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Seasonal Affective Disorder

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on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of Seasonal Affective Disorder



What is SAD
Type of depression that affects a person during the same season each year
If you get depressed in winter, but much feel much better in spring or summer, SAD may be present

More commonly seen in these types of people
-Women: ages 50-55

-People whom have disorder present in family

-Areas where winter days are very short

Along with big changes in amount of daylight with the changing seasons
Overall Symptoms
-Sad grumpy moody or anxious
-Loss of interest in usual activities
Increase in eating
-more carbohydrate intake
Therefore: weight gain
-Increase in sleep
-Daytime drowsiness
-Symptoms can be season specific
-No specific or main test
-Difficultly in differentiating SAD from Depression
-Doctors must give specifics to a SAD diagnosis
Experts are unsure of primary cause: only theories

Theory one: Lack of

disrupts sleep cycle and other cardiac rhythms
Causes problems with serotonin levels

Other types of treatment

Symptoms for winter
Decreased level of energy
Difficulty concentrating
Increase desire to be alone
Increased desire for sleep
Weight gain
Summer symptoms
Decreased appetite
Trouble Sleeping
Weight loss

Types of treatments Bright light therapy
Types of treatment: Dawn simulation
Maximize Natural Light intake
-Keep windows uncovered
-Get outside for at least 30 minutes a day during daylight hours
Reduce stress that could make SAD worse
-30 minutes exercise per day
-Spend time with loved one
-Eat healthy diet
-Get enough sleep
Negative ion generator
With no treatment symptoms get better on own

Symptoms improve better with treatment

Some people have SAD whole lives
Avoid alcohol and illegal drugs
This can worsen the depression
Disorder can have severe complications
-Such as
Suicidal thoughts

Difficulty with school and work

Substance abuse

Withdrawal from activities and responsibilities
Increases with increasing distance from the equator

SAD has been described in both southern and northern hemisphere

Prevalence Rate
Canada: between 2-3 %
U.S: less then 1%
Europe: between 1-3.3%
Asia: 0-0.9%
Female to Male ratio
-4 to 1
More often seen in women but symptoms more severe in male

Mean age is 27

Lifetime prevalence increases in age until people are in their 50's

After age 50-54 prevalence age decline rapidly

Occurrence over the age 65, is very low

Seen in 15% of patients with reoccurring mood disorders
-Unipolar and Bipolar disorders
Regularly recurring depressive episodes in fall and winter
Full remissions in spring and summer
At least one prior depressive episode met criteria for major depressive disorder
No regularly recurring psychosocial variable to account for recurrent depressive episodes
DSM-IV Criteria for "Seasonal Pattern"
Relationship between onset of major depressive episodes and particular time of year
Full remission at characteristic time of the year
In last 2 years, two major depressive episodes showing temporal relationship in preceding criteria
Seasonal episodes outnumber non-seasonal ones
Suggested Criteria for SAD in DSM V
Regularly recurring depressive episodes in the fall and winter
Remissions in the spring and summer
At least two prior autumn/winter depressive episodes met the criteria for major depressive disorder
Seasonal episodes outnumber non-seasonal ones
Tests for diagnosis
Detailed questions

Physical Exam

Medical tests
Difficulty in Diagnosing
-Considered a subtype of depression or bipolar disorder

-Even with thorough evaluation,there is difficulty in differentiating SAD from other types of mental health disorders
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