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Chemistry!

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Chloe Eckstein

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Chemistry!

Unit 1
Hello, my name is Mr. Korinek! Welcome to chemistry class!
Unit 2
solids
liquids
gases
particles move slow
definite volume
definite shape
particles move fast
definite volume
indefinite shape
particles move very fast
indefinite shape
indefinite volume
Unit 3
Energy- measurement of how fast particles are moving; it is stored in a system of heat
Unit 4
Unit 5
Unit 6
Unit 7
Unit 8
Solids
Liquids
Gases
Pure Substances-
substance that is pure
Mixture-
two substances mixed together
Ways to separate a mixture

Elements cannot be separated
Compounds can be separated
Elements form together to form compounds
Relative mass-
comparing something to the smallest element, which is set to 1
Mole-
6.0021 x 10^23
Percent composition-
what % an element is in a whole compound
Avogadro's number-
6.0221 x 10^23
Empirical Formula-
Formula of a compound in its simplest form
When atoms combine, they do in a certain ratio every time. Yes, every time!
Water is never HO, never HO2...always H2O!
ALL MATTER IS MADE UP OF ATOMS!
Law of Definite Proportions-
Compounds will always combine the same way
Law of Multiple Proportions-
When 2 elements combine, they do this in a whole number (ratio)
Avogadro's Hypothesis-
Two samples of gas with equal volume, temperature, and pressure; contain the same # of molecules
evaporation-
bunsen burner, put mixture in water into beaker
filtering-
filter with water
Magnetism-
using a magnet
Synthesis- when two elements combine to form one
Types of Chemical Reactions:
Single replacement- when an element and compound
combine & replace each other
Double replacement- when two compound combine and
replace each other
Decomposition- when a compound is broken down
Stoichiometry- using a reaction's balanced equation to determine how much product can be formed
Lead will react with hydrochloric acid to produce lead (II) chloride and hydrogen gas. How many moles of hydrochloric acid are needed to completely react with 4.0 mole of lead?
Example:
Use a BCA table (Before Change After) to figure this out
Before


Change


After
4.0 mol
xs
Pb + 2 HCl PbCl2 + H2
-4.0 mol
-8 mol HCl
0 mol
0 mol
+4.0 mol
+4.0 mol
xs
0 mol
4.0 mol
4.0 mol
things to remember!
If you have to do math (ex. converting grams into moles), do it on the left side of the BCA table
Only moles go into the BCA table
Remember to balance your equation before you start your BCA table!
JJ Thamson's Plum Pudding Model
Thamson discovered the electron, and proposed that in solids, only the negative charges are free to move
The circles represent the electrons, or the plums in the pudding. The space around it is positive, or the pudding. The electrons are free to move, and will attract to positive atoms. Opposites attract!
things to remember!
ionic compound-
made of metals & non-metals

molecular compound-
made of only non-metals
electrolytes-
substance that conducts electricity
Non-electrolytes don't allow electricity to flow
Polarization:
The transfer of electrons from one core to another
This can only happen in a good conductor (metal)
Metals are positively charged, non-metals are negatively charged
The Basics to the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
1. Particles are in constant motion

2. They do not stick to other particles

3. Their speed is directly related to temperature

4. Particle collisions are elastic

5. The pressure of a gas deals with the frequency of collisions with the walls that contain it
things to remember
As thermal energy goes up, temperature goes up
things to remember
Thermal Energy-
energy stored by moving particles
Phase Energy-
energy stored in a system due to the arrangement of particles
Chemical Energy-
energy due to attractions of atoms with molecules
Specific Heat-
The amount of heat that raises the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1˚ C
Particles have strong bond and attraction to each other
Particles are close together
Particles have strong bond, but not as strong as solids
Particles are close together, but not as close as solid's particles
Particles have very little attraction to each other
Particles are far apart; particles fill container they are in
Temperature goes up, volume goes up
Pressure goes up, volume goes up
Volume goes up, pressure goes down
Temperature goes up, the particles begin to move faster
Temperature goes down, the particles begin to move slower
Three things that make up matter:
Volume:
Measured in cm^3 or mL
How much space something takes up
Mass:
How much "stuff" is in the object
measured in g
Density:
How compact something is
measured in g/cm^3
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF SYSTEM MASS:
Mass cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be distributed or moved!
Double-Beam Balance- allows to use two decimal places
Triple-Beam Balance- allows to use three decimal places
things to remember
Given the chemical formula of a substance, determine the molar mass-
H2O
1.008+1.008+16.00= 18.016 g/mol
Exothermic- potential energy is in reactants
Endothermic- potential energy is in products


things to remember
Exothermic- potential energy is in reactants
Endothermic- potential energy is in products


Balancing equations- http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/balancing-chemical-equations
All about the mole!
Pure Substances & Mixtures
Full transcript