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Integration of Phonology and Pronunciation

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Alisha Fisher

on 13 October 2013

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Transcript of Integration of Phonology and Pronunciation

Making the Most of Speaking and Listening Classes
Phase 1
What kind of information can we gain through a Contrastive Analysis?
Phase 2
Phase 3
Informed teaching practices!
Integration of Phonology and Pronunciation
Comparison of native language and target language segmentals
Comparison of L1 and L2 suprasegmentals
Stress and intonation
Syllabic structure
What is a Contrastive Analysis?
Lado (1957)
reveals "insight to the linguistic problems that cannot be achieved otherwise” (Lado, 1957, p. 2)
which areas are likely to be the greatest challenge
which areas are likely to require minimum attention
Sample Analysis:
Phonemic inventory of the native language
Comparison of the two phonemic inventories
What does the research have to say about teaching pronunciation?
Markedness - how rare a sound is among languages. The more marked a sound is, the more difficult it will probably be to learn (Major, 2008).
Non-target-like pronunciation at the suprasegmental level has a greater impact on intelligibility than that at the segmental level (Derwing, 2008).
Best's PAM model:
Most effective practices for overcoming the greatest challenges to intelligibility:
teach sounds in context
teach with high speaker variation
provide immediate feedback
(Bradlow, 2008)
Putting Research into Practice: Activity Creation!
Phonemic inventory of the target language
consonant chart
vowel chart
diphthong charts
consonant chart
vowel chart
diphthong charts
Consonant comparison
vowel comparison
place a greater emphasis on suprasegmentals than segmentals
(Derwing, 2008)
What challenges does your contrastive analysis, along with phonology research, predict your students will encounter?
Interdental fricatives are extremely marked phonemes! (Major, 2008)
Stress and Intonation:
Syllable-final voiced obstruents
Reduced Vowels
Group story telling activity

√(Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin, 1996)
Sounds in context: story
High variability: multiple students producing target phoneme
Immediate feedback: students reproduce each other's utterances.
Syllable-final voiced obstruents are more marked than voiceless obstruents in the same position (Eckman, 2008)
Drawing Dictation Activity
Sounds in context: each sound occurs in a sentence that is part of the game
High variability: students take turns producing the target
Immediate feedback: correct picture on board
Nontargetlike pronunciation at the suprasegmental level has a greater impact on intelligibility than that at the supersegmental level (Derwing, 2008).
Sounds in context: sentences and paragraphs
High variability: teacher and audio recording
Immediate feedback: students read the text with reduced vowels, teacher responds
Each textbook has benefits! However, the books cannot possibly include lessons for every language background.

When it comes to pronunciation, students will benefit most from an instructor who uses research based, informed teaching practices to supplement textbook instruction!
Integrated Skills
How does your textbook treat pronunciation?
Textbooks often:
are theme-based
have a vocabulary focus
build critical thinking skills
Textbooks often:
use visual representations
have an explicit focus on pronunciation
Integrated Skills textbooks are often more grounded in comprehensive second language pedagogy (as discussed in Brown (2007)).
Pronunciation course textbook methodology is often supported by phonology research (as summarized by Gick et. al (2008), Strange and Shafer (2008), and Derwing (2008)).
In comparison, these books could use:
focus on immediate instructor feedback!
Integrated Skills:

Theme-based instruction
Critical thinking focus
visual representations of sounds
Single Category Pattern
Category Goodness Pattern
Uncategorizable Pattern
Two-Category Pattern
eg. /l/ and /r/ map onto Japanese /liquid/
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