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Lesson 15-16 Motor Programmes & Schema

AS OCR Acquiring Movement Skills
by

Joe Crane

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of Lesson 15-16 Motor Programmes & Schema

Motor Programs
Motor Control
Learning Objectives
Motor Programmes
Key Questions
Motor Programme
A Motor Programme is:
Executive Motor Programme
Tennis Serve
Executive Motor Programme
Tennis Serve
Ball toss
Back swing
Forward swing
contact
Follow through
Executive Motor Programme
Shot Putt
Executive Motor Programme
Shot Put
Grip
Stance
Travel
&
Trunk
Release
Executive Motor Programme
Give 2 examples of your own that are low in organisation.
Open Loop control (of motor skills)
Use your knowledge of motor programmes to help explain how the performer is able to do the following…
Open loop level 1 control suggests that instinct and reflex response do not exist
Open Loop control (of motor skills)
Level 1 control
Open Loop control (of motor skills)
The plan or EMP stored in LTM
The action of the working muscles (movement effectors)
Motor command
Memory trace
This system of subconscious control does not produce feedback and can’t be changed during performance. Open loop is inflexible – difficult to stop once its started.
Closed Loop control (of motor skills)
Level 2 & 3
The plan or EMP stored in LTM
The action of the working muscles (movement effectors)
Motor command
Memory trace
Feedback Via muscles
Level 2
Closed Loop involves feedback known as the perceptual trace
Feedback loop is short, internal feedback via kinaesthesis and proprioception
Although changes are made subconsciously, adjustments are stored in the LTM
• When KR is combined with effective KP, a player or athlete can modify their actions in the future


• KR must not provide too much information otherwise the performer will not know what to pay attention to or how to help future attempts
Other Types of FEEDBACK
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
is information which could DEPRESS PERFORMANCE
negative reinforcement, negative criticism about POOR performances
FEEDBACK USED EFFECTIVELY IN PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
• Improvements in performance are largely as a result of the feedback that is provided by a coach

• The coach must always consider crucial aspects of feedback, particularly quality and appropriateness of the type used

• Different forms of feedback seem to be appropriate at for performers of different skill levels (stages of learning)

• Every performer has a different personality and therefore may prefer and respond to better to different forms of feedback than other performers
• Also, one form of feedback may be more appropriate for a particular sport or activity than another

• There is evidence that learners rely heavily on visual / verbal feedback, and only in the later stages of learning are they able to make use of internal or kinaesthetic feedback
Things you need to be able to do..
SCHMIDT’S SCHEMA THEORY

Schema theory proposes that every time a movement is performed, the individual stores the following four things in memory:


1.
The Initial Conditions
- the state of the muscles and the environmental conditions prior to movement.

2.
The Response Specifications
- the motor program, including its force, speed, and spatial characteristics.

3.
The Sensory Consequences
- the sensory feedback from the movement.

4.
The Response Outcome
- the success of the response in relation to the outcome intended





Tennis serve
Tennis forehand
Javelin throw
Volleyball serve
Throwing a tennis ball
Netball chest pass
Basketball chest pass
Passing a football with left and right foot, on the ground
Basketball lay up with left and right han
d
Some problems with the theory
If a separate plan or memory trace is required for each skill or movement it would not be possible to store such an infinite number of motor programmes – this makes retention a problem
Evaluate
the the differences between
Open Loop Control
and
Closed Loop Control
using sporting examples.
To
State
4 examples of
Executive Programmes
with
Subroutines
from different activities
To
Explain
the terms
Motor Programme
&
Executive Motor Programme
.
Is the order of how the sub routines are taught important? (Backward Chaining / Progressive Part / Whole Part Whole)
How significant are subroutines in the development of skill?
What are subroutines?
What is a Motor Programme?
As learners become experts, Motor Programmes become over learned and grooved (memory trace)
Made up of subroutines which are the building blocks of a Motor Programme (described as mini skills).
Put into action by the effector mechanisms and operated under Closed or Open Loop Control.
A generalised series of movements stored in the long term memory that are retrieved as a whole & by single decision.
Highlight the Hierarchical structure and the sequential organisation.
Feedback Via the Brain
Level 3
In sport, responses are unusual and spontaneous to open skills – known as novel responses
If you could store all of the motor programmes, it would take to long to recall the plan
Once the decision making stage has been complete and an action executed a sportsperson gains feedback. This allows the sportsperson to evaluate and improve upon their performance.
By the end of the lesson..
To

Identify
the different types of
feedback
and
State
their
functions
within sport

KNOWLEGDE OF RESULTS
information about the outcome of a performance

success or failure
distance / height / time

this information can be from a number of sources
coach
video
press / TV
INTRINSIC FEEDBACK

SIGHT - the view of other competitors in a game
HEARING - the sounds of crowd
SMELL - of other competitors!
To
Evaluate
the different
stages of learning
in relation to
feedback
.
To Explain how feedback may be used effectively in practical activities.
EXTRINSIC FEEDBACK
Information about the performance that is in addition to intrinsic FB
KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE
information about a performance (its quality / rhythm / aesthetics)

from a coach
from video
from the press / TV
This is SENSORY INFORMATION from the performer’s OWN SENSORY SYSTEM which normally occurs when individuals produce movement.
Intrinsic feedback received from outside the body is known as
EXTEROCEPTIVE FEEDBACK
Intrinsic feedback from within the body is known as
PROPRIOCEPTIVE FEEDBACK
PROPRIOCEPTION - the position and angles of limbs and tension in muscles
CONCURRENT FEEDBACK
occurs DURING a performance
has the aim of improving skills or techniques WHILE A PERFORMER IS IN ACTION
TERMINAL FEEDBACK
occurs AFTER a performance has finished
is important because it STRENGTHENS THE SCHEMA in learning
POSITIVE FEEDBACK
is feedback which gives information aimed at a CONSTRUCTIVE development of performance
positive reinforcement, PRAISE and ENCOURAGEMENT about good performances
the knowledge from poor performances which gives insight about ERRORS AND THEIR POSSIBLE CORRECTION
To
Explain
the concept of
Schmidts's Schema Theory
.


To
Identify
how
Schema
is formed and stored


To
Apply

Schema Theory

to
practiccal skill learning & Performing
Transfer of learning
Demonstrate the following skills:
SCHMIDT’S SCHEMA THEORY
Schema Theory
Full transcript