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Chapter 12 section 5 Diverse Cultures of Southeast Asia
Transcript of Chapter 12 section 5 Diverse Cultures of Southeast Asia
"Diverse Cultures of Southeast Asia." One of the many exports that came from India which had a profound effect on the people of Southeast Asia was Buddhism. Geography of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is made up of 2 regions and they are:
The 1st is the mainland which is: Southeast Asia.
The 2nd region is the Island of Southeast Asia. The first Region: The second Region: 1. The first mainland includes many peninsulas that come out from the south between India and China. 1. The second region is the Island of Southeast Asia which holds more than 20,000 islands. Seperated by Mountains The mainland is right outside of Asia which it is seperated by mountains and high plateaus. Mountains are seperating 4 very important river valleys that are along Southeat Asia, they are:
Red The trade that was all traveled on sea happened to be between China and India had two pass through the Malacca or the Sunda straits. Trade Routes in the Southern Seas. 2. This region includes present day nations that are of- Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, and Singapore Seasonal winds that had shaped trading patterns which were in the Southern Seas were monsoons. While the people/ merchants were waiting patiently for winds to change they harbored their vessels in the Southern Asia ports. Early Traditions. Mostly all diverse groups settled in Southeat Asia. Since the diverse groups lived in isolated villages they did their own cultural ideas like for example: their own religious things. An unusual thing happened in Southeast Asia. This unusual thing was the high regards for Women. Some ways they became recognized were:
Taking part in spice trade.
Being an expertise in bargaining.
Also in finance.
Last but not least, languages. In only a few cities if they became well known they gained enough acceptance that they could become rulers. Matrilineal- is the descent, or the inheritance through the mother.
This was an accepted custom in only Southeast Asia. Indian Culture Spreads to Southeast Asia. Still using the trade and religions they had made the influence of these:
Farming Indian Influence Reaches Its Peak. The Indian traders married influnetial families and gave away presents to rulers that were local. Trade brought many things like-
These were for raw materials like-
Timber The influence of the Indian's had reached its peak during 500 and 1000. Indians Bring Islam. After the Hinduism and also the Buddhism took root in the all famous "Southeast Asia," these Indians carried a third religion-Islam which came to this region. In the 1200s, Muslims began to take contol or rule over northern India.
- from here the traders started to spread Muslim culture and different beliefs through the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines. Occurrence of Islam in the lands that are surrounding the Indian Ocean was apart of the growth of the trade network that became very thriving. New Kingdoms and Empires Emerge Today this country- Indonesia has the biggest Muslims population. The Pagan Kingdom Arises This kingdom came out in the rice-growing Irawaddy Valley which happens to be in present day Myanmar. In 1044 the King; Anawrahta united this region. The King is credited with bringing Buddhism to the people that were Burman. There capital city was filled with stupas which are- dome shaped shrines. The Pagan had prospered for 200 years after Anawrahta died, BUT fell in 1287 to the Mongols who were conquerers. The Khmer Empire. The Khmer empire had reached its high mark between 800 and 1350.
The reason they got to a high point was because the Indian influences had helped them. During the 1100s, the king, King Suryavarman 11 had built the great temple which was a complex at Angkor Wat. A lot of carved figures will tell the Hindu myths which glorify and tell good things about the king. Srivijaya Empire Flourishes In the 600s - 1200s in Indonesia the empire that was trading flourished Srivijaya had controlled the Strait of Malacca- this was very important to shipping. Islam had spread to Sumatra, Java, and other places like islands. These local rulers adopted many things like new religion.
This cemented commercial links with many other peoples like the Muslim trading centers.
- The trading center was around the Indian Ocean. Vietnam Emerges! Indian Influences outweighed Chinese influence, so, China sent out military forces to conquer the northern part of Vietnam. In Vietnam paddies which were fields provided food for the people. Chinese Domination In 111 B.C., the Han armies had conquered the region, and then China stayed in control for a long time which is 1,000 years. Since the defeat the Vietnamese adopted many things like-
Chinese civil service system
Custom of speaking & writing in Chinese language
Last but not least they adopted Mahayana beliefs from China also along with daoism. The Vietnamese Preserve Their Identity. In 39 A.D., 2 sisters, that were nobles led a very high uprising that for a while drove the Chinese people from the land. They were-
Trung Nhi At last in 939 the Tang dynasty collapsed in China! So, Vietnam was able to break away freely from China.