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Neurotransmitters

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Hannah Alaimo

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
Serotonin
THE HISTORY
GABA
HISTORY
Dopamine
History
Acetylcholine
HISTORY
Function
Glutamate
Function
Function
Serotonin was originally discovered by Italian Vittorio Erspamer in Rome in 1935 and by American Scientists in the late 1940's.


Serotonin
FUNCTION
Serotonin affects mood, learning, sleep , hunger and arousal
Full name- gamma aminobutyric acid
GABA is known to exist in plants and bacteria where it serves a role in the Kreb Cycle
GABA was not accepted as a neurotransmitter until the 1960's after extensive physiological experiments
GABA
FUNCTION
Inhibitory neurotransmitter
Contributes to motor control and vision
It also regulates anxiety and fear
It is a Biogenic Amines
It was discovered by the pharmacist, Arvid Carlsson in 1957 in Lund
Dopamine
Function
It is a biogenic amine, and an inhibitory neurotransmitter
Involved in controlling movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Plays a central role in positive reinforcement and dependency
The loss of dopamine in certain parts of the brain causes the muscle rigidity typical of Parkinson’s disease.
Was the first Neurotransmitter discovered
It was discovered by Otto Loewi in 1912 who later won the Nobel Prize for his work
He called this chemical "Vagusstoff"
Acetylcholine
involved in movement of skeletal muscals
Involved in decision making, learning and memory.
Alzheimer’s disease is associated with a lack of acetylcholine in certain regions of the brain.
It is an amino acid
Norepinephrine & Epinephrine
HISTORY
In 1946, a Swedish biologist by the name of Ulf von Euler discovered norepinephrine (formerly called noradrenalin).
Too little serotonin has been shown to lead to depression, problems with anger control, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and suicide. It has also been tied to migraines, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia.


Norepinephrine & Epinephrine
Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is important for attentiveness, emotions, sleeping, dreaming, and learning. Norepinephrine is also released as a hormone into the blood, where it causes blood vessels to contract and heart rate to increase.
Epinephrine is also known as adrenaline, it regulates heart rate
These neurotransmitters together are responsible for “adrenaline rushes,” as they control activity and secretion from the adrenal glands.
Glutamate
History
Glutamate was discovered by Kikunae Ikeda of Tokay Imperial Univ. in 1907
It took decades for Peter Usherwood to identify glutamate as a neurotransmitter (which he found in locusts) in 1994.


It is a excitatory neurotransmitter
Glutamate is involved with memory.
Endorphins
History
In 1973, Solomon Snyder and Candace Pert of Johns Hopkins discovered that the nervous system had many opioid receptors for Endorphins
Endorphins
FUNCTION
Endorphin is short for "endogenous morphine."
It is an Inhibitory neurotransmitter,
It is involved in pain reduction and pleasure
What are neurotransmitters?
Neurotransmitters are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout the body and brain.
They relay signals between nerve cells, called “neurons.”
Inhibitory vs. Excitatory
Inhibitory neurotransmitters are nerve signaling chemicals that decrease activity in neurons
Excitatory neurotransmitters are nerve signaling chemicals that increase activity in neurons.

Types of Neurotransmitters
How they work
A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that carries, boosts and modulates signals between neurons and other cells in the body. In most cases, a neurotransmitter is released from the axon terminal after an action potential has reached the synapse. The neurotransmitter then crosses the synaptic gap to reach the receptor site of the other cell or neuron. Then, in a process known as reuptake, the neurotransmitter attaches to the receptor site and is reabsorbed by the neuron
1.Acetylcholine
2.Amino acids: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Glycine Glutamate Aspartate.
3.Neuropeptides: Oxytocin,endorphins, vasopressin, etc.
4.Monoamines: Epinephrine, norepinephrine, histamine, dopamine and serotonin.
5.Purines: Adenosine, ATP.
6.Lipids and gases: Nitric oxide, cannabinoids.

THE END
I hope you enjoyed the neurotransmini's!!!
Dopamine
Dopamine is a major part of the reward system and therefore has a vital role in learning
Dopamine has been shown to be deeply connected to addiction
Connected to depression
Cocaine prevents reuptake of dopamine, making the neurotransmitter remain in the synapse
-Hannah, Sejal, and Brian
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