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The Basketball Jump Shot

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by

Chantal Simak

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of The Basketball Jump Shot

The Basketball Jump Shot
Goal of the skill:

To get the basketball into the net

In order to execute the skill:
Performer must execute proper form and generate enough force via kinetic linking.

The basketball jump shot consists of 7 key phases:
1. Address Phase
2. Force Initiation Phase
"The Crouch"
3. Ball Positioning Phase
"The Set"
4. Jumping Phase
5. Force Production Phase
"The Release"
6. Follow-Through Phase
"Wrist Flick"
7. Landing Phase
INTRODUCTION
EXPERT PERFORMER VIDEO
The Address Phase

The Force Initiation Phase
The Ball Positioning Phase
The Jump Phase
The Force Production Phase
The Follow-Through Phase
The Landing Phase
During This Phase:
Square Shoulders
Stagger feet with dominant foot forward
Set centre of gravity just above the midline

Rationale:
Optimizes the balance and centre
of gravity so force can be directed through CofG

Orients the dominant side (ultimately, the shooting arm) slightly more forward, to allow for ease of arm extension during the release, determinng the trajectory
During This Phase:
Performer lowers the CofG in order to produce the most amount of height
Force is generated through the hips and knees

Rationale:
Majority of vertical force preperation

Sets a wide, low and subsequently stable platform from which the performer can launch out of
During This Phase:
Ball placed anteriorly, superior to the dominant shoulder
At the base of extension prior to release
Allows the player to eye the target and set an ideal trajectory into the net

Rationale:
In relation to the shoulders, the ball is put in the frontal plane allowing full flexion of the shoulders and extension of the elbow causing the ball to
follow a direct path into the net

Extension of the elbow in line with the net prevents flaring

During This Phase:
Maximum extension of the legs

Vertical velocity is generated (mostly) by the vertical jump

Rationale:
Maximum height is acheived
Performer fully extends legs for maximum
force production from the knees and hips, generating the height required

Ensures optimal angle of release relative to the net
Body is in an almost vertical position relative to the ground, generating an upward momentum allowing the ball to travel with a large vertical velocity
During This Phase:
Performer is releasing the ball
Fully extends the dominant arm
Releases the ball at an angle of ~45º

Rationale:
Shooting from full arm extension allows for a greater contact time with the ball ensuring that maximum force production will transfer from the shoulder, elbow and wrist to the ball

Minimizes the vertical distance

Helps the shooter avoid obstacles such as an opponent by releasing the ball above.
During This Phase:
Aids to generate horizontal velocity via hand flexion at the wrist

At the final moment of palm-ball contact, the wrist flexes generating a ~180º flick

Rationale:
Produces a backspin necessary for the ball to fall downward into the net, with or without bouncing of the backboard

Horizontal velocity aids in acheiving an optimal trajectory
During This Phase:
Performer comes in contact with the ground

Crouches between ~45 to 60º relative to the ground

Rationale:
Absorbs the force of landing, slowing down the negative acceleration to prevent injury to any lower appendicular joints (hips, knees, ankles)
Common Factors of Expert Performance
1. Address Phase-Stance
Square to the hoop
(head, shoulders, hips)
Feet in contact with ground
Shoulder width apart
Legs slightly flexed

2. Force Initiation Phase-Crouch
Optimal flexion at hips and knees, absolute angle ~45º to
generate maximal force production
Knees must stay behind
toes to remain within base
of support
Common Factors of Expert Performance
3. Ball Positioning Phase-Shooting
Grip ball in front of upper chest
Use both hands, only fingertips should touch the ball
Dominant hand should be supporting underneath, fingers pointing towards the face

Non-dominant hand on the side with thumb pointing toward forehead, providing control and balance

Upper arm perpendicular to body with elbow at 90°, aligned with the net to maintain proper flight direction
Common Factors of Expert Performance
Common Factors of Expert Performance
6. Follow Through Phase-Wrist Flick
Shooting arm is fully extended
Legs are also fully extended indicating maximum force production
"Wrist flick" occurs at an angle of ~180º
Producing a torque about the ball

7. Landing Phase-Post Position
Important to land back into a
balanced position to allow for
execution of next action,
such as a rebound
4. Jump Phase
Extension of hips and knees
When flexing elbow ensure elbow is close to the body and shoulders remain square to basket

5. Force Production Phase-Launching

Ball should be in front of upper chest, released at an angle of ~45º

Kinetic linking from hips and knees transfers the force to the shooting arm

Non-shooting arm aids in control
Deterministic Model:
Main Determinants to View Errors

Modifiable Components
Velocity @ touchdown
Time forces begin and end
Forces @ wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees
Height @ take-off and landing
Horizontal velocity @ take-off
Body position
Centre of mass
Non-Modifiable Components
Air resistance
Although constantly in a stage of change due to weather conditions, is not
modifiable by the performer
Physique
Can be altered long-term, it cannot be altered short-term, from jump shot to jump
shot, therefore negligible
Mass of Projectile
The average weight of a basketball may vary, average remains the same overall
Acceleration Due to Gravity
Here on earth it is at a constant rate of -9.81 m/s²
Mechanical Principles

Determined by the ball's velocity @ take-off + time the ball is in the air

Change in vertical velocity results from acceleration due to gravity
Initial velocity determines how long the ball is in the air
Results from arm position + arm force during release

Horizontal velocity is constant

Mechanical Principles
Impulse-Momentum
Mechanical Principles
Torque
Observing Performance
Key Elements
Anatomical markers
Focus on critical aspects of the performance

Observational Checklist
Camera Resolution
- Ideal frame 120fps
Zoom
- ensure it is set at optimal zoom
Camera Placement -
Frame of reference
Distance Placement -
Focus on specific joints
Lighting Conditions -
Reduce glare

Video of Novice Performer
Detection of Errors
Conclusion
Feet are not staggered
Body will rotate left during release phase
producing a torque about the body's axis

Incorrect ball position
Hands on either side of ball, decreasing force and control

Too wide of a stance
Unbalanced, feet pointed slightly outward

Head tilt and upper body leans back
Affects balance, CofG and momentum

Ball released with both hands
Inability to roll ball off fingertips, backspin

Angle of release is too shallow
Loss of arc during trajectory

Weak "Wrist Flick" during release
No backspin

Corrections
Stagger feet, with right foot
slightly forward


Adjust left, non-shooting hand
to the left side and shooting hand on equator of the ball

Feet shoulder-width apart
pointing towards target

Keep head level, eyes focused on target

Left hand on side of the ball and right hand underneath with only fingertips touching the ball

Increase contact time with ball and release at a greater angle

Snapping wrist toward the ground
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The jump shot is seperated into seven phases:
Address, Force Initiation, Ball Positioning, Jump, Force Production, Follow-Through, Landing

Common factors of expert performer:
Stance, Crouch, Shooting, Wind-up, Launching, Release, Post-position

Key Mechanical Concepts:
Flight distance, Impulse-momentum, Torque

Modifiable Components:
Velocity, Time forces act, Height @ take-off, Body position, Centre of mass

Non Modifiable Components:
Air resistance, Physique, Mass of projectile, acceleration due to gravity

Flight Distance
Determined by torque + time forces act

A measure of the time a force is applied

Theses factors determine the change in the ball's momentum, or velocity

Impulse is determined by the time in contact with the ball

Human limitations

The amont of time forces act is determined by the time forces end + the time forces start
An object rotating about an axis as a result of a force imparted upon it

2 Components:
Magnitude of applied force, Distance from applied force to axis

2 Observable instances of Torque:
Internal + External

Internal: Muscular
Determined by force + the perpendicular distance the force is produced
Ex->Farther away from the joint it inserts, the less torque that can be produced

There is torque around the ankles, knees, hips, shoulders, elbows + wrists (kinetic linking)

The combination of multiple rotary motions acting across limbs, combine together to produce a linear force that propels the ball into the air

External: Backspin
Backspin on the ball due to wrist flick
By: Chantal, Justine, Freddie & Seth
Full transcript