Resources for

Parents & Students

Multimedia Resources

Exceptional Categories

**Learning Team C**

Dana Foddrell-Bland

Rosamond Bentley

Tiffany Gehrke

Jamaris Young

Ada Searle

Dana Foddrell-Bland

Rosamond Bentley

Tiffany Gehrke

Jamaris Young

Ada Searle

**Instructional Strategies Website**

Introduction

In this presentation a website has been created as a resource for mathematical instructional strategies which includes the following:

Resources for parents and students that support math instructional strategies

Definitions of math-related terminology

Exceptionality categories (paraphrase)

Free multimedia resources that support instruction.

References

Addition: the act of adding one thing to another

Algebraic expression: an expression that contains at least one variable

Angle: the V-shaped figure formed by two lines meeting at a point (angle shape); or, the measure of the turn formed by two lines meeting at a point (angle measure).

Attribute: a detail, such as size, shape, or color, used to describe an object.

Area: the number of square units that fit inside a two-dimensional shape (like a rectangle), or that cover a surface of a three-dimensional shape (like a cube).

Bar Graph: a graph where the length of a bar represents a certain amount.

Circle: a two-dimensional round shape where every point on its boundary is the same distance from the center.

Circumference: the distance around a circle.

Cube: a three-dimensional solid shape with 6 identical square faces.

Cylinder: a three-dimensional solid shape with identical circular ends (a can).

Difference: the answer to a subtraction problem

**Math-Related Terminology Cont...**

Difference: the answer to a subtraction problem

Division: tells how many equal groups; splitting evenly

Estimation: an educated ‘guess'; a rough calculation.

Exponent: the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself

Geometry: the mathematics of points, angles, lines, surfaces, flat shapes and solids.

Graph: a drawing or diagram that shows the relationship between numbers using pictures, bars, or lines.

Line: a collection of points forming a straight path extending in two directions.

Multiplication: repeated addition

Numerical expression: a combination of numbers and operations

One-to-One Correspondence: the matching of one thing to another; for example, the matching of the number “3” to three bears, or “4” to moving forward four spaces on a board game.

Parallel: lines that are always the same distance apart and never intersect.

Pattern: a design or sequence that repeats itself in a predictable way.

Probability: the numerical chance that a specific outcome will occur.

Pyramid: a three-dimensional shape with a square or triangular base and triangular sides that come together in a point.

Quotient: the answer to a division problem

Rectangle: a two-dimensional, four-sided shape with two pairs of equal-length, parallel sides and four right angles.

Spatial Reasoning Skills: the ability to figure out how two-dimensional flat shapes or three-dimensional solid shapes may fit together to create new shapes.

Square: a two-dimensional, four-sided shape with equal-length sides and four right angles.

Statistics: the mathematics of collecting and analyzing data to draw conclusions and make predictions.

Subtraction: Act of taking something away

Symmetry: an attribute of a figure where one part of it fits exactly onto itself, as when something can be folded along a line so the two halves match exactly.

Math Related Terminology Cont..

Tally: a way to keep track when counting by making marks or using counters.

Tessellation: a design of repeating shapes that fit together without gaps or overlaps.

Triangle: a two-dimensional, three-sided shape with three angles.

Variable: a symbol (like x or y) that is used in mathematical expressions to represent a quantity

Volume: how much a container holds, or the amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object.

Math Related Terminology cont...

• Aaamath.com – AAAMath features a comprehensive set of interactive arithmetic lessons for kindergarten through eighth grade. Enables learning or review to occur at each individual’s level. http://www.aaamath.com

• Aaawhere.com – helps children learn geography.

• ADHD News – Excellent website for information and resources about ADHD. Site has e-mail discussion for teachers and parents of children with ADHD. http://www.adhdnews.com.

• AHEDD- Ahedd is a private non-profit organization with a mission to serve as a catalyst in the employment and development of persons with a disability. http://www.ahedd.org/index.html

• American Association of Persons with Disabilities – A disability rights organization that advocates for independence for all people with disabilities (cross disability civil rights). http://www.aapd.com

Multimedia Resources cont...

• Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) – CHADD is a non-profit organization representing children and adults with ADD/ADHD. Website provides information about ADD and ADHD and links to other pages. Provides lesson ideas, articles, and fact sheets about ADD and ADHD.

• Community Resource for Independence (CRI) – This is a community based, non-residential, non-profit corporation that provides services for individuals with disabilities in order to maximize their independence and the accessibility of the communities in which they live. http://www.crinet.org/.

• Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) – The CEC is dedicated to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities and or the gifted. The website provides a lot of information about the educational rights of children with disabilities, and it offers an on-line discussion forum for members.

Multimedia Resources cont...

• KaleidAScope – The purpose is to help individuals with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) from age 15 and throughout their lives.

• LDOnline- Learning Disabilities Information about a wide range of learning disabilities. Offers a free electronic newsletter to provide updates about issues involving children with learning disabilities.

• Office of Special Education and Rehabilitive Services (OSERS) – This office, known in short as OCR, is an office in the US Department of Education, supports programs that assist in educating children with special needs, and provides for the rehabilitation of youth and adults with disabilities. The OCR website includes a link to a document entitled, “A Guide to the Individualized Education Program” that can be downloaded off the internet.

• Online Asperger Syndrome Information and Support (O.A.S.I.S.) – Provides a lot of information about Asperger Syndrome, links to other PDD/Autism websites and information about support groups for parents of children with Asperger Syndrome.

• Autism Speaks – This site was created to give information to parents and teachers of autistic children. It includes websites for parents and lessons for teachers.

• 25 Cerebral Palsy Resources You Should Know About

• Exceptional Parent – www.eparent.com

• K12 Online Special Needs – a Georgia Online School for children with Special Needs to learn in their home environment, but from a certified teacher who understands that child’s disabilities.

• Front Row Math: Front Row is a personalized math program that allows each student to learn and practice math independently, while giving the teacher data to help them differentiate individual and small group instruction.

25 Cerebral Palsy Resources You Should Know About. (2013, November 06). Retrieved from http://www.friendshipcircle.org

AAA. (n.d.). Retrieved from AAAWhere.com: http://wwwhere.com

AAA Math. (n.d.). Retrieved from AAA Math Interactive Resources: http://www.aaamath.com

AHEDD. (n.d.). Retrieved from AHEDD: http://wwwahedd.org/index.html

Autism Speaks. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.autismspeaks.com

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (n.d.). Retrieved from CHADD: http://www.chadd.org

Community Resources for Independence. (n.d.). Retrieved from CRI: http://www.crinet.org/

Council for Exceptional Children. (n.d.). Retrieved from CEC: http://www.cec.sped.org/

Down Syndrome in the Mathematics Classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved from Down Syndrome Victoria: http://www.downsyndromevictoria.org.au

Griffis, U. (2015, April 17). Special Education Teacher. (R. A. Bentley, Interviewer)

K12 Online Special Needs. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.K12.com/Georgia

KaleidAScope. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.Kas-erie.org/

LD Online. (n.d.). Retrieved from Learning Disabilities Online: http://ldonline.com

Online Asperger Syndrome Information and Support. (n.d.). Retrieved from O.A.S.I.S: http://aspergersyndrome.org

Supporting The Student with Down Syndrome In Your Classroom. (2015). Retrieved from Down Syndrome Association of Western Michigan: http://www.kcd8g.org

Teachers.Net. (n.d.). Retrieved from American Association of Persons with Disabilities: http://www.aapd.com

US Department of Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services: http://www.ed.gov/ocr

Developmental Disabilities

Developmental disabilities (DD) involve impairment in learning, language, physical, and behavioral abilities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). The conditions may begin at the developmental stage in utero and sometimes after birth. For a majority of DD, specific causes cannot be identified. Instead, causes may be one or more of the following:

• Genetics

• Physical health of mother while pregnant

• Behaviors of mother while pregnant (drinking, smoking)

• Complications during birth

• Head trauma

• Environmental factors

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, February). Facts about developmental disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/developmentaldisabilities/facts.html

Exceptional Categories cont...

Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Individuals with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) exhibit behavior considered significantly outside of their age group and the cultural norm (Heward, 2010). EBD affects academic performance and social relationships through two types of behavior, internalized and externalized.

Indications of Internalized Behavior:

• Little to no social interaction

• Often immature and withdrawn

• Fantasizes and daydreams

• Shows signs of depression

• Expresses unreasonable fear

Signals of Externalized Behavior:

• Argues with teacher

• Fights with peers

• Swears and yells

• Doesn’t complete assignments

• Destroys property

The majority of individuals with EBD have significant deficiencies in reading and math and are at least one year or more behind grade level. Their IQ may fall within the slow learner to mild retardation range. Their difficult behavior leads to missed instruction in the classroom, which leads to academic failure, which leads to increased difficult behavior, thus perpetuating the damaging cycle.

Heward, W. L. (2010, December). Emotional and behavioral disorders in children: Characteristics. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/children-emotional-behavioral-disorders/

Exceptional Categories cont...

Other Health Disabilities and Physical Impairments

According to Child and Youth Health (2014), “A physical disability is any condition that permanently prevents normal body movement and/or control” (What is a physical disability?). Many types of physical impairments (PI) exist for many different reasons:

• Muscular dystrophy from weak muscle fibers – genetic

• Spina bifida from abnormal development of spinal cord – congenital

• Meningitis from damaged brain, nerves, or muscles – serious illness

• Paralysis from damaged brain or spinal cord – serious injury

The Minnesota Department of Education (2015) states, “Other health disabilities (OHD) include a wide range of chronic or acute health conditions that range from mild to severe” (para. 1), such as:

• Asthma

• Cystic fibrosis

• Diabetes

• Sickle cell anemia

Educational professionals who work with students with OHD and PI include occupational, physical, and speech therapists. Special equipment may be needed to support students with communication, walking, eating, and toileting.

Child and Youth Health. (2014, September). Physical disability. Retrieved from http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetails.aspx?p=114&np=306&id=1874

Minnesota Department of Education. (2015). Other health disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.education.state.mn.us/MDE/EdExc/SpecEdClass/DisabCateg/OtherHealthDisab/index.html

Exceptional Categories cont..

Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities (LD) are neurological disorders, meaning the brain processes information differently (LD Online, 2015). Being diagnosed with LD is not an indicator of the person’s level of intelligence. With the appropriate intervention, individuals with LD learn strategies and skills to compensate for their LD and have opportunities for academic and occupational success as much as individuals without LD.

Common learning disabilities include:

• Dyslexia – difficulty with reading

• Dysgraphia – difficulty with writing

• Dyscalculia – difficulty with math

• Auditory and visual processing – difficulty understanding language

• Nonverbal – difficulty with organizational and visual/spatial functions

LD Online. (2015). What is a learning disability? Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/ldbasics/whatisld

Sylvan Learning Centers are located throughout the U.S. for parents to enroll their child for extra tutoring in school subject areas.

www.sylvanlearning.com

Chegg Tutors is an online tutoring site that students and parents can use for extra help with math and other subject areas.

www.mathmatics.chegg.com/tutors/

Books found on Amazon.com and barnesandnoble.com

Mathematics for All: Instructional Strategies To Assist Students with Learning Challenges by Nancy L. Gallenstein and Dodi Hodges