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Sustainable fisheries & Public Private Partnerships

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Marika Vilisaar

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Sustainable fisheries & Public Private Partnerships

1. OVERVIEW

Illegal Unreported and/or Unregulated (IUU fishing):
MPA
-
is an
area set aside
by law to provide
preservation
and
protection
for important
marine biodiversity and resources
Marine-Protected Areas (MPAs):

Sustainable fisheries & Public Private Partnerships (P3)
1. OVERVIEW
2. ISSUES
3. SOLUTIONS
5. EXAMPLES
Aquaculture
:
is farming of aquatic organisms including fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants with some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc.
Aquapod
-designed by Ocean Farm Technologies, one of the projects funded by Cuna del Mar.
EEZ
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs):

Maritime zone
200 nautical miles (nm)
from its coast
over which a state has
sovereign rights
for the purpose of
exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, including
marine resources

(United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 56 (1)(a) and Article 57).
EEZs in the world:
The U.S.
11,351,000 km2
(4,383,000 mi2)
France
11,035,000 km2
(4,260,000 mi2)
Australia is
8,148,250 km2

(4,111,312 mi2).

Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs):
EEZs the South East Asia:
Indonesia 6,159,032 km2
Philippines 1,590,780 km2
Vietnam 417,663 km2

the U.S. EEZ
EEZ
IUU fishing
a problem on both the
high seas
and in
near shore waters,
where most small-scale fisheries operate
IUU fishing
lack
of international regulation,
monitoring, control
and
surveillance (MCS)
IUU fishing

Many
forms:
from licit companies under
reporting their true catches
OR
harvesting protected species
to individual brokers acting as middle men between local fishers and larger suppliers, etc.
IUU fishing results in:
extreme
overfishing

threatens certain fish species to
extinction
devastating effects on the

national income
does
not
create government revenue through
taxes or export duties
Overfishing:
Tragedy of commons/“Open-Access” nature of fisheries:
Sustainable development:
a) Terminology
b) Institutional framework
c) Why care about
fisheries?
Management instruments for sustainable fisheries
Public-private partnerships (P3) in fisheries and aquaculture
Fisheries Public-Private
Partnership
(FP3)
Sustainable
tonggol tuna
fishery P3
in Southeast Asia
Organic catfish
P3
in Vietnam
Fisheries and aquaculture operations
in Myanmar
Developing Inland Aquaculture
in the Solomon Islands
Climate Smart Management of
Aquatic Agriculture
Farm Ecosystems
in Bangladesh
Development of the

Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia
(GIFT)
The rice field fisheries (RFFs)
of Cambodia
access t
o the fishery (for the purpose of harvesting fish) is
unrestricted;
i.e., the right to catch fish is free and open to all
development that meets the
needs
of the
present generation
without compromising the
ability of
future generations
to meet their own needs
Fishery
:

is an activity leading to
harvesting

of fish. It may involve capture of wild fish or raising of fish through
aquaculture
a) Terminology
Overfishing

is
overexploitation

of
fisheries
occurs often together with ecosystem overfishing and economic overfishing.
b) Institutional framework
sets of rules are
treaties
, both
multilateral
and
bilateral
, and other
non-binding instruments
used by states
the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
1995 United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement
1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
bilateral agreements and regional multilateral agreements
1992 Convention on Biological Diversity
Numerous organizations
the UN General Assembly (
UNGA
) and
the UN Informal Consultative Process On the Law Of the Sea (
ICP
)
the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea (
ITLOS
)
the Food and Agriculture Organization (
FAO
)
At regional level:

Regional Fishery Bodies (RFBs)/Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs)

At national level:
specialised ministries, fishers cooperatives, associations, lobbies, etc.
At global level:
Non-Governmental Organizations (
NGOs
)
c) Why care about
fisheries?
Importance
of
Fisheries

to Developing Countries
Fisheries
contribute to:
Secure livelihoods
Health
Development
Trade
Environmental health and biodiversity conservation
Security

Top exporters:
In 2012:
1)
China
in 2012 USD
18.2 billion

2)
Norway
USD 8.9 billion
3)
Thailand
USD 8.1 billion
4)
Viet Nam
USD 6.3 billion
5)
the USA US
D 5.8 billion
6)
Chile
(USD 5.1 billion)

In 2013:
1)
China
USD 19.6 billion
2)
Norway
USD 10.4 billion
3)
Thailand
USD 7.0 billion

Health
Livelihoods: commercial scale


Global fishery production in 2013 was
160 million tonnes
, with export reaching
$136 billion
2.6 billion
people receive from
20%-50%
of their
animal protein
from fish
Livelihoods:

~200 million people
depend upon fish for their income
54 million fishermen
in the world from which
85.5 %
fishers and fish farmers are Asian
Developing countries provide
73%
of all fish imports

87%
of world’s fishers are in the
Asia-Pacific region

Biodiversity and
Fisheries
SE Asia: Mekong River Basin
Open access of fisheries
tragedy of the commons
no incentives for long-term practices

Overfishing

Devastates coastal states
Of the 445 stocks
~ 30 %
are over-exploited.

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing
$10-23.5 billion
worth of fish

~ 20%-50%

of the

world’s catch

Just
1.6 %
of the world’s oceans have been declared as
MPAs

Poor management
2. ISSUES
Open access
- loss of biodiversity - overcapitalization - excess effort
- degraded habitats - depleted resources
Enforcement, compliance and
inappropriate policies
Economic loss

Marine life imbalance
targeted fishing
impacts the entire marine ecosystem
abundance of smaller marine animals
3. SOLUTIONS
Sustainable fisheries
Management instruments for sustainable fisheries
“Blue economy”
environmentally sustainable economy
Improved fisheries governance
Tackling overfishing and overcapacity
quota management system
Total Allowable Catch (TAC)
Tackling IUU fishing
Setting environmental standards
MSC label
(Marine Stewardship Council)
Diversification of species
Other instruments:
Multiannual plans
measures
to adapt fishing capacity
incentives

to promote selective and more environmentally friendly fishing methods
minimum conservation reference sizes
technical measures

such as
characteristics of gears, temporary closure of fishing areas
and
creating and expanding

marine protected areas (MPAs)
International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate IUU Fishing (IPOA-IUU)
The Port State Measures Agreement
11 parties (the U.S included)
Will take effect once 25 signatories
“balanced harvesting” approach
Stronger institutions and legal frameworks
UNCLOS
(1982)
FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
(1995)
1995 United Nations Implementing Agreement on Straddling Stocks and Highly Migratory Stocks (
UNIA
)
shifting pressure away from
highly overfished stocks
currently
under-utilized species
Energize donor interest
Public-private partnerships (P3) in fisheries and aquaculture
Fisheries
Public-Private Partnership (FPPP):
Aquaculture
F.e. Aceh in
Indonesia
Governments:
encourage more funders
rights- and equity-focused approach
diversify funding
shift funding toward lower-income countries

Private secto
r has shared interests in sustainable fisherie

1)
Improve
supply chain management

and
food safety
2)

Consulting
and
business development
3)
Capacity building, training and development

Developing countries
are the main drivers for setting up P3 arrangements to support fisheries and aquaculture
Holistic strategy:
specific
community/ social
needs

sustainable
socio-ecological systems

Well-structured:
larger sectoral level
coastal community level -optimize the yield of
common goods
utilized -
minimize the cost
to the public - promotes
long-term sustainability

Increasing demand for
infrastructure
and
supporting public services
, resulting in a
diversity P3s
financial problems & lack of expertise
Pond productivity
less than
100kg/ha,
where

300 to 500kg/ha is possible.

Assistance with:
supply feed
fertilizer
high quality seed
milkfish & tilapia
assist in decision making

After collaboration with P3s
low quality seed material
& diseases
Before P3s
Awareness & measures
Information and community commitment
Control & enforcement
Sustainable tonggol tuna fishery PPP in Southeast Asia
Procordia & the Sustainable Fisheries Partnerships Foundation
1,7 million SEK (USD 260,000)

human rights & marine ecosystems challenges
requires
regional collaboration

The project includes:
tracking of fish stocks
improving livelihoods

Organic catfish PPP in Vietnam

Organic catfish (Pangasius)

shared risks and costs
private partner responsible for implementation and management

Results
:
higher fish
quality
meeting European
standards
high product
quality
and
hygiene
&
working conditions
increased
export
opportunities
reduced rejection rates
at international borders
expanded the market
retain
market share
build
capacity

raise
awareness
of pollution and food safety issues


Developing Inland Aquaculture in the Solomon Islands

Climate Smart Management of Aquatic Agriculture Farm Ecosystems in Coastal Regions of Bangladesh
Development of the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT)
The WorldFish Center is working with partners in Norway and several Asian countries
genetically improved strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Tilapias:
- fast growing
- farmed in more than 85 countries
- many desirable qualities: stocking density, resistance to diseases
- remarkable genetic gain in growth rate (exceeding 80%)
- increased production
- lowered costs
- increased consumption
- in some cases improved the overall nutritional status

Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, China, Thailand and Vietnam.

4. EXAMPLES
An Giang Fisheries Association
German Technical Cooperation Agency (GTZ)
Binca Fisch GmbH
Naturland and the Binca Fisch GmbH (NGO)
Fisheries and aquaculture operations in Myanmar
The Ayeyarwady Delta
4 year project
the
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
(ACIAR) &
AusAID Asia Division
partnership between
WorldFish
and
4 local
Myanmar a
gencies and institutions
:
the Department of Fisheries (DoF)
the Myanmar Fisheries Federation (MFF),
Yangon University
the Food Security Working Group (FSWG)
The project:
-
explores
fisheries and aquaculture
-
gains insight
into current practices
-
develops strategies
for the future.

Tilapia
Existing farming systems
not
adequate for future domestic fish demand
4-year project
the
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
(ACIAR)
The aim:
identify
the best ways
to carry out an inland aquaculture programme
identified a way to
meet future demand
for fish

Canals, rice fields and
homestead ponds- river network
Project aims:

improve
land, water and
ecosystem management

enhance
the
productivity
and
diversity
of fish production

The rice field fisheries (RFFs) of Cambodia

annually
~ 50–100 kg
of fisheries products
per household
from around
2 million hectares
of seasonal wetlands and rice fields
total supply of
100–200 thousand tonnes
of ‘free’ nutritious food

CONCLUSION
Holistic and system wide approach:
a 20-25 % increase

Current situation
The current rate of overexploitation of fisheries
deteriorating ecosystems
an extra 20 million tons of fish per year
Open access fisheries
Overfishing
Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing
Lack of marine protected areas (MPAs)
By-catch:
Part of a catch of a fishing unit taken incidentally in addition to the target species towards which fishing effort is directed. It may be retained for human use or some or all of it may be returned to the sea as discards, usually dead or dying.
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY):

The highest theoretical
equilibrium yield
that can be continuously taken (on average) from a stock under existing (average) environmental conditions without affecting significantly the reproduction process.
Total allowable catch:
the total catch allowed to be taken from a resource in a specified period (usually a year), as defined in the management plan. The TAC may be allocated to the stakeholders in the form of quotas as specific quantities or proportions.
Marine environment & international fisheries
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY
Sources
:
• Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Fisheries Glossary http://www.fao.org/fi/glossary/default.asp
• FAO, Stopping illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, Rome 2002
• FAO Development of the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia
• FAO Technical guidelines for responsible fisheries: 4 Marine protected areas and fisheries, suppl. 4, 2001
• GTZ The Sustainable Development of the Fishing Industry PPP in Ghana
• Indispensable Ocean: Aligning Ocean Health and Human Well-Being, October 2013
• IDB, Standards and trade development facility, Public-private partnerships to enhance SPS capacity: What can we learn from this collaborative approach?, April 2012
• RAP Publication, Fishing capacity management and IUU fishing in Asia, 2007/16
• Rockefeller Foundation, Securing the livelihoods and nutritional needs of fish-dependent communities, May 2013
• Science Council CGIAR- Standing Panel on Impact Assessment No 6
• USAID Sustainable Fisheries and responsible aquaculture, June 2013
• USAID Fishing for a Secure Future: Opportunities for Reforming Fisheries Governance by Pomeroy, R.
• Worldfish center, Public-private partnerships for fisheries and aquaculture getting started, 2008
• Winter, G., Toward Sustainable Fisheries Law: A Comparative Analysis, IUCN, 2009
• Kelleher, K., PROFISH, High-Level Roundtable on International Cooperation for Sustainable Development in Caribbean Small Island Developing States, World Bank Activities in Fisheries

P3s at work to save tuna
in Philippines
P3s at work to save tuna
in
Philippines
Full transcript