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The Civil War
Transcript of The Civil War
Causes of the Civil War
The North and the South disagreed on many issues which lead to the south beginning to break away.
These two portions of one nation were drifting apart because of their differences in their economies, industries, and ideas.
A line was created between the middle of the United States, creating the boundary of the north and the south.
The south part of America wanted slavery, but the north part didn't.
Dread Scott Case
The Kansas - Nebraska
Election Of Abraham Lincoln
The Three Fifths Compromise
United States agrees to pay France $15 million for the Louisiana territory which extends west from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
In this supreme court case, Dred Scott, a freed slave tried to become a U.S. citizen. However, he lost on the grounds that, no person with African American blood can become a U.S. citizen; even in free states.(1857)
To maintain balance between free and slave states, Maine was admitted as a free state so Missouri could become a slave state.
When Lincoln was elected as president, the country was split in half. Seven southern states had seceded from the union.
Gave slave holding regions extra voting powers in congress; putting more towards slavery. every slave counted as 3/5 of a person .
States rights was a struggle between government and individual states fight for power. States and the government fought over the rights they were allowed and the power they had.
The Constitution set in place a set of rules and regulations for the government. It consisted of seven articles. It is an interpretable document that was manipulated to add new laws.
This Act allowed both states to choose if they were to be free states or slave states. This resulted in large battle in Kansas.(1854)
- The Liberator
- The Raid on Harpers Ferry
- Uncle Tom's Cabin
- Popular sovereignty
- The Compromise of 1850
- The Underground Railroad
- Sojourner Truth
- Wilmont Provisio
- Difference of Color
- Bleeding Kansas
- John Brown
- First Black Baptist Church Founded
- North Perspective
- South Perspective
-The Second Great Awakening
- Religious Revivalism
The Liberator was an anti-slavery newspaper that angered the slaveholders in the south by denouncing the Compromise of 1850, condemning the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and put down the Dred Scott decision.
The raid on Harper's Ferry was an failed attempt by white abolitionist, John Brown, to start an armed slave revolt in 1859. He had planed to collect guns to give to slaves to revolt against their owners.
Uncle Tom's Cabin is a book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that expressed her hatred for slavery. It encouraged Northern abolitionists to increase protests against the Fugitive Slave Act.
Nullification was an idea the South had because they believed that they should have rights to nullify laws that they believed treated them unfairly, such as, import taxes. However, the North was against and it believed nullification would make the country weaker.
Popular Sovereignty was a principal stating that the power of the government lies within the people. The south used this for their case that they needed slavery.
Transcendentalism was a philosophy created by a group of people that believed in internal spiritual principles as the basis for mans comprehension of the world instead of the widely accepted notion that a man's knowledge came primarily from the senses.
Many southerners felt that the state government alone had the right to make important decisions such as whether or not slavery should be legal.
- The Cotton Gin
- The Gold Rush
- The Erie Canal
- Market Revolution
- The Middle Class
Paternalism was a way for slave owners to justify their actions. They thought of slave holding as if it were good for the slaves. They used reasons such as they are providing shelter and food for them. However, the reason they avoided was that the slaves were working against their own will.
Eli Whitney's cotton gin made plantations in the south more profitable by increasing the output of cotton. This widened the separation between industries in the North and South.
The Gold Rush in the 1840's and 50's caused many people to move to California. Eventually the states population rose high enough for it to be called a state. It became a free state even though southern California fell below the Mason-Dixon line.
The Erie Canal opened up trade in the North. The North no longer had to travel down the Mississippi River and up the east coast. It further added to sectionalism between the North and South, but established a bond between the east and the west.
Tariffs angered the South because they had to pay them of things they had to have imported, while the North could get them from their industries.
The Market Revolution made the economy nation wide. It changed the way things were produced. Production went from self sustaining to production for sale to others. It also established wages for those who worked by their own free will.
Railroads made transportation through rough terrain quicker and less expensive. It encouraged expansion and growth. However it added to sectionalism, making the North less reliant on the South for transportation.
Immigrants from Europe came to the North and encouraged that the North didn't need slave labor to further industrialize, unlike the South. The immigrants were a major part of the North by working in factories and building railroads.
California's new constitutions forbade slavery, however, southern California laid below the Missouri Compromise line. This caused an argument between whether it should be a free state or not.
A secret network that was developed by freed African Americans and white abolitionists that worked to steal slaves away from their holders. These people went to great risks to hide fugitive slaves along their journey to the free north. It was the North taking action.
Sojourner Truth was a former runaway slave that was an abolitionist as well as a women's rights activist. Her speech, "Ain't I a Woman?" expressed her stand on slavery as a woman and a former slave.
The Wilmont Provisio was a bill written to ban slavery. It was vetoed by the South as they viewed it as the North trying to use their power against them. This angered the North because they wanted to ban the expansion of slavery.
Because African Americans were "colored' they were treated like animals and dehumanized, considered "half-people"
European immigrants worked willingly in northern factories. They were the opposite of slaves in the South because they were given wages for their work and were not kept to work against their own free will.
Bleeding Kansas was the first major act of violence between abolitionists and slave owners. It was brought upon by Nebraska and Kansas and their opportunities to become either a slave or free state.
John Brown was an extreme abolitionist that led the raid on Harper's Ferry. He became known for his violent acts against slavery. He justified his actions, saying they were the "will of God." He became a hero to extreme abolitionists.
Americas first middle class was formed when wages were introduced in the Market Revolution. They were driving forces in many different reforms.
The Second Great Awakening placed emphasis on an individual's ability to better their situation other than the beleif that a person could only be saved through the grace of God. It asserted that people should use their own "free will" and that salvation is available to everyone. This attracted more women and African Americans to religion.
Religious Revivalism came during the early 19th century in a way to counter "The Enlightenment." New religions were formed,such as the Mormons, and older religions gained more followers. This movement encouraged women towards religion as they were not allowed into the world of politics.
The Catholics gained a large following before the Civil War. There were many Irish and German Catholics. The Catholics were predominantly Democratic and opposed war and the republican candidate Abraham Lincoln.
The Presbyterian church had split in 1838 into old school and new school, but it broke apart even further in 1861 over multiple political issues, including slavery.
The North used its mainly Catholic influence to encourage abolitionism.
The South used their religions to justify their slave holding. They claimed to be a Christian nation.
The Baptist Church was more accepting to blacks than other religions and so they formed a church in 1809.
Paternalism is a system in which white slave owners felt it was their duty to educate and form a bond with their slaves through religion. This was one of their main defenses to justify slavery.
Equality was a main focus before and during the civil war. Not necessarily democratic equality, but basic human rights.
Sectionalism was seen long before the Civil War when the North and South began to split because of their vast differences in economy and views on how the government should have been. Also how self dependent each section had become.
Rights before the civil war are challenged. Not only are slave rights nonexistent, the free slaves in the North hve theirs challenged during the fugitive slave act of during the Dred Scott case.
Expansion of the country definatly played a role in the development of the Civil War with disputes over land such as The Kansas Nebraska ac, the Compromise of 1850, and Bleeding Kansas. Also playing a part in sectionalism.
Adam, Angie, Maci, Quinten, Grace