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Diet

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Allison Orzel

on 14 April 2015

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Transcript of Diet

Diet vs. Antibiotic
Resistance

We believe people that eat red meat will have a greater percent of E.Coli with antibiotic resistance than those who do not. We suspect this percent resistance will be especially high in people that eat red meat often, and in people that eat their red meat rare.

We also hypothesize
Hypothesis #1
Someone who eats red meat will have a greater proportion of E.coli with antibiotic resistance than someone who does not eat red meat (on average).
Hypothesis #2
Someone who eats red meat more often will have a greater proportion of E.Coli with antibiotic resistance than someone who eats red meat less often (on average).
By:
Nicole Jimenez
Raichell Kim
Allison Orzel
Fahad Sarvari



Antibiotic Resistance
Administration of antibiotics decreases the incidence of infectious disease in the heard, and the transmission of bacteria to humans.
Reducing intestinal bacteria in livestock allows for more food to be digested by the animal. So an animal fed food + antibiotics will weigh more than an animal given the same amount of food. This is profitable because livestock are sold by the pound.
Hypothesis #3
Someone who eats their meat rare will have a greater proportion of E.Coli with antibiotic resistance than someone who eats their meat well (on average).
Hypothesis
80 % of all antibiotics sold in the United States are for use on livestock and poultry, not humans.
source : http://www.nrdc.org/food/saving-antibiotics.asp
Did you know?
Why?
How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
Antibiotics kill off sensitive bacteria, leaving only a few resistant bacteria. These resistant bacteria thrive and reproduce, spreading their resistance.
Possible Explanation
Poultry are also fed antibiotics. We couldn't accurately compare people that eat meat vs. vegetarians because our data evaluated results of very few vegetarians.
Possible Explanations
Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase risk
of foodborne illness. Why?
Since most livestock are fed antibiotics, if any bacteria is still alive on meat, it is likely resistant to antibiotics.
Heat kills bacteria on foods.
Conclusions : Red Meat
Eating red meat does not appear to increase the amount of E.Coli with antibiotic resistance in our samples.
More frequent red meat consumption may increase the proportion of E.Coli with ampicillin resistance. However, this trend was not observed for streptomycin or tetracycline.
Eating rare meat may increase the proportion of E.Coli with apicillin resistance. However, this trend was not obsberved for streptomycin or tetracycline.
Antibiotics in Water
When people flush their unused antibiotics, they are transferred to water treatment plants. Most water treatment plants cannot completely remove pharmaceuticals from water.
Hypothesis #4
People that drink tap water will have the same proportion of E.Coli with antibiotic resistance as people that drink bottled water.
Bacteria & Antibiotics
* Bacteria in body protect us from disease because they compete with pathogenic bacteria, which therefore limit their proliferation.

* Antibiotics can kill a broad spectrum of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, which affects the different types of bacteria found in the body and their proportions. This effect isn’t limited to the individual receiving the treatment either—it is represented in the population at large.
* Increased consumption of antibiotics leads to an increase in the amount of antibiotic resistant bacteria in your body.

*Bacteria can become antibiotic resistant by inheriting genes, genetic mutations, and/or by exchanging antibiotic resistant genes with other bacterial cells.
Resistance
* Since there is a decrease in the non-antibiotic resistant bacteria, then the ones that are resistant have more resources to survive and reproduce.

* Even if the antibiotic resistant bacteria are benign, an increase in their population facilitates the exchange of their antibiotic resistant genes to pathogenic bacteria.

*Therefore, when one becomes sick and needs to use antibiotics, the population of pathogens that are resistant to the antibiotic will be greater than the population that isn’t resistant causing a decrease in the antibiotic efficacy.

Results from our experiment can help us to examine..

*Whether the food and water that we consume can alter an individual’s antibiotic resistance.



What is the purpose of our experiment?
Why is this important?
* Greater awareness of what you are eating can lead to decreased exposure to bacteria with antibiotic resistance, which will in turn lead to greater antibiotic efficacy when they are needed.

* In order to increase the efficacy of antibiotics, the prevalence and the effects of antibiotic resistant genes in the food and water that we consume need to be better understood so that more responsible methods can be used in the growth and production of animals and produce.
Materials & Methods
Possible Explanations
Materials:
1. Ampicillin plate
2. Antibiotic History survey
3. L Plate
4. Swabs
5. Loop
6. Bunsen Burner



Methods:

We plated colonies onto ampicillin and L plates. From this, we can see whether specific bacteria were antibiotic resistant. If there was growth on the ampicillin plate, that would mean that those bacteria are ampicillin resistant. Afterwards, count the number of colonies on both plates and record. In addition, have a large population take a Antibiotic History Survey. Record these results and compare them with the amount of antibiotic resistance to specific questions/topic, looking if they had any correlation with each other.. We also did the same with the L plate.


Possible Errors to our results
1. We could have had was that the survey was not specific enough; for example, there could have been, amongst the sampled population, a chance that a majority of them ate meat. This would have showed skewed results favoring the meat-eaters versus the seafood-eaters or vegetarians.

2. There is also some self-reported bias as not all subjects will know their exact diet and this also adds into the fact that the study itself was not specific enough. Some of the questions could have delved deeper to find out more accurate answers, but they do not; this adds to the errors in this lab project.


Frequency does not inform us about quantity.
Someone who eats 10 units of red meat at once has ingested (we assert) the same amount of bacteria as someone who eats 5 units of red meat in two sittings.
Thus, without information about serving sizes, etc. it is difficult to conclude whether our hypothesis was truly disproven.
It would be easy to accuse confounding variables...but...
Amp --> expected
Strep/tet --> we suspect previous medication
history is to blame!
Possible Explanations
Based on production costs we guess that the tap water is likely treated in an "all at once" harsh manner whereas the bottled water is subject to more nuanced treatment.
Dumping excess, cheaper, chemicals into the water in tandem with recycling likely means tap water has a greater amount of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
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