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The Effect of Ink Colour on Recall Memory

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Liana Giovino

on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of The Effect of Ink Colour on Recall Memory

The Effect of Ink
C
o
l
o
u
r on Recall Memory

Question/Purpose
To determine whether recall memory is affected by
red
,
blue
or black ink.
Experimental Design
Materials
• Stopwatch
• Paper
• Pen
• List of 60 words in red, blue, and black ink

Observations
Analysis
Conclusion
In Conclusion, the data shows that
red
words were recalled on average 14.5% more than the black words and 8.5% more than the
blue
words between the males and females, the results also show that females have a slightly better recall memory than males overall
Hypothesis
Null: Recall memory will not be affected by changes in ink colour.

If exposed to red, blue and black ink, it is more likely that the words in red will be recalled.






Procedure
Results
1
. Create a block list of words; 20 black, 20 blue, and 20 red mixed together in random order.
2.
Create a table to record observations.
3.
Ask the subject to read over the card for 1 minute, use a stopwatch to ensure the correct time.
4
. Immediately following the subject scanning the card ask them to write down as many words as they recall in one minute, record the number of black, blue, and red words they recalled in the observations table.
5.
Repeat steps 3-5 for 20-40 subjects or more.

Number of Words Memorized
Female
Subject
Red

Blue
Black
1 2 3 4
2 2 2 1
3 2 4 0
4 4 3 2
5 4 2 5
6 3 2 0
7 7 6 0
8 1 1 4
9 3 2 2
10 4 0 2
Total 32 25 20

Number of Words Memorized
Male
Subject
Red

Blue
Black
1 4 1 2
2 3 4 1
3 1 4 2
4 2 4 3
5 2 4 2
6 4 2 1
7 2 0 2
8 2 0 5
9 2 1 0
10 4 2 1
Total 26 22 18


In this study’s results it is proven that red has the most effect on recall memory. According to the results girls recalled
32
red words and boys recalled
26
red words this was significantly larger than the number of blue and black words recalled by the grade 9 students.

What is Recall Memory?
Recall memory is the act of retrieving information from memory without any specific cue to help retrieve the information.
Our experiment was based on short term recall memory, the short term memory is often associated with the pre-frontal lobe.
The colour
RED
The colour red is one of the three primary colours and signifies danger and provokes the most response to humans. Red is a warm colour that is known to induce emotions from passion to violence.
The colour red was able to stand out from the other coloured words because it is more vibrant and appealing to the human eye.
The colour
BLUE
After testing it was proven that blue ink was recalled the second most. In total the girls recalled
25
blue words and the boys recalled
22
blue words.
Cool colors such as blue can look clean and crisp, implying status and calm.
Blue was recalled less then red because it has a shorter wavelength about 444nm.
The Colour
BLACK
According to the results, black ink was recalled the least, in total the girls recalled
20
black words and the boys recalled
18
black words.
Black is intimidating, unfriendly and unapproachable because of the power it exudes.
Black was recalled the least because it absorbs all wavelengths of visual light that fall on it and no light is reflected into the eye from that object.
Male vs Female
Calculations
P-Value
Standard Deviation
Possible Error
The value of 4.2 results in a P-value of 0.10-0.15, which means that 10-15% of the data collected in the experiment was due to chance. Therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis.
143 total words recalled
Degrees of Freedom= #variables-1= 3-1= 2
Expected Data (Total)
Girls and Boys Red- 47.7, Blue- 47.7, Black- 47.7
Actual Data (Total)
Girls and Boys Red- 58, Blue- 47, Black- 38



standard deviation measures the amount of variation or dispersion from the average. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean (also called expected value); a high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values.
x= results x= results mean n=sample size
Girls Red Words:
n=10
Mean=
Total/10
=32/10
3.2
Standard Deviation
=1.68

Girls Blue Words
=1.65
Girls Black Words
=1.83
Boys Red Words
=1.07
Boys Blue Words
=1.69
Boys Black Words
=1.37

Humans have 3 different cones with photo pigments that sense three different portions of the spectrum. Each cone is tuned to perceive primarily long wavelengths (sometimes called red), middle wavelengths (sometimes called green), or short wavelengths (sometimes called blue).

Red wavelengths are about 650nm, and carry less energy than blue wavelengths. The human eye can perceive more variations in warmer colors than cooler ones. This is because almost 2/3 of the cones process the longer light wavelengths such as red.
How the Eye perceives colour
Female

Female test subjects were able to recall more words and different coloured inks had a bigger affect on their memory.
Women are better at distinguishing colours from each other and that men require longer wavelengths to see the same hue that women are seeing. Therefore, since longer wavelengths are associated with "warmer" colors, an orange, for example, may appear redder to a man than to a woman.
Male
The male brain is boosted with high amounts of male hormones such as testosterone receptors which affects how colour is perceived.
1 min time frame
No time was given following the reading of the card
Distractions
When introducing the experiment to the subject, they were told to “memorize” the list of words as best as they could
Male colourblindness
These results were however not significant enough with our sample size to reject the null hypothesis and so must conclude that the color of the font has no significant effect on recall memory.
Real World Relevancy
student studying for a test
work force giving presentations
Protocols
Full transcript