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Chapter 22: Shadows Over the Pacific: East Asia under Challenge
Transcript of Chapter 22: Shadows Over the Pacific: East Asia under Challenge
Afterwards a series of reforms are pushed through due to desperation, by 1910 even an assembly has been formed.
Why is the initial period of reform often dangerous for autocratic regimes?
Rise of Sun Yat-sen and unification of nationalist groups.
What was the three stage process that Sun Yat-sen sought for China?
1. The Decline of the Manchus
Why do the Chinese have such difficulty in suppressing the rebellion?
The British/French destroy the Summer palace in Beijing.
Treaty of Tianjin introduces further humiliations: legalization of the opium trade, more ports for trade, Kowloon to the British, and territory in the north to Russia.
2. Chinese Society in Transition
3. A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan
Around 1800, the Manchus/Qing are at the height of power.
Long prosperity during the 18th century.
Secure borders with firm territorial concern.
Nonetheless the 19th century will be harsh and shortly after its end the 2000 years dynastic system will end.
What factors do historians assert caused the fall of the Qing Empire?
Most asset that the West was a contributing not a causal factor.
Corruption, growing population, etc.
Western influence largely highlighted backwardness of empire and hastened its decline.
Western trade limited to Canton for several hundred years.
This arraignment proved unacceptable to the British given time.
Tea and other trade imbalances deeply trouble the British.
The drug trade, getting China hooked on Opium.
Early 19th century appeals and threats by China to end the trade. What are the British responses to these demands?
Chinese authorities begin to forcibly stop the trade and confiscate the goods of British merchants.
These actions amongst others leads to the 1st Opium War between 1839-1842.
What happens during the war and how is in concluded?
What does the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842 demand of the Chinese?
The Opium trade continues unabated until it gradually peters out in the late 19th century.
How is the period of the Opium Wars viewed historically?
Chinese continue to try and play foreigners off one another, they grant equal privileges to other western powers.
Taiping Rebellion occurs thereafter due to economic problems and ongoing western incursions.
What were some other causes of the Taiping Rebellion?
The leader of the rebellion believes that he is the younger brother of Jesus.
Rebellion even succeeds in taking Nanjing but is finally suppressed by 1864.
To put down revolts and fight against foreign invasion, regional forces are relied upon.
What begins to happen as a result of the employment of these regional armies?
On again, off again Self-Strengthening movement develops which calls for reform with Britain used as the model.
Western tech is gradually adopted while preserving as much as possible traditional values.
By the last half of the 19th century, European advances increase rapidly.
Outlying areas of the empire are seperated and sometimes annexed by the European powers.
Defeat by Japan in Korea in 1894-1895 leads to further problems.
1897 German advances causes other countries to issue similar demands.
How do the European powers handle the Chinese question, how does it avoid being divided like Africa?
More attempts at reform are tried but a conservative counter-coup occurs by the Dowager Empress.
All these events leads to the Boxer Rebellion and an ongoing seige of western interests in China.
How is the Boxer Rebellion put down?
1911 revolt by Sun Yat-sen against the three year old emperor.
Support of critical military figures leads to the end of the Chinese Empire.
Ongoing problems of support for the revolution.
Truly less of a successful revolution than a collapse of the old order.
What problems does China have after the revolution up until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949?
Many traditional empires collapse around this period, ultimately issues of the challenges of the time and a too little, too late approach of dealing with them.
Chinese economy increasing complex both prior to and after European incursions.
Still industrialization is limited without Western involvement, traditional methods are still largely used.
Problems in Chinese society consist often of transit issues.
Western influence is limited mostly to concessionary areas.
Who is the primary implementer of Western ideas and how successful are they?
Population increases are a large factor in most societal changes.
Loss of land becomes more common during this period.
How are merchants viewed in China and how does this change or not change in the 19th century?
Western intervention radically impacts society and the economy.
Many argue that these processes undermined local means of achieving progress.
Industrialization is difficult enough as is but probably harder when imposed from outside the country.
Early 19th century society is essentially the same as before but by the end is very different.
Change in the education system and the import of Western ideas are probably the largest causes of change in society.
Status of women begins to slowly change. Foot-binding is roughly 50% of the population at the start of the 1800s.
Women are more and more involved in industry, in rebellions and political revolts.
Also women's education is first started on a larger level.
Attempts are first made to end foot-binding.
Tokugawa Japan had unified the country and ruled for 200 years.
They governed a country in isolation though enormous changes were ongoing and there was much development.
The Feudal system was beginning to come undone and isolation was harder and harder to maintain.
Western nations began to pressure more and more for trade relations.
How did Japan actually first begin to open up to the world again?
Americans and soon thereafter other Western powers receive a number of privileges.
Rebellious, militaristic, anti-western south begins a outright revolt and overthrows the Shogunate in the 1867 Meiji Restoration.
Once in charge how do the rebellious samarai of the south guide the country?
Despite conservatism they decide to modernize largely for self-defense.
Emperor still not in charge just a figurehead.
Capital is moved from Kyoto to Edo, which becomes Tokyo.
Movements are made once and for all to end the daimyo system.
Daimyos become governors and Samurais are bought off.
Political system is modeled after the west. The German semi-authoritarian structure is favored.
Constitutional commissions are sent to the west.
What sort of government does the constitution of 1890 establish?
New systems of land ownership are created to replace the daimyo system. Firm land rights and taxes are made on the peasantry, also giving the government a strong fiscal basis.
Who takes the lead in industrialization policies in Japan and how successful are they?
In industrializing Japan, workers have very rough conditions.
Prior to the Meiji restoration there had been an ongoing decay in the previous social structure and looser advancement and interaction amongst classes.
Women had been held under the three obediences; child to father, wife to husband, and widow to son.
How does the Meiji reformation change these social systems?
The old feudal army is replaced by an imperial army.
Education is changed to a western model and women enter for the first time.
The social and cultural practices of the west are adopted wholescale almost.
Reaction to these changes provokes tighter control over women despite contributions to society.
Japanese emulation of the west also occurs in terms of foreign policy.
Japan is small, lacks natural resources, densely populated and has no natural outlet for expansion.
They viewed western successes as based on democratic systems, high education and colonies.
Where does Japan begin to first expand at?
Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 and its consequences.
What European power does Japan begin to develop a significant rivalry with?
Surprise attack at Port Arthur in 1904.
What are the results of the Russo-Japanese War?
On a larger scale what did the victory in this war represent to many colonized peoples?
Korea is annexed in 1908.
Beginnings of Japanese-American discord occurs during this time period despite agreements reached.
U.S. immigration policies also cause misgivings.
Culturally European styles enter into literature.
Enormous architectural and artistic influences too.
Many classic Japanese traditions enter the West too.
Traditional art continues at the same time and efforts are made to preserve it too.
Transformation of Japanese society was amazing even with some ongoing problems.
Overall results are impressive, Japan catches up to the West and establishes equality with them.
The lack of social violence is unique too as it is seen essentially as a revolution from above.
Why was Japan unique in industrializing amongst non-Western peoples and how did this contrast with China for example?
Final result is a new Eastern-Western Japanese civilization.
Ongoing problems are the traditional warrior spirit and authoritarian system that meant power of the state at home and expansion abroad.
Only the Second World War would end these issues and establish contentment in Japan to live in peace with their neighbors.