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Sciece- Protein Synthesis

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Sihak Lee

on 30 May 2013

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Transcript of Sciece- Protein Synthesis

Flow of Genetic Information mRNA Splicing "Non-coding" regions (sequences) called Introns are removed
Expressed regions called Exons are pieced back together
Cap and tail added to protect mRNA strand
processed mRNA leaves nucleus through nuclear pore, and enters cytoplasm Translation Players Translation occurs at the ribosomes, that are either floating in the cytoplasm or embedded on the rough ER
Larger subunit, smaller subunit of the ribosome, and mRNA join to initiate translation
mRNA consists of codons, which are three sequences of nucleotides that will complement the anticodon on the tRNA
Amino Acids are carried by tRNA molecules free-floating in the cytoplasm
Ribosomes have three binding sites for tRNA ( E, P, A) and a specific binding site for mRNA The Process of Translation Translation begins when mRNA start codon AUG, tRNA with the first amino acid (Methionine) and the small subunit ribosome are joined; after the three are joined, the large subunit ribosome joins, and the ribosome is able to start translation.
First tRNA is in the P site, new tRNAs enter at the A site, and the mRNA is moved through the ribosome one codon at a time
As new tRNAs bring amino acids, they are added to the growing polypeptide chain by peptide bonds
This process continues a stop codon is reached, and the finished polypeptide is released. Summary Genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein by the process of transcription and translation
Three types of mutation: substituion, Insertion, and deletion
Mutations may or may not affect outcome Transcription- DNA to mRNA RNA Polymerase binds to the DNA at the promoter region
When transcription is initiated, RNA polymerase adds complementary nucleotides to the unzipped DNA strand to form the growing mRNA strand.
When the mRNA is built from the template DNA strand, Adenine from the DNA strand binds to Uracil, not Thymine.
This process continues until the RNA polymerase reaches the terminator region and transcription is complete.
A mRNA strand is released DNA RNA Protein TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION DNA VS RNA Double Helix vs Single Stranded Helix Pentosuger: Deoxyribose vs Ribose Complements of Adenine: Thymine vs Uracil Protein Synthesis Sihak Lee & WIll Liu What are Proteins? Monomer: Amino Acid Dimer: Dipeptide Polymer:
Polypeptide Amino Acids form covalent bonds, specifically called Peptide Bonds to link Proteins are complex macromolecules that are in charge of growth and repair
There are 20 different kinds of Amino Acids, that can build thousands of proteins
Dietary sources of Protein include: fish, poultry, meat and legumes (certain plants like beans and peanuts
Proteins in living things act as enzymes, membrane channels, and hormones
They also make up structures such as hair, fur, muscles and nutrients storage
Their function is determined by the shape of the protein, which is the result of four levels of structure: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary Protein Structure Three Types of RNA Messenger RNA carries messages from DNA to synthesize protein

Transfer RNA carries amino acid to the mRNA to produce a polypeptide chain

Ribosomal RNA is a structural RNA that is a part of a ribosome Gene Mutations 1) Substitution/ Point Mutation
2) Deletion
3) Insertion Mutation can occur when there is a change of in the nucleotide sequence of DNA (during transcription); These changes may or may not impact the outcome of the protein
Substitution may or may not affect the outcome of the protein because sometimes a amino acid can be represented by more than one triplet code
Deletion or insertion always causes frameshift, which affects the subsequent amino acid sequences; this could result in early termination of the polypeptide chain or formation of altered polypeptide - this may even be fatal DNA ---> ( ) ---> RNA
RNA ---> ( ) ---> Protein 3 different type of RNA:
1)
2)
3) Enzymes, Location, and Process Name
&
Function Quiz! Bibliography Resources:
Genetic Science Learning Center. "Inside a Cell." Learn.Genetics 15 January 2013 <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/insideacell/>

Campbell, Neil A., Brad Williamson, and Robin J. Heyden. Biology: Exploring Life. Needham, MA: Pearson, 2004. Print.

Bailey, Regina. "Protein Function." About.com Biology. Ask.com, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://biology.about.com/od/molecularbiology/a/aa101904a.htm>.

Benardot, Dan. "Protein- What Does It Do?" Protein- What Does It Do? Georgetown Univeristy, 14 June 2005. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www3.georgetown.edu/admin/auxiliarysrv/dining/nutrition/protein.html>.

Goldberg, Deborah T. "SAT Subject Test Biology E/M." Google Books. Barron's, 2007. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.


Pictures/videos
File:Difference DNA RNA-EN.svg. Digital image. Wikipedia.org. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Difference_DNA_RNA-EN.svg>.

Carbon Monster. Eukaryotic Animal Cell. N.p.: TurboSquid, 2012. Jpg. 14 Jan. 2013.<http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/eukaryotic-animal-cell-3d-3ds/682308>

YouTube. Dir. Matthew Cook. Perf. DNA. YouTube. YouTube, 12 Feb. 2008. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.

Campbell, Neil A., Brad Williamson, and Robin J. Heyden. Biology: Exploring Life. Needham, MA: Pearson, 2004. Print.
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