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wasib mohammed

on 29 May 2014

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Transcript of android

The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android beta in November 2007
The Android beta was released on 5 November 2007
The November 5 date is popularly celebrated as Android's "birthday"
The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008
HTC Dream first sold mobile running android on 2008
Since April 2009, Android versions have been developed under a confectionery-themed code name and released in alphabetical order
Memory management
Android is developed in private by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released
Update Schedule
Linux kernel
Software stack
Open-source community
At that time the source code is made available publicly
The green android logo was invented in 2007 by graphic designer Irina Blok
The project was to design a icon with inclusion of a robot in the final design
After numerous designs based on science-fiction and space movies, the team sought inspiration from the human symbol on restroom doors and modified it into a robot shape
Google provides major upgrades to Android every six to nine months
The update is first released for devices under the nexus brand
For other devices the update takes months after the release to arrive
This is due to the extensive variation in hardware
Porting Android to a specific hardware is a time and resource consuming process
Android applications are updated through Google Play Store,independently of Android itself
HTC Dream running android 1.0
Released on 27 April 2009,based on Linux kernel
Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction
Auto pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth
User pictures shown for favorites in contacts
Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3gp formats
Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log
Ability to upload photos in Picasa
Released on 15 September 2009 based on Linux kernel
Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts
Ability for developers to include their content in search results
Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text
Easier and faster searching ability
Gallery, camera and camcorder more fully integrated
Expanded gesture framework
Released on October 26 2009 based on Linux kernel
Expanded account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of email and contacts
Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages
Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus
Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home-screen background images to show movements
Released on 20 May 2010, the SDK for android 2.2 was, based on Linux kernel
Bug fixes, security updates and performance improvements
Fixed SMS routing issues
USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality
Released on 6 December 2010,the Android 2.3 SDK was based on linux kernel
This version was released to improve the speed and simplicity
Support for NFC (Near Field Communication)
Released on 22 February 2011, the Android 3.0 SDK was based on Linux kernel
This was the first tablet-only Android update
Most first and second-generation Google TV-enabled devices utilize honeycomb
Released on 19 October 2011, the SDK for Android 4.0 was based on Linux kernel 3.0.1
This was the latest version to oficially support Adobe Systems, Flash player
This update introduced numerous new features such as face unlock, Android beam etc
Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons)
Released on 13 November 2012 based on Linux kernel 3.4.0
OpenGL ES 3.0 support, allowing for improved game graphics
4k resolution support and smoother user interface
Bug fixes and performance enhancements
Increased number of extended notifications
Improved voice search and camera application
Released on 31 October 2013 based on Linux kernel
Optimized to run on a greater range of devices having 512 MB of ram as recommended minimum
NFC host card emulation enabling a device to replace smart card
Better application compatibility
Miscellaneous improvements and bug fixes
Android is an operating system based on Linux kernel
Designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers
It is open source in nature
Developed by Google
Largest used mobile OS across the globe

Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White
Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005; key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner, and White
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008
Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases
Web Browser
Voice based
screen capture
Video calling
Media support
External storage
Android supports many general features such as
Android's default user interface is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs
Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions
Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information point on the device
Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity
This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates
Notifications are accessed by sliding from the top of the display; individual notifications can be dismissed by sliding them away
Android has a growing selection of third party applications
They can be downloaded through an app store such as Google Play
Or downloading and installing the application's APK file from a third-party site
Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage memory (RAM) to keep power consumption at a minimum
Android manages the apps stored in memory automatically
When memory is low, the system will begin killing apps and processes that have been inactive for a while
This can also be done by using third party task killers
The main hardware platform for Android is the 32-bit ARMv7 architecture
As of November 2013, current versions of Android recommend at least 512 MB of RAM and OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing unit (GPU)
Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS, orientation sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, proximity sensors, pressure sensors, thermometers, and touchscreens
The open and customizable nature of Android allows it to be used on other electronics aside from smartphones and tablets including
laptops and netbooks
smart TVs (Google TV)
video game consoles
smart glasses (Google Glass)
car CD and DVD players
mirrors, portable media players
Voice over IP phones
Ouya, a video game console which runs Android, was one of the most successful crowdfunding campaigns on the website Kickstarter.

Google TV running on Android
The source code for Android is open source
Google publishes most of the code under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2.0. which allows modification and redistribution
The license does not grant rights to the "Android" trademark
Software, such as Google Mobile Services, which includes apps such as Google Play Store, Google Search, and Google Play Services must be licensed from Google by device makers
Android applications run in a sandbox
An isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources

As of July 2013, in the Play Store
One million applications
40 billion downloads
This lessens impact of vulnerabilities and bugs in apps
The architecture is based on the linux 2.4 kernel
Android has its own libraries written in C/C++
Dalvik Virtual Machine runs the apps
The Application Framework is written in Java
The core libraries contain all the classes, utilities,IO
Android has an active community of developers
They release new features and updates to devices faster than the official manufacturer
These releases often come pre-rooted
CyanogenMod is the most widely used community firmware
Cyanogenmod offers features which carriers would charge a premium
Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel long-term support (LTS) branch
The flash storage is split into several partitions such as
/system for operating system
/data for user data and application installation
Android device owners are not given root access to the operating system
Root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android
There are many advantages and disadvantages of rooting
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