peace treaty
Russia agreed to withdraw from Manchuria and ceded to Japan the southern half of Sakhalin Island and its lease of the Liaotung Peninsula. Russia also agreed to recognize Japan's dominance in Korea
Time of Troubles
period of political crisis in Russia that followed the demise of the Rurik dynasty (1598) and ended with the establishment of the Romanov dynasty (1613)

In 1597, Borris issued a royal edict restricting the liberty peasants to move freely throughout the empire.
In 1601, however, crop failure resulted in famine that caused thousands of peasants to defy the royal edict, since remaining on barren land was tantamount to a death sentence
By 1603, there was widespread social unrest

Social Unrest
After the death of Feodore, Russia reverted to the days before Vasili II, when power was taken by violence and conquest rather than inheritance.
Boris Gudunov was a duty elected regent, but despite his intelligence and undoubted administrative ability, he was unable to unify and control the diverse elements within his realm
Several men tried to grab power, but none could hold on to it

The Struggle for Power
Poland and Russia began discussing the possibility of a Polish czar in exchange for an end to the fighting, but there were loud outcries of anger in the Orthodox Church against this plan, since the Poles were not Orthodox
Then a national uprising led to the election of a new Russian czar, the sixteen-year-old boyar Mikhail Romanov, in 1613.
His direct heirs would rule Russia until the Revolution of 1917.
Invasions from the West
Catherine the Great
one of the greatest reformers of Russia
continued the reforms begun by Peter the Great that led Russia to the worldwide stage of politics
established the Free Economic Society to encourage the modernization of agriculture and industry
She also encouraged foreign investment in economically undeveloped areas
Catherine relaxed the censorship law and encouraged education for the nobles and middle class
During her reign, Russia also achieved great military success and gained large tracts of land
Catherine the Great had pushed Russia into the modern era

Ivan IV
AKA Ivan the Terrible
Was tsar of Russia and established a tradition of absolute rule
destroyed his rivals and claimed the throne of Tsardom
Beat back the last of the Mongols
provided large territorial expansion
On December 29, 1543 Ivan surprised his Boyars by calling them to a meeting
He condemned them to death for neglect of him and the nation
In June 1522 Ivan led his army of 100,000 troops down the Volga toward Kazan, the fortified capital of Khanate

February Revolution
Began when the Russian women workers of Petrograd left their factories to protest
Next day, more than 90,000 men and women marched through the streets, shouting “Down with the Autocracy!” and “Stop the War!”
By February 25, the city of Petrograd was basically shut down
Czar Nicholas II, who was not in Petrograd, heard about the protests going on but did not take them seriously
On March 2, he was abdicated

First eastern Slavic state.
It was founded by the Viking Oleg, ruler of Novgorod from, who seized Smolensk and Kiev, which became the capital of Kievan
Vladimir introduced Christianity
The state started declining in the late 11th century and during the 12th century, started disintegrating into various rival regional powers. It was further weakened by economic factors such as the collapse of Rus' commercial ties to Byzantium due to the decline of Constantinople
The state finally fell to the Mongol invasion of the 1240s.
Kievan Rus'
[9th century to 13th century
Russification Policies
Russification was the name given to a policy of Alexander III.
Russification was designed to take the sting out of those who wanted to reform Russia and to bind all the Russian people around one person – the tsar.
Russification was first made in 1770 by Uvarov. He defined three areas of Russification – autocracy, orthodoxy and ‘Russian-ness
Russian-ness was the most important
Before Alexander III, Russification meant that all the tsar’s subjects, should be accepted by the tsar as being ethnic groups in their own right provided that they acknowledged their allegiance to the Russian state, which included the government and the church

Under Alexander III, Russification took a new turn. He believed that all cultures and nationalities within the empire should be wiped out (not physically) and that all the people in the empire should become ‘Great Russians’.
Russification had no time for small ethnic groups that were more concerned about their culture at the expense of Russia’s as a whole. To be loyal to Russia and therefore the tsar, you had to be a Russian
Peter the Great
Dragged Russia out of the medieval times
He centralized the government, modernized the army, created a navy, and increased the subjugation and the subjection of the peasants
His domestic policy allowed him to execute an aggressive foreign policy.
October Revolution - 1917
Led by Lenin
the Bolshevik party and the workers' Soviets, overthrew the Provisional Government in St Petersburg.
the Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside

Mongol Invasions
[1230-15th century]
Invaded Russia in 1237 with an all-out assault
The Mongol Empire stretched from China to the Middle East to Russia. Russia fell in 1240
14 years later.
The Mongols surprised the unprepared Russian nobility with a fierce invasion force that swept across the Volga River in late 1236
The great Khan demanded Russian surrender a year later, but Yuri II declined the invitation. In response, the Mongols obliterated the city of Ryazan.
The Russians lacked the unity or military dynamism necessary to defeat the horde
The Mongols ruled Russia until the late 15th century and the rise of the Czars.

1905 Revolution
It was started by anxious troops opening fire on peaceful marchers in St. Petersburg on January 9, 1905
troops saw the approaching crowd and fired upon them, killing at least 200 people. "Bloody Sunday" marked the start of the 1905 Revolution
he massacre caused revolt throughout the nation. Worker strikes, agricultural struggles, terrorism, and army mutiny were among the problems now facing the tsar
A massive strike, beginning on October 7, 1905 and lasting through October 17, 1905 brought the tsar back to Russia from the peace conference in Portsmouth, USA, to deal with his nations struggles.
Once back in Russia, the Tsar issued the October Manifest. The manifesto granted basic civil rights and liberties to Russian citizens.
The Manifesto ended 1905 Revolution, and there weren't many revolts in the next few years

World War I & Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on March 3, 1918 officially ended Russia’s involvement in World War I
the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk actually signaled the emergence of the Soviet Union in the international community
While the Bolsheviks were propagandizing the belief that it was in the interest of all parties to end the War without annexation and indemnities, the Germans sought to secure all possible resources from the Soviets’ western borderlands in order to continue prosecuting World War I on their western front.
In December 1917, Germany’s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Baron Rikhard von Kuhlman, demanded the Soviet delegation to present their peace conditions

They expected the Germans to leave Russia without any tangible gains for their years of wartime sacrifice
Negotiations reached a breaking point in February 1918 when, after persistent Soviet stalling, the Germans lost patience. They launched an offensive which culminated with the delivery of new, non-negotiable peace terms arriving in Petrograd on February 23rd

Russian Civil War
The Civil War occurred because after November 1917, many groups opposing Bolsheviks had formed
The Brest-Litovsk showed to many how weak the Bolsheviks actually were
Those who opposed the Bolsheviks looked to the western powers for help. For their own benefit, the western powers wanted to re-establish an Eastern Front so that the German Army would be split once again, which would relieve the problems happening on the Western Front.
Lenin decided to cut his losses and agreed to the Treaty of Riga on March 18th 1921
The Treaty of Riga brought to an end the Russian Civil War

Adoption of Eastern Orthodoxy



Ivan III


The Rise of Muscovy



Russo-Japanese War


Time of Troubles


Catherine the Great


Ivan IV


February Revolution - 1917


Kievan Rus’



‘Russification’ Policies


Peter the Great


October Revolution - 1917


Mongol Invasion


1905 Revolution


World War I & Treaty of Brest-Litovsk


Russian Civil War


Full transcript