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Joseph Deschaine

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THE GREAT LAKES
By: Trevor Massey and Joseph Deschaine
Table of Contents
Drawing of the Great Lakes

Facts and Drainage Chart

Water Cycle

Water flow through the Great Lakes

Drainage basin - Watershed

Dredging Harbors in MI

Lake Champlain

Erie Canal

Invasive Species

Bibliography
LAKE SUPERIOR
LAKE ERIE
Length: 241 miles
Breadth: 57 miles
Avg. Depth: 62 feet
Volume: 116 cubic miles
Water Surface Area: 9,910 sq. miles
Max Depth: 210 feet
Drainage Basin: 30,140 sq. miles
Since it's not as deep as the other lakes, it warms rapidly in the spring and summer and is the only Great Lake to freeze over in winter.
Shallowest of the lakes.
11th largest in the world (according to www.great-lakes.net)
It feeds into the Niagara River.
Length: 350 miles
Breadth: 160 miles
Avg. Depth: 483 ft
Volume: 2903 cubic miles
Water Surface Area: 31700 sq. miles
Max Depth: 1332 ft
Drainage Basin: 49300 sq miles
Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world(by surface area)
Lake Superior COMPLETELY froze over in 1997.
Water that enters Lake Superior will stay there for about 200 years
Lake Superior is so large that it could fit all the other Great Lakes, with three extra Erie's
LAKE HURON
Length: 206 miles
Breadth: 183 miles
Avg. Depth: 195 feet
Max Depth: 750 feet
Volume: 850 cubic miles
Surface Area: 23,000 sq. miles
Drainage Basin: 51,700 sq. miles
Longest shoreline of all the Great Lakes.
Three bays extend out from Lake Huron. Georgian Bay is the largest and was considered a separate lake by early explorers.
It takes 22 years for water to be replaced in Lake Huron.
Large ships pass from Lake Superior into Lake Huron through the Sault St. Marie locks.
BYE N W
The Water Cycle is very important to the Great Lakes. Without The Water Cycle, there would not be any of The Great Lakes. The Water Cycle happens in four main stages. The first stage is evaporation. This occurs when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into water vapor. The water vapor leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air. After evaporation is condensation which Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, which forms clouds. Next comes precipitation, which occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow. The final stage is collection. When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it will fall on land. When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become ground water that plants and animals use to keep hydrated, or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers. This is the process of collection. After water finds its way back to the oceans, lakes, or rivers. The Water Cycle happens again and again. Without The Water Cycle, there would not be any water on earth, or the largest freshwater lake system in the world, The Great Lakes.
Bibliography
Map of the Grand River located in Michigan
Pollution from the Grand River into Lake Michigan.
Water Flow Through The Great Lakes
Grand River to Lake Michigan
The Grand River flows into Lake Michigan through Ottawa County. The water then circulates into Lake Huron at the straits of Mackinaw. After that, it flows into Lake St. Clair and out to Lake Erie via the Detroit River. Then it flows through the Welland Canal into Lake Ontario. Finally, the water from Lake Ontario flows through the St. Lawrence River and into the Atlantic Ocean.
http://www.lre.usace.army.mil/_kd/go.cfm?destina tion=page&pge_id=1317

http://openwateronline.org/Lake_Michigan_Facts.htm

http://www.dredging.org/documents/ceda/downloads/publications-dredging_the_facts.pdf

http://www.lre.usace.army.mil/_kd/go.cfm?destination=page&pge_id=1317

http://www.great-lakes.net/envt/flora-fauna/invasive/loosestf.html
Lake Superior
LAKE MICHIGAN
Length: 307 miles
Breadth: 118 miles
Avg. Depth: 279 ft
Max Depth: 925 ft
Volume: 1180 cubic miles
Surface Area: 22300 sq miles
Drainage Basin: 45600 sq miles
Lake Michigan is the only Great Lake completely in the United States.
About half of the fishing done in the Great Lakes is done in Lake Michigan.
The only place in the world a petoskey stone can be found is on the shore of Lake Michigan.
Lake Michigan's coast contains the worlds largest freshwater sand dunes.
Dredging Harbors in Michigan
Dredging is the process of removing rock, sand, gravel, mud, and clay for safe commercial navigation and recreational boating. But, the big question: Is dredging good or bad? Every project has its pros and cons. Pros of dredging include safer boating and a heavier loads that freighters can carry into port. Also, dredged material is high in nutrients, which is very good for farming. Now think about the cons. What about the habitats and natural areas of the underwater life. Dredging destroys habitats and natural areas. Without any underwater life, the local fishing industry would be gone. Also, dredging can hurt the water quality. For example, it can cause an increase of suspended solids concentration and potential release of contaminants. By now the controversy should stand out. Dredging is destroying the natural environment. I believe that dredging should not be allowed. Although it is good for the shipping industry, we have to consider if it is good for the natural environment.
Erie Canal
The Two Hearted Iiver
The Erie Canal was proposed in 1808 and finished in 1825. It was enlarged in 1836 and the construction lasted until 1862. More boats could get through after the enlargement. It was the start of the industrial revolution. There was another enlargement in 1905 which gave it electrically powered locks. Also, cargo could move at a higher speed. The Erie Canal runs between Albany, where it connects to the Hudson river, which connects to the Atlantic Ocean. On the other side, it connects to Lake Erie. Without the Erie Canal, It would be harder to transport cargo to New York or import into the Great Lakes and the U.S from the Hudson River. It was an ingenious invention that raised money and population.
Invasive Species
There are many invasive species in the Great Lakes. Today we are going to talk about three of them: The Round Goby, Ruffe, and the purple loosestrife.

Round Goby are a non-native species which originated in Eurasia. These fish have been related to the declines of the Sculpin, Logperch, and Darter. Round Goby compete with these species for food, habitat, and nests. Unlike many other species of fish, the Round Goby have the ability to live in degraded water. They can reproduce rapidly and are good protectors of their nests. The Round Goby feed on eggs and babies of Lake Trout. They are becoming more of an offshore snack for Lake Whitefish, Lake Trout, and Burbot. In conclusion, the Round Goby are damaging the Great Lakes ecosystem.

Ruffe are a non-native species which also originated in Eurasia. This small spiny perch is capable of explosive population growth. Females can lay 45,000 to 90,000 eggs. Ruffe compete with fish for food and habitat. Their spiny fins make them discouraging for large fish to eat. In conclusion, Ruffe need to be controlled before it is too late.

The Purple Loosestrife is a wetland plant from Europe and Asia. They can form dense, impenetrable stands that are not able to be cover, food or nesting sites for a wide range of native wetland animals, including ducks, geese, rails, bitterns, muskrats, frogs, toads and turtles. Many rare and endangered wetland plants and animals also are at risk because of this plant. This plant needs to be controlled, or else many other spe
The Two Hearted River is a 23.6 mile long river in Luce County, MI. The Water in this river eventually makes it to the Atlantic ocean. The water drains into Lake Superior, which is taken to Lake Huron. That is taken to Lake St. Clair, into Lake Erie, up into Lake Ontario and up the St. Lawrence river.
How The Great Lakes Were Formed
Watershed
The Great Lakes were formed during the ice age about 14,000 years ago when the Laurentide glacier began to melt because of warmer weather. When it melted, it left massive amounts of water behind creating the Great Lakes.
Lake Champlain
A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that falls in it and drains off of it goes into the same place. Watersheds can be as small as a footprint or large enough to encompass all the land that drains water into rivers that drain into Chesapeake Bay. We live in the Clinton watershed.
Surface Area: 490 sq. miles
Length: 124.9 miles
Width: 14.29 miles
Max Depth: 400 feet
Volume: 6.2 cu. miles
Avg. Depth: 64 feet
In 1997-1998, Lake Champlain was briefly a Great Lake. By this, Lake Champlain received a Sea Grant funding. Although the decision was quickly revoked, Lake Champlain still has the Sea Grant funding. Many people think that Lake Champlain should be a 6th Great Lake. I do not agree. Lake Champlain is not even the 6th largest Great Lake in the United States.
Round Goby
Ruffe
Purple Loosestrife
Grand River to the ocean
Two Hearted River to the ocean
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