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Transcript of Creativity
Presented by Stephanie Blalock, Felix Harris, Heather Johnson, and Jeremie Reece
Types of Creativity
(Kaufman and Beghetto, 2007/2009)
Framework of investigating creativity (Rhodes, 1961/1987)
Rhodes states, “creativity can be informed by a focus on several dimensions, which are labeled
Person: Creative persons are thought to exhibit a number of personality characteristics, including broad interests, appreciation of complexity, tolerance of ambiguity, self-confidence, independence, sensible risk taking, flexibility, and reactivity.
Process: There are two views when it comes to the process of creativity. These views contradict each other. The first view asserts that creative thinking involves special processes and abilities. The second view contends that creative thinking is the product of the garden-variety cognitive processing (attention and memory).
Press: The notion that creative behavior does not occur in a vacuum, that it’s subject to various contextual factures and external pressures. Creative acts also are products of interpersonal, disciplinary, and sociocultural environments (Simonton, 2000).
Product: The outcome yielded by the creative process, be it a painting, poem, design, or new technology. This approach is applied to case analysis of famously creative individuals like Picasso, Freud, Einstein, and da Vinci.
From the studies I found in both of my articles it is clear that as we get older our creativity decreases.
Everyone would agree that something called creativity exists, but defining it seems to be a real challenge.
Creativity researchers themselves seem to have trouble doing it.
The ability to make new things or think of new ideas (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
Big-C creativity (aka eminent creativity) – creative efforts have ripple effects with major impact on others (Ex: Nobel Prize winners, artists, and inventors).
little-c creativity (aka everyday creativity) – creative efforts that everyone has (Ex: Thinking of something new).
mini-c (aka personal creativity) – the novel and personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions, and events (Ex: You keep your shoes tied because you tripped over laces and hurt yourself a time ago).
Pro-C – professional development and expertise that might not reach Big-C, but is advancement nonetheless (Ex: Musicians).
Taxonomy of Creative Processes and Products (Dietrich, 2004)
The four types of creative processes/products proposed by Dietrich (2004):
Type of knowledge, which consists of emotional or cognitive.
Type of processing, which consists of deliberate or spontaneous.
Darya Zabelina and Michael Robinson of North Dakota State University took a large group of undergraduates and randomly assigned them to two different groups.
The first group was given the following instructions: “You are 7 years old. School is canceled, and you have the entire day to yourself. What would you do? Where would you go? Who would you see?”
The second group was given the exact same instructions, except they were stuck in their adolescent present not seven. After writing for ten minutes, the subjects were then given various tests of creativity, such as trying to invent alternative uses for an old car tire, or completing incomplete sketches.
Children embrace the creativity where as adults close the door.
Decline in Creativity
Our decline in creativity does not start when we are 40 or 50.
It starts around about the age when we enter school.
At around about the age of five, we are using about 80% of our creative potential.
We invent daily - no matter than our inventions have been invented before, the fact is that we are innovating at a remarkable rate.
By the age of twelve, our creative output has declined to about 2% of our potential, and it generally stays there for the rest of our lives.
Pablo Picasso once declared that “Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist once we grow up.”
Amabile, T.M., Hennessey, B., Grossman, B.S. (1986). Social Influences on Creativity: The Effects of Contracted-for Reward. American Psychological Association, 50(1), 14-23.
Creativity. (2014) In Merriam-Webster.com Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/creativity
"CreatingMinds." Age and Creativity. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2014.
Dietrich, A. (2004). The cognitive neuroscience of creativity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 1011-1026.
Hennesey, B. (2009, October 19). Creativity. http://llk.media.mit.edu/. Retrieved March 26, 2014, fromhttp://llk.media.mit.edu/courses/readings/
Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The four c common model of creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13, 1-12.
Lehr, Jonah. "Science Blogs." The Frontal Cortex. N.p., 25 Mar. 2010. Web. 05 Apr. 2014.
Naiman, Linda. "Can Creativity Be Taught? Results from Creativity Studies." Creativity at Work. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2014.
Rogie, E. (Director) (2007, August 7). Torrance Test of Creative Thinking - TTCT. Presentation. Lecture conducted from Vlerick Management School, Bruges, Belgium.
Rhodes, M. (1961/1987). An analysis of creativity. In S. G. Isaken (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 216-222). Buffalo, NY: Bearly.
Simonton, D. K. (2000). Creativity: Cognitive, personal, social, and developmental aspects. American Psychologists, 55, 151-158.
Zabelina, D., & Beeman, M. (2013, April 25). Abstract. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/
Short-Term Attentional Perseveration Associated with Real-Life Creative Achievement
By-Darya L, Zabelina and Mark Beeman
Two contradictory hypotheses.
The first is a common view that creative people have the attentional flexibility to adaptively shift focus between the two types of attentional foci using cognitive control
The second view is that creative people have the attentional persistence to focus for extended durations, which is fundamental to creative production
They conducted two experiments to examine how real-world creative achievers and divergent thinkers allot their attention, and how they switch their attention over time.
Experiment 1 found that attentional persistence, to the point of perseveration, was related to high creative achievement, even when accounting for general intelligence
Experiment 2 confirmed that attentional persistence is related to high creative achievement, and clarified that it is unrelated to divergent thinking
First testing them at the age of five he later re-tested the same children at 10 years of age, and again at 15 years of age.
Test results amongst 5 year olds: 98%
Test results amongst 10 year olds: 30%
Test results amongst 15 year olds: 12%
Same test given to 280,000 adults: 2%
“What we have concluded,” wrote Land, “is that non-creative behavior is learned.”
They feel as though creativity has been burnt down due to the educational systems.
One is taught on believe facts rules, and regulations leaving out the encouragement of student to think differently and outside the box.
Interestingly, the students who imagined themselves as little kids scored far higher on the creative tasks, coming up with more ideas that were also more original. The effect was especially pronounced among “introverts,” who exert more mental energy suppressing their “spontaneous associations”.
In 1968, George Land distributed among 1,600 5-year-olds a creativity test used by NASA to select innovative engineers and scientists.
Divergent thinking is, spontaneous, free-ﬂowing thinking with the goal of generating many different ideas in a short period
Divergent thinking is a component of creativity.
Many or most real-world creative acts require some degree of persistence.
"Reward can undermine certain aspects of behavior under some conditions (Amable, 1986)."
It depends on your mindset...
If you think it's work, you're going to look at it differently than if you think of it as play.
So what does that mean?
Our creativity is likely affected by our society!
The article states:
Subjects react negatively to a task as work when their behavior is controlled ( or appears to be controlled) by socially imposed factors, because they have learned that work is usually something that someone must be induced to do. On the other hand, they might react positively to the same task as play when they perceive no salient external constraints on task engagement."
So... We should probably think of school as play.
Evidence suggest that creativity goes down when there is a reward for it. Whether it be a prize or a grade, it's not helping people with their creative capacities.