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Copy of Literary Theory Overview

AP English IV Group Project

Adam Thompson

on 29 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Literary Theory Overview

Queer theory attempts to break down the age - old ideals of gender roles and assert instead that a person's "role" is completely separate from their "gender." (J.D.A) good (T.J.H.) Cultural criticism breaks down the boundary between social classes and shows why certain works are valued by a culture. (Yannis Minetos) New Historic criticism requires consideration of an author's time period, and literary works that the author could have read that influenced them. (A.H.)
Many followers of the method believe no work is without bias, even their criticism, so critics tend to state their influences and beliefs at the beginning of their work. (A.H.)
New Historicism separates itself from theories such as New Criticism because its main focus is on outside influences on the novel, as opposed to interpreting the text separately from the author's life. (A.H.) Literary Theory Poststructuralism &
Blackwell, Su. “The Book of the Lost.” Sculpture. My Modern Met. 2011. Web. 21 March 2012. http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/su-blackwell-book-sculptures Psychoanalytical Criticism La Ghash, Tallulah. "Freud." Painting. Viva La Ghash! 25 December 2011. Web. 21 March 2012 http://laghash.blogspot.com/2011/12/freudian-dream-interpretation-1-self.html Marxist Criticism "Marx." Image. The People's Cub. 7 November 2009. Web. 21 March 2012. http://thepeoplescube.com/images/TeaParties/L/Obama_Marxism_Groucho.pdf Bennett, Gordon. "The Coming of the Light." Painting. 1987. Journal of Aesthetics and Culture. 2010. Web. 21 March 2012. http://www.aestheticsandculture.net/index.php/jac/article/view/5410/6295 Postcolonial Criticism Brown, Larry Poncho. "Indivisible." Painting. 2005. McDaniel College, Westminster, MD. Web. 21 March 2012. http://www.mcdaniel.edu/2731.htm Cultural Criticism "Art For Arts' Sake." Image. 2010. Bed and Breakfast Inns of New Orleans. Web. 21 March 2012. http://www.bbnola.com/blog/2010/09/art-for-arts-sake/art-for-arts-sake/ Aestheticism Quigley, Brenna and Paula Kolodzie Moffatt. "Literature Circles." Image. Books and Beyond. Web. 21 March 2012. http://partners.hpedsb.on.ca/booksandbeyond/ New Criticism Musgrove, Laurence. "The Reader." Image. The Illustrated Professor. 10 June 2010. Web. 21 March 2012. http://www.theillustratedprofessor.com/?p=1356 Reader-Response Criticism "Gay Liberation Further Reading Guide." Image. Libcom.org. 8 June 2009. Web. 21 March 2012. http://libcom.org/library/gay-liberation-further-reading-guide Queer Theory Criticism Ron. "History Matters" Image. US Slave. 2 June 2011. Web. 21 March 2012. http://usslave.blogspot.com/2011/06/why-history-matters-past-in-present.html New Historicism Author Text Environment Ideology Discourse A.T. (Yannis Minetos) Hooks, Bell, dir. Cultural Criticism and Transformation.Youtube, 2006. Film.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQUuHFKP-9s>. YM Takes a classic text and evaluates it in terms of
the culture of the society in which the book was
written. (Yannis Minetos) Harsono, Siswo. "Cultural Criticism." Slide Share. N.p., December 02, 2006. Web. 24 Mar 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/susiswo/cultural-criticism>.
Yannis Minetos Murfin, Ross. "What is Cultural Criticism." Frankenstein. 23 August 1993: 241. Print. <http://www.usask.ca/english/frank/cultint.htm>. YM A cultural critic's goal is to make "culture" represent popular culture. (Yannis Minetos) "Educational method, direction and purity depend only on holding onto the language and
writing appropriate to the nationality." Dungkar Lobsang Trinley (Yannis Minetos) Queer Theory contends the sexual paradigm of the status quo about traditional sexual identity. (G.B) To "queer" has become a term synonymous with critisizing or ignoring traditional sexual identities. (G.B.) In the Queer Theory ideology, gender is not a predefined identity, but role that is to be performed. (G.B.) "...there is no sex, there is only gender, and gender is performative." - Judith Butler (G.B.) Queer theory can be a viable means for analyzing and interpreting literature due to the long presence of homosexuality in history and the private nature that homosexuality was treated with. Art has always been a form of expression, expression that conveys the inner beliefs, feelings, and attitudes of the artist. (G.B.) “Calling sex by its name thereafter [the 17th c.] became more difficult and more costly. As if in order to gain mastery of it in reality, it had first been necessary to subjugate it at the level of language, control its free circulation in speech, expunge it from the things that were said, and extinguish the words that rendered it too visibly present.” (Foucault) (G.B.) Marxist Criticism is a useful interpretation of literature and the struggle between social classes. The distinction between social classes is important to the understanding of how socities work as a whole, not only in works of literature, but also in reality. (S.S.)

The economic and ideological struggle is seen throughout many works of literature and thoses that favor the working class are favored, while those that support the dominant class are ridiculed. (S.S.) Brewton, Vince. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. University of Alabama, June 29, 2005. Web. 25 March 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/literary/#H8>. (G.B.) Butler, Judith. Interview. Extracts from Gender as Performance: An Interview with Judith Butler. Philosophy 67 (1994): Web. <http://www.theory.org.uk/but-int1.htm>. (G.B.) Fry, Paul. “Queer Theory and Gender Performativity.” Introduction to Theory of Literature. ENGL 300 at Yale, New Haven. Spring 2009. Lecture. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7bkFlJfxyF0> (G.B.) ◦"The task of art today is to bring chaos into order." - Theodor Adorno (S.S.) "Work is the key to making sure that ‘all will be well’. But by elevating it to godlike status, it is emptied of meaning." - Max Horkinheimer (S.S.) <http://www.actmedia.eu/media/img/text_zones/English/small_29726.jpg> (S.S.) <http://Marxist-criticism.wikispaces.com/definition> (S.S) <http://www.actmedia.eu/media/img/text_zones/English/small_29726.jpg> (S.S.) Marxist Criticism tends to focus more upon the content and themes of literature, rather that its form. (S.S.)

Differences between culture, race, class, and power are all key to the development and understanding of how Marxist critics view literature and the world. (S.S.)

Marxist critics also view literature as a struggle between the capitalistic values of money and power and the socialistic values of morality, justice, and equality. (S.S.) <http://bsdweb.bsdut.org/nifletcher/pdfs/10th%20Grade/To%20kill%20a%20Mockingbird/MarxistliteraryCriticism.pdf> (S.S) <http://forums.philosophyforums.com/threads/adorno-and-horkheimer-on-labor-50899.html> (S.S.) Queer theory challenges the essentialist ideas of homosexuality and heterosexuality and presents a different understanding of sexuality that emphasizes the changes in cultural ideas and shifting boundaries depending on historical context. (I.G.) Queer theory favors social construction over essentialism. (I.G.) It breaks down the distinctions of "gay" and "straight" and it also follows tenets of post-modernism while also trying to promote subjectivity to allow for sexual agency. (I.G.) (I.G.) The New Historicism tends to be social, economic, and political, and it views literary works … as instruments for the displaying and enforcing of doctrines about conduct, etiquette, and law. In a dynamic circle, the literature tells us something about the surrounding ideology .. and the study of the ideology tells us something about the embedded literary works. (A Handbook to Literature, eighth edition, page 346) (Reid) (A.H.) "Queer Theory." Wabash Library. Wabash College, Mar.-Apr. 2011. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://research.wabash.edu/content.php?pid=12546>. (I.G.) Goldberg, Michael. "Queer Theory." Washington.edu. University of Washington Bothell. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://faculty.washington.edu/mlg/courses/definitions/queer.htm>. (I.G.) Barker, Meg. "Meg Barker Dicusses Queer Theory at the University of Birmingham." YouTube. University of Birmingham, 28 Feb. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sc7p9LN1Oxo>. (I.G.) “I am committed by trade to urging people to attend carefully to the verbal surfaces of what they read. Much of the pleasure and interest of poetry depends on such attention.”
Stephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the World Became Modern (A.H.) “Art always penetrates the particular fissures in one's psychic life.”
Stephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the World Became Modern (A.H.)

(www.goodreads.com) Stephen Greenblatt
http://forbiddengospels.blogspot.com/2010_10_01_archive.html (google images) "What is New Historicism?." wisegeek. Conjecture Corporation, 2012. Web. 25 Mar 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-new-historicism.htm>. (A.H.)

Carrol, Isla. "Mellon Seminar Reflection 8: Whose history?." blogspot.com. N.p., 29 Oct 2010. Image. Web. 25 Mar 2012. (A.H.)

Reid, Rebecca. "Will in the World by Stephen Greenblatt." http://reviews.rebeccareid.com/. N.p., 2009. Web. 25 Mar 2012. <http://reviews.rebeccareid.com/will-in-the-world-by-stephen-greenblatt/>. (A.H.)

Greenblatt, Stephen. goodreads.com. GoodReads Inc., n.d. Web. 25 Mar 2012. <http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/4194881.Stephen_Greenblatt>. (A.H.) Subalternism
Postcolonial works endeavor to portray life in colonies from the perspective of the colonized as opposed to the colonizer. (M.M.) Identity Crisis
Disgruntled colonists of fallen empires suffered from the loss of self-identification with their homeland, thus necessitating a reevaluation of oneself. (M.M) Hybridism
Rather than searching to create a specific image, Postcolonialism seeks to express ambiguity of colonial life that resulted from the mixing of the different, and even contradictory, beliefs and values of two cultures. (M.M.) "I have been unable to live an uncommitted or suspended life."
- Edward Said (M.M.) Reader-Response Criticism focuses on the way the reader interprets and experiences a text. (PGP) “I think it is important to acknowledge our
complicity in the muting, in order precisely to be more effective in the long run." - Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (M.M.) There is no single meaning of a particular work. Any value or meaning is created by the interaction of the reader and the text. (PGP) Impact

Postcolonialism served as one of the primary motivators for active protests against colonial rule throughout Africa and the Middle East, which can be explained by the movement's emphasis on the incompatibility of cultures and the marginalization of the colonized. (M.M) -JN The Importance of the Reader The role of the reader is inherently important in understanding literature. "Iser." Image. Anthropoetics. Web. Marth 25 2012
<http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap1301/Iser.jpg> (J.C.) Different interpretations can occur due to cultural, social, religious, and psychological disparities between readers. (PGP) Reader-Response Criticism argues that: JC The reader individually finds meaning in every work read. -JN S
H (M.M.) "The proper object of analysis is not the work but the reader."

"It is the structure of the reader's experience rather than any structures available on the page that should be the object of description (Fish)." (PGP) Hossain, Sazid. Down with Zionist Imperialism. Digital image. Accumulation of Wealth. The WE News Archives, 15 Jan. 2009. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://thewe.cc/thewe_/images_5/____/protest_us_israel_attack_on_gaza_/down_with_zionist_imperialism.jpe>. (M.M) The reader's response to literature must be weighed in order to understand what the message the text essentially conveys. Louise Rosenblatt In his essay, "The New Criticism", Cleanth Brooks notes that "The New Critic, like the Snark, is a very elusive beast", meaning that there was no clearly defined "New Critical" school or crticial stance. A new "critical method of separation from the past ways of old historicism, and taking into account a fresh persepctive with neither the author, nor the circumstances, nor their intentions, and focusing purely on the work. The reader endows his work or child with properties and characteristics that are separated at birth, and now belong to the work singly. These intents of the author in his work are described as neither available nor desirable A Break from historicism! For fun! In a manner of speaking, the poem is its own knower, neither poet nor reader knowing anything that the poem says apart from the words of the poem.
-Allen Tate New Criticism has a unique way in separating itself from its predecessors by venturing where no literary critic has dared prior. The realm of the novel without any consideration for anything other than the words on the page provide a stark and new experience than anything utilized prior to this theory (Nicholas Witkowski) "It has always been my impression and commitment to understand 'queer' as a kind of action, an intervention into power, one that has to take place in alliance with others." - Judith Butler (I.G.) Butler, Judith. "Interview with Judith Butler." Interview. Transnational Queer Underground. 3 July 2010. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. <http://www.transnational-queer-underground.net/?p=547>. (I.G.) Derives influence from marxist theories, insomuch as history is a chronicle of the opressed and the opressor and who holds the power (B.D.)
Power is conveyed through more nuanced means instead of merely economic ones, but is still the basic trade unit and goal of society
Nietzschean "genealogy of knowledge" - As you aquire knowledge and a viewpoint, you acquire inherent biases on it.
Ideaologies are inherent in everything we do; history is written by the victors and is inherently skewed
It is pointless to argue your own ideaology, since it forms such a basic part of everything you do and say • Similar to Marxist Criticism in its focus on repression and subjection. A.B. • The difference lies in New Historicism’s attention to those in the highest point of the social hierarchy as opposed to those at the bottom. A.B. New Historicists have a strong interest in government and culture, and consequently their work employs subjects such as anthropology and political science. A.B. Steven Greenblatt Hooker, Rebecca. “Critical Approaches to Literature.” English 102 at New Mexico University Spring 2003. PDF file. <http://www.unm.edu/~hookster/Critical%20Approaches%20to%20Literature.pdf> (G.B.) The Aesthetic Literary Movement was a 19th century literary movement that emphasized aeshetic pleasures of art as opposed the socio-political themes. (MC)
Walter Pater influence many of the Aesthetic artists with his works, most notably "Studies in the History of Renaissance". He claimed, "Life had to be lived intensely, with an ideal of beauty." (MC)
Aesthetic authors primarily focused on the aesthetic pleasure associated with art as a response to the utilitarian movement. (MC) Poststructuralism is a literary philosophy that came to primacy in the 1960s and 1970s largely as a reaction to the Structuralist movement. DP "Culture is only true when implicitly critical, and the mind which forgets this revenges itself in the critics it breeds. Criticism is an indispensable element of culture." Theodor W. Adorno (YM) Poststructuralist theory holds that "self" as an independent entity is fiction. DP
Therefore the author's intent in writing a work is irrelevant as it is the reader that imbues his or her own meaning into the novel base on his or her particular experience. DP I believe that evaluating a work in terms of a cultural view is beneficial for the entire society. (YM) Shumway, David, Henry Giroux, Paul Smith, and James Sosnoski. "The Need for Cultural Studies." n.d. n. page. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. <http://theory.eserver.org/need.html>. (Yannis Minetos) . Crow, Charlotte. The Cult of Beauty: The Aesthetic Movement 1860-1900. 24 Mar. 2011. 26 Mar. 2012 <http://www.historytoday.com/blog/first-impressions/cha...>. (MC) In the finest critics one hears the full cry of the human. They tell one why it matters to read.
–Harold Bloom Cultural critics often exaggerate certain aspects of a culture in order to promote cultural awareness or even incite change. (TL) The Science of Literature New Criticism is an approach to literature that stresses close attention to the internal characteristics of the text itself, avoiding impressionistic and historical approaches. Id, Ego, and Superego Sigmund Freud Our unconscious conflicts give rise to three areas of the mind that wrestle for dominance as we grow up.
These three areas of the mind are expressed in a text, just as they manifest themselves in our everyday actions. "...the notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware..." (Tyson). The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state of anxiety or tension. The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society. It is our sense of right and wrong. "...read psychoanalytically...to see which concepts are operating in the text in such a way as to enrich our understanding of the work and, if we plan to write a paper about it, to yield a meaningful, coherent psychoanalytic interpretation" (Tyson). "For the reader, the literary work is a particular and personal event: the electric current of his mind and personality lighting up the pattern of symbols on the printed page."

"The young reader's personal involvement in a work will generate greater sensitivity to its imagery, style, and structure."
-JN Photograph. About.com. New York Times. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. <http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/p/sigmund_freud.htm>. (Patrick Deavers) P.D. A Direct Approach The main purpose of Queer theory is to separate a person's sex (male or female) from their gender (masculine and feminine) as well as their sexual desires. (J.D.A) 'There is no gender identity behind the expressions of gender; ... identity is performatively constituted by the very "expressions" that are said to be its results.' (Butler) (J.D.A) Trey Bagley -JN The time that the Aesthetes lived in was full of the toil of the working class as the industrial age started to bloom. The decline of traditional religious beliefs into the pessimism of Darwin, Aestheticism formed as a reaction to Naturalism, which stressed evolution and external influences as molding our actions beyond our control. Where the naturalists saw a writer’s duty as an “objective” recorder of events, the aesthete’s works stressed decadence, celebrating the unnatural and unhealthy degeneration of life with amoral sentiments, to create art for the pure enjoyment of beauty. (Jack F.) The shock value and trickery that the aesthetes promoted were imbued with philosophical significance. Through the use of sensual and exotic imagery they hoped to expose their art to the bourgeoisie along with the goal of beauty that was its purpose. They truly believed that the natural state of man was evil, but with art he will be able to “transcend” that nature and escape it. (Jack F.) "All that is beautiful and noble is the result of reason and calculation. Crime, the taste for which the human animal draws from the womb of his mother, is natural in its origins. Virtue, on the contrary, is artificial and supernatural, since gods and prophets were necessary in every epoch and every nation to teach virtue . . . the good is always the product of some art."
– Charles Baudelaire (Jack F.) you found me! Delahoyde, M.. "New Criticism." . Washington State University, n.d. Web. 26 Mar 2012. <http://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/new.crit.html>.
(Trey Bagley) The drugs and alcohol present in the aesthete’s work as well as their lives is something that helps them stay true to their ideology. Taking primarily hallucinogens (notably Absinthe), the aesthetes were able to “transcend” their minds and improve on their natural state by experiencing a euphoria that helps them run away from their internal realities. (Jack F.) Ransom, John. "Criticism Inc." The Virginian Quarterly Review. University of Virginia, 1937. Web. 26 Mar 2012.
(Trey Bagley) "Criticism must become more scientific, or precise and systematic, and this means that it must be developed by the collective and sustained effort of learned persons..." - John Crowe Ransom While other methods fiddle with extraneous details such as the author's personal life or the historical context of a work of literature, New Criticism eschews this beating-about-the-bush and goes straight for the meat of the work; what it is saying (content) and how it says it (style). It looks for the work's inherent value as a standalone piece, without tying it to anything else. This makes it fairly scientific, in the sense that it is exact and does not attach sentimental values, postive or negative, beforehand, and tries to examine the work objectively (Delahoyde). "We live in an age in which miracles of all kinds are suspect,
including the kind of miracle of which the poet speaks. The
positivists have tended to explain the miracle away in a general
process of reduction which hardly stops short of reducing the
"poem" to the ink itself. But the "miracle of communication,"
as a student of language terms it in a recent book, remains. We
had better not ignore it, or try to "reduce" it to a level that
distorts it. We had better begin with it, by making the closest
possible examination of what the poem says as a poem."
- Cleanth Brooks "Decadence is a beautiful and interesting disease."
-Arthur Symons (Jack F.) What Brooks is saying is... Poetry is miraculous, and the best way to understand it is to take it for what it is! Brooks, Cleanth. The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry. London: Dennis Dobson, 1949. Vii. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=88978781>.
(Trey Bagley) The Method of New Criticism is foremost a study concentrating on such formal aspects as rhythm, meter, theme, metaphor, or imagery to explain that all these aspects support meaning directly within the text. The Goal of the New Criticism is to pursue unity and integrity not in the author, but in the text itself. The author and the work are therefore separate and different areas of study. "One can say that the author is an ideological product, since we represent him as the opposite of his historically real function. (When a historically given function is represented in a figure that inverts it, one has an ideological production.) The author is therefore the ideological figure by which one marks the manner in which we fear the proliferation of meaning. " Foucault, Michael. The History of Sexuality. New York. Penguin Books, 1990. (G.B.) The unconscious, in Freudian thought is the part of the mind outside the boundaries of the conscious, and composed of repressed feelings (those that are too painful to remain in consciousnesses) and sublimated feelings (drives that do not have a suitable outlet). (T.J.H.) T.P. Psycoanalytical Critisism seeks to understand a work by psycoanalyzing the author. One looks at what an author may have had in his or her unconscious that would have caused him or her to write the things that they did. (T.J.H.) Power Religion Politics (T. J. H.) Culture Postcolonial theory highlights the destructive and invasive force of foreign nations on the native people, and how their expansionary tendencies lead to destruction and catastrophe for the indigenous people. T.P. The theory describes the negative effects, and the shifting ideas of identity and culture, caused by colonial rule. T.P. “Independence & self-reliance had no cultural purchase; indeed, they could scarcely be conceived, let alone prized...The best course was humbly to accept the identity to which destiny assigned you: the ploughman needed only to know how to plough, the weaver to weave, the monk to pray.” Stephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the World Became Modern. (A.B.) Postcolonialism studies the different racial and cultural programs instituted by the colonial government to control the natives and how the repercussions of these programs affect the future relationships between the colonizing nation and the persecuted group.
Examples include apartheid in South Africa and slavery in many of the English colonies. T.P. Sometimes, struggles in colonization arise from differences in religion. Postcolnial theory looks at how the religion of the controlling nation compares to that of the natives. "There was a time in the ancient world - a very long time - in which the central cultural problem must have seemed an inexhaustible outpouring of books. Where to put them all? How to organize them on the groaning shelves? How to hold the profusion of knowledge in one's head? The loss of this plenitude would have been virtually inconceivable to anyone living in its midst. Then, not all at once but with the cumulative force of a mass extinction, the whole enterprise came to an end. What looked stable turned out to be fragile, and what had seemed for all time was only for the time being.”
Stephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the World Became Modern. (A.B.) T.P. “You cannot continue to victimize someone else just because you yourself were a victim once—there has to be a limit”
-Edward Said T.P. Marxist criticism views literature as the product of work and emphasizes the role of class and ideology as they reflect, propagate, and even challenge the prevailing social order. CJ (Alistair Benckenstein) “And the sins of the Eastern father shall be visited upon the Western sons. Often taking their time, stored up in the genes like baldness or testicular carcinoma, but sometimes on the very same day.”
- Zadie Smith Rather than viewing texts as repositories for hidden meanings, Marxist critics view texts as material products to be understood in broadly historical terms. C.J. T.P. Freudian Iceberg The idea of the psychological birth is prominent in the Object Relations Theory, which is a part of Psychoanalytical Criticism. In this idea, the first 3 years is the psychological birth in which innate potentials and character traits develop through social relations. (T.J.H.) “Psychoanalysis is neither a Weltanschauung, nor a philosopy that claims to provide the key to the universe. It is governed by a particular aim, which is historically defined by the elaboration of the notion of the subject. It poses this notion in a new way, by leading the subject back to his signifying dependence” –Jaques Lacan Weltanschauung is German for a sort of worldview that emcompasses a whole philosophy and system of knowledge.
“Undoubtedly very different forms of consciousness do exist, perhaps more than would satisfy the most insatiable of psychologists, but we regard them not as antithetical but only as variants. We do not find consciousness as opposed to unconscious to exist. We find ever the same movement-line; we find all the affects and actions, whether springing from the conscious or the unconscious, always seeking to attain one aim.” – Alfred Adler (T.J.H.) “Being brought up in a culture is a matter of learning appropriate forms of feeling as much as particular ways of thinking.”
-Terry Eagleton CJ The assumption that all people, like Freud, find the answers to childhood development in a sexual attraction to the child's mother, and every decision and position one takes on something is based on their sexual experiences as a child is presumptious, disgusting, and rediculous. Although freud did think that everyone thought the same as him on that point, and many people did, he and his followers did provide a fascinating idea of the unconscious which can explain many things about life, through the exploration of repressed and sublimated feelings, though not all have to be sexual. (T.J.H.) Marxist Criticism owes its origin to political theorist Karl Marx, who interpreted history as a class warfare between the wealthy (the bourgeois) and the poor(the proletariat), the have and the have-nots. CJ "Art is permitted to survive only if it renounces the right to be different" - Theodor Adorno CJ “Freud’s Iceberg.” Image. 2011. freud-sigmund.com. Web. 27 March 2012. http://www.freud-sigmund.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Freuds-iceberg.jpg (T.J.H.) Post-Structuralism holds that systems and frameworks are arbitrary symbols and should not be trusted to interpret meaning or create order. (M.K.) Post-Structuralism points out a gap between the interpretation and the interpretor. (M.K.) Therefore, an author's true meaning can never be understood, making the reader's interpretation the most important. (M.K.) Criticism: Because Post-Structuralism and Deconstruction rely on personal interpretation on a text and refuses to recognize a concrete meaning, each reader is free to decipher texts however they choose, creating a multiplicity of varied and questionably accurate interpretations. (M.K.) By branding literature as a mere economic product Marxist Criticism ignores the artist's creative vision and grossly undervalues the philosophical, moral and aesthetic concerns that literature addresses. CJ "To seize by inventory all the contexts of language and all possible positions of interlocutors is a senseless task. Every verbal signification lies at the confluence of countless semantic rivers. Experience, like language, no longer seems to be made of isolated elements lodged somehow in a Euclidean space... [Words] signify from the "world" and from the position of one who is looking." - Emmanuel Levinas, Signification and Sense (M.K.) Emmanual Levinas “And still the text will remain, if it is really cryptic and parodying (and I tell you that it is so through and through. I might as well tell you since it won’t be of any help to you. Even my admission can very well be a lie because there is dissimulation only if one tells the truth, only if one tells that one is telling the truth), still the text will remain indefinitely open, cryptic and parodying.” - Jacques Derrida, Spurs: Nietzsche 's Styles (M.K.) Jacques Derrida Detailed Analyses of Texts Possible Applications Christian Kelley New Criticism is an approach to literature developed by a group of American critics, including T.S. Eliot, Cleanth Brooks, and John Crowe Ransom. This approach to literature came about in the 1940s after World War I. The New Critics avoided impressionistic criticism, and instead constructed detailed analyses of specific texts in order to get the true meaning of the work. In addition, the movement focused on taking note of the structure and syntax of the studied work. New Critics believe that each work has its own independent theme regardless of the reader and the historical events taking place in the text. T.S. Eliot, one of the founders of the movement, once said, “A play should give you something to think about. When I see a play and understand it the first time, then I know it can't be much good.” Eliot says that he did not enjoy the play since he did not have to think about it to understand it. New Critics believe in the careful analysis of different works in order to fully grasp whatever the work is trying to convey. Since Eliot did not have to analyze the play to understand its meaning, he did not think of it as a success with regards to New Criticism. Cleanth Brooks, another founder of New Criticism, once said, “The cunning old codger knows that no emphasis often constitutes the most powerful emphasis of all.” The main impact of New Criticism was a new way to analyze texts. Instead of merely understanding the plot of a story, take note of the overall meaning. Try and see if the author is attempting to teach the audience a lesson, or if he or she is trying to speak out against a certain worldly issue. New Critics took note of the overall structure and style of different written works. Structuralism v. Poststructuralism
DP "Certain readers resented me when they could no longer recognize their territory, their institution." - Jacques Derrida "Literature exists at the same time in modes of error and truth; it both betrays and obeys its own mode of being." - Paul de Man Fry, Paul. "22. Post-Colonial Criticism." Lecture. YouTube. Google, 01 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UarXGSuyyrw>. (T.P.) Poststructural and Deconstructionist literature makes the legitimate claim that a novel's meaning is unique to the reader's perception of the content. It goes too far in saying that the author has abosolutely no part in imbuing any meaning into the text. I am of the opinion that the text is largely interpreted by the reader but the author has an impact on how that person goes about doing so because they create the content of a work. Image Citation

"Cleanth Brooks." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.google.com/

T.S. Eliot. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nobelprize.org>. "Quotes About Postcolonialism." Goodreads.com. Goodreads Inc. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/postcolonialism>. (T.P.) "[N]ot as works created in accordance with timeless artistic criteria, but as 'products' of the economic and ideological determinants specific to that era"
- M.H. Abrams (PW) According to Marxist Literary Criticism, literature mirrors the social institutions of which it is molded in and itself is a social institution modeling the author’s background and ideologies. (PW) "Structuralism & Post Structuralism Talk By Sunil Koli." YouTube. YouTube, 19 Nov. 2010. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1cAe1Oky4c>. (D.P.) "Clenath Brooks" Image. Soylent Communications. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.nndb.com/people/651/000115306/>. (N.W.) "My Hobby" Image. Something Shiny. March 15, 2011. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.
<http://fanzabura.wordpress.com/>.(N.W. The topic of social classes dominates the marxist analytical view of texts; consequently marxist critics hunt for themes within the text that may allude to ideological oppression of a overpowering social class and if the main character complys with or rejects bourgeoisie values. (PW) "Allen Tate Quotes and Sayings". Searchquotes.com. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.searchquotes.com/quotes/author/Allen_Tate/>(N.W.) "New Criticism". Article. Introduction to Literature. Delahoyde, Michael. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/new.crit.html>(N.W.) The Aesthetic Movement argued that art was not supposed to be utilitarian or useful in any practical sense. Instead, aesthetic experience is a fully autonomous and independent aspect of a human life. Thus, art should exist solely for its own sake. (JL)
The Aesthetes developed the cult of beauty, which they considered the basic factor in art. Life should copy Art, they asserted. They considered nature as crude and lacking in design when compared to art. (JL)
Aestheticism drew greatly from Japanese elements. (JL) The primary goal of cultural criticism is to provide an accessible view of a culture to an audience that may be unfamiliar with it. (TL) "Its aim is to explain the literary work more fully; and this means a penis sensitive attention to its forms, styles and meanings. But it also means grasping those forms, styles and meanings as the product of a particular history"
- Terry Eagleton (PW) An army of principles can penetrate where an army of soldiers cannot.
-Thomas Paine “A critique does not consist in saying that things aren't good the way they are. It consists in seeing on just what type of assumptions, of familiar notions, of established and unexamined ways of thinking the accepted practices are based... To do critcism is to make harder those acts which are now too easy. ”
― Michel Foucault (Andrew Gallant) Marxist Criticism proves its legitimacy as a literary theory when focusing on works compiled with modern societies and economic motivations, however it looses its value as an analytical ideology when analyzing works with ethical and moral focal points. (PW) All objects, all phases of culture are alive. They have voices. They speak of their history and interrelatedness. And they are all talking at once!
Camille Paglia (Andrew Gallant) I believe it is impossible to
understand what the author is trying to communicate in any form of art, literary or visual if the cultural context that the work that it is taking place in; even going as far as to make the story itself harder to empathize with or imagine. Understanding the context of a work can allow it to greatly improve society, even if the culture represented is different from that of the reader's. (Andrew Gallant) It is the job of the cultural critic to present the principles of the culture they are addressing in a manner that their audience can understand and examine rather than impose their own view of a culture onto the reader Much like Post-Modernism, the theory states that there is no single interpretation of any work, but many valid subjective interpretations that are irreconcilable The Significance of Critical Analysis Through Reader-Response Criticism Aestheticism was a late 19th century literature movement in which importance was placed on the beauty, or aesthetics, of the work, not its social or moral components. The official motto of the aesthetics was “art for art’s sake”; art/literature was simply meant to be aesthetically pleasing. (AZ)
Walter Pater’s many works, such as Studies in the History of the Renaissance, were extremely influential on the aesthetic movement. The rejection of moral art is clear in his literature; it is truly “art for art’s sake”. (AZ)
Aestheticism was typical of all literary movements, in that it was a response to the movement that preceded it, and can be defined as the opposite of utilitarianism. Aestheticism was a response to the utilitarian movement of the Early Victorian Writers, who believed that art should teach moral or religious values in order to explain the new industrial society. (AZ)
Aestheticism was an important foundation for many of the philosophies of the twentieth century that taught relativism and the existence of only subjective truths. (AZ)
Aestheticism was a step towards subjective truths, it taught that art has no value except for its own beauty, and beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Art did not have objective values such as moral or ethical truths, a view that many of the relativists of the next century would adopt. (AZ)
“Religion does not help me. The faith that others give to what is unseen, I give to what one can touch, and look at. My gods dwell in temples made with hands; and within the circle of actual experience is my creed made perfect and complete: too complete, it may be, for like many or all of those who have placed their heaven in this earth, I have found in it not merely the beauty of heaven, but the horror of hell also.” – Oscar Wilde, De Profoundis “The beautiful cannot be the way to what is useful, or to what is good, or to what is holy; it leads only to itself.” – Victor Cousin (AZ) LaChiusa, Chuck. "Aesthetic Movement (Aestheticism)." Buffalo Architecture and History. ingenious, inc., 2007. Web. 27 Mar 2012. <http://buffaloah.com/f/fstyles/aes/aes.html>. (JL) Psychoanalytic criticism is important because it seeks to find meaning in texts that even the author might have been unconcious of. Just as Freud theorized that many actions are the product of both concious and unconcious attitudes, texts also have deeper meanings that the author might not have intended. A psychoanalytic reading of a text is deeply reflective on the author and on society. Psychoanalytic criticism can be applied to many modern texts, for example: Waiting for the Barbarians. (AN) Reader Response Criticism fundamentally asks, “What does the text do to the reader?” However, the intent of the question lies deeper.
The argument of Reader Response Criticism is that a reader learns about himself introspectively by experiencing the response he does in reading literature.
This "literary anthropology," as Wolfgang Iser calls it, is the self-discovery through literature that is the goal of any text.
"If a literary text does something to its readers, it also simultaneously reveals something about them. Thus literature turns into a divining rod, locating our dispositions, desires, inclinations, and eventually our overall makeup."
"Questions of this kind," that is to say, why this particular method of self-discovery is found in literature and its reading, “point to a literary anthropology that is both an underpinning and an offshoot of reader-response criticism."
Both of these quotes are drawn from Wolgang Iser's "Prospecting," a collection of his own essays on the subject of literary criticism.
The primary impact of this criticism has yet to be fully recognized across circles of literary critique due to its relatively recent introduction to the world in the late twentieth century. (NY) appointment. Alternative Ways of Thinking Folklore should instead be studied as a 'conception of the world and life' implicit to a large extent in determinate (in time and space) strata of society and in opposition (also for the most part implicit, mechanical, and objective) to 'official' conceptions of the world (or in a broader sense, the conceptions of the cultured parts of historically determinate societies) that have succeeded one another in the historical process.
Gramsci, Antonio (Andrew Gallant) Describes conduct of other people within their culture in very broad terms, examining it and determining where and how it should be changed. (Andrew Gallant) Often wish to destroy the idea of “hierarchy” among different works, to their point of view; a T.V. show can say just as much about culture as a “higher end” books. Rock concerts can express just as much about our modern day culture as a Mozart one about historical cultures. All expressions of culture are equally valid and valuable.
(Andrew Gallant) “Religion does not help me. The faith that others give to what is unseen, I give to what one can touch, and look at. My gods dwell in temples made with hands; and within the circle of actual experience is my creed made perfect and complete: too complete, it may be, for like many or all of those who have placed their heaven in this earth, I have found in it not merely the beauty of heaven, but the horror of hell also.”
-Oscar Wilde (JL) Takes all aspects of life, including socio-economic conditions, customs, and daily life; in other words it takes everything about that context, leaving nothing out, in order to create a comprehensive picture of the context of the work in order to understand it and any messages the work is conveying. (Andrew Gallant “I endeavored to renounce society, that I might avoid temptation. But it was a poor religion; so far as it prevailed, only tended to make me gloomy, stupid, unsociable, and useless.”
― John Newton (JL) Links different regions by removing events from their historical, cultural, and political contexts. (AN) National Identity ? By the very nature of Post-Colonialist theory,
the destabilizing results of Western thought are magnified and brought to the forefront of
discussion. This elevation of a break in though processes highlights the ability of marginalized groups to speak on the topic of and stress alternative discourses more in line with their own unique customs and practices.

N.K The painting above depicts the Hotel Cathay in Shanghai, a locale frequented by the officers of the International Settlement of Colonial Shanghai. It is significant to note that all of the native Chinese in this work of art are depicted solely as waiters (in "their" own country), whereas all of the patrons are foreigners. N.K. "Each of these 'moments' of the real, once isolated and hypostatized,... becomes oppressive and destructive of its own reality." - Henri Lefebvre (AN) Artistic Depiction (JL) A more recent focus of Post-Colonialist thought
is on the topic of national identity, or a lack thereof. This focus becomes noteworthy when examining the group of people who are unlike the colonizers and natives, putting them in a precarious state of limbo. On the flip side, some notable scholars have argued about the dangers of obsessing over a vague national identity and ,in turn, ignoring individuality. Deconstruction descends from the Heideggerian idea destroying ontological concepts as a way to break the hold of tradition over society The term "Deconstruction" was created in the 1960s by French philosopher Jacques Derrida, and is closely related to Post-Modernism in Practice All in all, New Criticism seems to be quite an effective method of analyzing a work. It makes sense to remove external factors from a piece and approach it new and fresh, assessing the value and meaning of the piece itself. However, it also occurs to me as impractical to disregard all context and background when reading a work. For example, Gulliver’s Travels only makes real sense when shown to be a criticism of English culture at a certain time period, written by a cynical, humorous man who had disdain for his fellow Brits. Without this context, it seems to be a silly, pointless tale of fictional adventures, and some of its value as a work of literature can be easily overlooked. Cultural Assimilation An important and often forgotten theme which Post-Colonialist thinkers address is the extent
to which culutural assimilation and physical traits can coexist. In other words, who is the person physically a native, but who speaks the language of the ruling empire. Or even vice versa, the imperialist who is more like the native for all culutural purposes.

N.K. The Basics of Reader-Response Theory "[It] furnishes the link between disparate, apparently autonomous regions of human history." - Edward Said (AN) "On the one hand, we must traverse a phase of overturning. To do justice to this necessity is to recognize that in a classical philosophical opposition we are not dealing with the peaceful coexistence of a vis-a-vis, but rather with a violent hierarchy. One of the two terms governs the other. -Jacques Derrida Reaction I find that Post-Colonialist theory presents an interesting and effective lense through which to view literature, history, and cultural interaction. All of the facets that make up an individual's character or personality cannot be found solely in one place, as migration, colonization, and other factors have created "hybridized" attitudes. Through this methodology, we can attempt to ascertain the underlying factors of current trends, in addition to better understanding the very real effects of world cocnquest, an imperialism that may bring abou improvements or harm harm. More often, however, imperialism results in a combination of the two. N.K. “Is it part of morality not to
be at home in one's home?"
-Edward Said

N.K. Albertson, David. "Wo
"Aesthetes and Decadents: An Overview." The Victorian Web: An Overview. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.victorianweb.org/decadence/decadentov.html>. (Jack F.)

"Decadence and Aesthetes." 302 Found. University of Wisconsin OshKosh. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.english.uwosh.edu/roth/Decadence.htm>. (Jack F.)

Nestvold, Ruth. "Literature at the Turn of the Century." Ruth Nestvold, Writer of Science Fiction, Hyperfiction, and Fantasy. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ruthnestvold.com/endcent.htm>. (Jack F.)

"The Legion of Honor in San Francisco Hosts "The Cult of Beauty ~ The Victorian Avant-Garde"" ArtKnowledgeNews.com. Art News. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.artknowledgenews.com/01_03_2012_23_00_57_the_legion_of_honor_in_san_francisco_hosts_the_cult_of_beauty_the_victorian_avant_garde.html>. (Jack F.) “Everything, all those great things, had happened so far away--or so it seemed to [Mma Ramotswe] at the time. The world was made to sound as if it belonged to other people--to those who lived in distant countries that were so different from Botswana; that was before people had learned to assert that the world was theirs too, that what happened in Botswana was every bit as important, and valuable, as what happened anywhere else.”
― Alexander McCall Smith, The Double Comfort Safari Club "there is nothing outside the text."- Jacques Derrida Rivera, Diego. The Arsenal. 1928. Blogspot.com. Web. <http://poulwebb.blogspot.com/2011/08/diego-rivera-part-1.html>. (Andrew Gallant)
"Cultural Criticism." University of Michigan, Center for the Study of Complex Systems. University of Michigan, 06 July 1998. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/notabene/cultural-criticism.html>.(Andrew Gallant)
Smith, Johanna M., and Ross C. Murfin. "What Is Cultural Criticism?" University of Saskatchewan. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.usask.ca/english/frank/cultint.htm>. (Andrew Gallant)
"Camille Pagilia Quotes." Camille Paglia Quotes (Author of Sexual Personae). Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/10733.Camille_Paglia>. (Andrew Gallant)
"Michel Foucault Quotes." Michel Foucault Quotes (Author of Discipline and Punish). Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/1260.Michel_Foucault>. (Andrew Gallant)
"Quotes: Antonio Gramsci." Eberhard Wenzel WebSite. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://www.ldb.org/gramsci.htm>. (Andrew Gallant) Fry, Paul. “Configurative Reading.” Introduction to Theory of Literature, Yale, New Haven. Spring 2009. Lecture. < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbJW5nGnoGU> (NY) The purpose of literature is to promote the author's idealogical self, and that the self is the product of the author's social being. (R.A) Reader-response criticism stands as a staunch defender of individual discovery and analysis of texts in the modern and classical traditions. Instead of advocating a reading of texts through a certain perspective provided by educators or authors, the reader-response point of view focuses on allowing the reader, with all of his/her psychological, emotional, and intellectual “baggage”, to conceive and formulate meaning independent of that which originates from the author or a professor. By opening up analysis to the human experience, this form of literary criticism serves valuably as an extractor of novel ideas on multiple texts. Reader-response, then, condones individual analysis and criticism of novels and stands reasonably as a school of thought that is necessary for a richer understanding of literary texts based on the human experience. -JN Critiques the ideas of Eurocentrism and a large scale view of global history, focusing rather on the histories of particular societies. (AN) N.K. Stanhope's aesthetic painting depicts the beauty of life in stark contrast to the utilitarian viewpoint becoming more and more prevalent in late Victorian Society. History and Geography Queer theory is a set of ideas based around the idea that identities are not fixed and do not determine who we are. It suggests that it is meaningless to talk in general about 'women' or any other group, as identities consist of so many elements that to assume that people can be seen collectively on the basis of one shared characteristic is wrong. Indeed, it proposes that we deliberately challenge all notions of fixed identity, in varied and non-predictable ways. (J.D.A) Attempts to give significance to those groups who were previously ignored by European history by imposing European style humanism upon them. (AN) One of the weaknesses of Postcolonial Criticism is ignoring the bigger picture involving world geography and history. These two elements are crucial to understanding why a certain event occurred the way it did, and by taking it out of context it is impossible to derive any meaning from it. (AN) Marxist critics believe that a work of literature is not a result of divine inspiration or pure artistic endeavor, but that it arises out of the economic and ideological circumstances surrounding its creation. (R.A.) According to Marxist criticism, conflict is a mirror to the author's class in society and its struggle with other classes.(R.A) “Criticism must become more scientific, or precise and systematic.”- John Crowe RansomRansom is stressing the need to break from new historicism and study the text itself. "It's not just the norm of heterosexuality that is tenuous. It's all sexual norms." -Judith Butler (I.G.) “For twenty or twenty-five years we have lived with a kind of literary criticism more intensive than a language has ever known”- John Crowe Ransom, author of The New Criticism "Postcolonial Criticism". YouTube. 27 Oct. 2011 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27ZQiJy_Qwo>. (AN) I do not necessarily agree with the idea of
New Criticism. A work of literature contains
much more than just within the text, such as
the author's purpose and meaning of the work.
A detachment from the two seems irrational. San Jaun, E. "The Limits of Postcolonial Criticism: The Discourse of Edward Said." Dec. 1998. Solidarity. 27 Mar. 2012 <http://www.solidarity-us.org/node/1781>. (AN) "The mode of production of material life determines altogether the social, political, and intellectual life process. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but on the contrary their social being, that determines their consciousness." - Karl Marx(R.A.) Bhambra, Gurminder K. "Historical Sociology, Modernity, and Postcolonial Critique." June 2011. American Historical Association. 27 Mar. 2012 <http://historicalsociology.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/bhambra-gurminder-2011-historical-sociology-modernity-and-the-postcolonial-critique.pdf>. (AN) Bush, Douglas. "The New Criticism: Some Old-Fashioned Queries." 64.1 (1949). Print. (MA)American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999 (MA)Abrams, M.H. "New Criticism." A Glossary of Literary Terms. 7th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999. 180-182. (MA) "A writer and his readers share insights into aspects of their present, historically-determined experience, and can do no other if the continuity of human communication is to be sustained." - Betty Abel(R.A) Marxist Criticsm is correct in that there is an objective influence of a literary work that is derived from the author's social standing. However there exists a subjective inspiration from an origin other than the author's idealogical point of view.(R.A.) (R.A.) "Official In Time Trailer [HD]". August 2 2011. YouTube. March 28 2012.

"Marxist Criticism." Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Janet Witalec. Vol. 130. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Literature Resource Center. Web. 28 Mar. 2012.
Document URL

Abel, Betty. "A Marxist Literary Map." Contemporary Review 238.1385 (June 1981): 331-332. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 142. Detroit: Gale Group,
2001. Literature Resource Center. Web. 28 Mar. 2012.
Document URL
http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CH1100038791&v=2.1&u=tlc041008420&it=r&p=LitRC&sw=w Aborigine Instead of characterizing a geographical region's people by their specific geographical region, the term "aborigine" was used in place to create a nebulous aura of implied savagry. It is almost like the term "barbarian" in J.M. Coetzee's Waiting for Barbarians.(C.W.) Cartography The act of mapping or map-making. The consequence of Post-Colonialism was discovering the undiscovered or unknown. So cartography became synonymous with the discovery or solving of "the other" (C.W.) Glocalization The word originates from combining the words "global" and "local". In Post-Colonialist literature and discourse, it refers to the pitting of a local institution against a much larger global integrative entity.(C.W.) (C.W.) "The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much. What redeems it is the idea only. An idea at the back of it; not a sentimental pretence but an idea; and an unselfish belief in the idea -- something you can set up, and bow down before, and offer a sacrifice to."-Edward Said (C.W.) "My success will not depend on what A or B thinks of me. My success will be what I make of my work." -Homi Bhabha (C.W.) A large factor queer theory criticism is that it seeks to explain and stress upon the pressure from society which is responsible for highly restricted sexual roles and social intimacy. (N.L) Impact Queer theory criticism often involves the reconstruction of traditional gender roles and stressing marginal forms of pleasure as mainstream in analyzing a literary work (N.L) Post-Colonialism in its literary movement was exremely effective at making its readers sympathetic to the local people's ineviatble submission to a global entity. It served to raise awareness and make known the other's opinion of its domination by world powers A large factor queer theory criticism is that it seeks to explain and stress upon the pressure from society which is responsible for highly restricted sexual roles and social intimacy. (N.L) “That's one of the things that "queer" can refer to: the open mesh of possibilities, gaps, overlaps, dissonances and resonances, lapses and excesses of meaning when the constituent elements of anyone's gender, of anyone's sexuality aren't made (or can't be made) to signify monolithically.”(Sedwick) N.L "Post-Colonial studies", the second edition. Ed.Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffins, and Helen Tiffin. Routelege publishing, 2000. March 28, 2012
http://work.colum.edu/~zfurness/korey/Ashcroft-Post_colonial_Studies_KeyConcepts.pdf (C.W.) "Identifying with multiplicity". Marta Jakimowicz. www.deccanherald.com/content/214395/identifying-multiplicity.html (C.W) "In twentieth-century Western culture gender and sexuality represent two analytic axes that may productively be imagined as being as distinct from one another as, say, gender and class, or class and race. Distinct, that is to say, no more than minimally, but nonetheless usefully"

(Sedgwick) N.L "Queer Theory - Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick." Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://science.jrank.org/pages/10943/Queer-Theory-Eve-Kosofsky-Sedgwick.html>. (N.L)

Sedwick, Eve. "Eve Sedgwick Quotes." Goodreads. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/show/416267>. (N.L)

Campbell. "48. Theories Lecture: Queer Theory." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Apr. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfCFlxOjkSc>. (N.L) Oscar Wilde's Picture of Dorian Gray is a prominent example of aestheticism in the Victorian Age. In the story Dorian does not age, instead he lives as a young man and his age, along with ultimately his corruption, transfer onto the portrait of him until it is too ugly to bear. Although this may seem to be a story of moral virtue, it is in Wilde's view an aesthetic or disillusioned representation of his own life. (AML) "There are more ideas on earth than intellectuals imagine. And these ideas are more active, stronger, more resistant, more passionate than "politicians" think. We have to be there at the birth of ideas, the bursting outward of their force: not in books expressing them, but in events manifesting this force, in struggles carried on around ideas, for or against them. Ideas do not rule the world. But it is because the world has ideas (and because it constantly produces them) that it is not passively ruled by those who are its leaders or those who would like to teach it, once and for all, what it must think. " citations
Michel Foucault. "What Is an Author?" Twentieth-Century Literary Theory. Ed. Vassilis Lambropoulos and David Neal Miller. Albany: State University Press of New York, 1987. 124-42.

Leinwand, Theodore B. PMLA , Vol. 105, No. 3, Special Topic: The Politics of Critical Language (May, 1990), pp. 477-490

Eribon, Didier. Michel Foucault. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1991. Print.

Felluga, Dino. "Terms Used by New Historicism." Introductory Guide to Critical Theory.January 31st, 2011. Purdue U. March 28, 2012. <http://www.purdue.edu/guidetotheory/newhistoricism/terms/>.

Betteman/CORBIS. Closeup of Michel Foucault Smiling, French Philopsopher and Historian. 1979. Photograph. Corbis.com Stock Photography and Pictures. Could be critizied for not placinging enough importance on the actual content of the text- for the New Historicist, the text is of minimal importance compared to the ideology of the author and the biases the text contains
Literature lacks a basic importance of it's own; any work of art or media can be analyzed for its "historicity, meaning that once again content and intent are irrelevant to the New Historicist, when compared with the background and culture of the author or creator.
For the New Historicist, knowledge is a form of power to be aquired In this new world of cross-culture identities, it does not suffice to consider onself merely of one culture. We are American, but of African, European and Native descent. This cross multitude of identities shapes how we view the opressors and the opressed, the explorers and the statesmen in literature - (Thomas Surratt) Cultural criticism can be applied small subcultures, practices that span multiple culture or even humanity as a whole (TL) Poster, Mark. Critical Theory and Poststructuralism: In Search of a Context. Cornell UP, 1988. Print. New Historicism presents a useful method of bringing understanding to texts that takes into account biases and other factors that may have influenced the author. A.B.
Furthermore, it presents a perspective similar to Marxist Criticism but looks at the struggle between the oppressed and the oppressor from a different perspective. A.B. E.D. Post-Colonial criticism focuses primarily upon issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and culture. (E.D.) New Historicism, while an interesting theory, should not just take historical events into account. Historical events are something to consider, but sometimes effective criticism of a novel can be done by taking the text at its face value. (A.H.) "I doubt if it is controversial, for example, to say that an Englishman in India or Egypt in the later nineteenth century took an interest in those countries which was never far from their status in his mind as British colonies." - Edward Said (E.D.) Greenblatt. Photograph. Queen's University, Kingston. If:book: Greenblatt on Human Agency and New Historicism. The Institute for the Future of the Book. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.futureofthebook.org/blog/archives/2008/10/greenblatt.html>.
(A.B.) “My argument is that history is made by men and women, just as it can also be unmade and rewritten, always with various silence and elisions, always with shapes imposed and disfigurements tolerated.” - Edward Said (E.D.) A major reason for the implementation of Post-Colonial criticism is the 'lost history' of the losing culture. (E.D.) Post-Colonial criticism portrays the idea of "Empire" as destructive and misguided rather than progressive and just. (E.D.) Fish, Stanley. SCA: Self-Consuming Artifacts: The Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1972. (PGP)

Stanley Fish. Image. Tenured Radical. 30 October 2010. Web. 25 March 2012. http://tenured-radical.blogspot.com/2009/10/how-to-do-your-job-without-really.html (PGP)

Delahoyde, Michael. "Reader Response Criticism." 14 October 2011. Web. 25 March 2012. http://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/reader.crit.html (PGP)

Murfin, Ross. "Definition of Reader-Response Criticism." Web. 25 March 2012. http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html (PGP)

Goldstein, Philip. "Reader Response Theory and Criticism." 2005. Web. 25 March 2012. http://www.davidlavery.net/Courses/Narratology/JHGTC/Reader-Response%20Theory%20and%20Criticism.pdf (PGP) Post-Colonial criticism focuses on the idea of interpreting ideas through the eyes of the oppressed and maligned. While this is correct in some instances, it ignores other interpretations which can be more correct in various other situations. (E.D.) "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle"- Carl Marx CJ CJ • Much of the queer theory came out in response to the emergence of the AIDS virus, which was largely linked to homosexuals. (NR)
• This brought about a wave of homophobia and torment for homosexuals. The queer theory emerged as a response to the epidemic and sought to suggest new ways of political organization in defense of “queer.”(NR)
• Queer Theory Criticism often goes hand in hand with the AIDS virus; it deals with death in a abject manner and struggles to come to terms with the identity. (NR)
• "HIV prevention requires taking into account the diversity of people's sex lives, not of their sexual orientation." – Michael Warner(NR)
• The queer theory’s importance in history lies in its emergence into the culture of everyday life, and, at a textual basis, provides new insight to the understanding of identity.(NR)
• "Political liberty in this sense, is simply the area within which a man can act unobstructed by others. If I am prevented by others from doing what I could otherwise do, I am to that degree unfree; and if this area is contracted by other men beyond a certain minimum, I can be described as being coerced, or,it may be, enslaved.” – Isaiah Berlin(NR) • The queer theory’s importance in history lies in its emergence into the culture of everyday life, and, at a textual basis, provides new insight to the understanding of identity.(NR) A modest proposal by Georg Pedersen (NR)
 "Purdue Owl: Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism."Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue University, 2012. Web. 27 Mar 2012. (M.K.)

"Poststructuralism." Chicago: Poetry Foundation, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://www.poetryfoundation.org/learning/glossary-term/Poststructuralism?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed: GlossaryTermOfTheDay (Glossary Term of the Day)>. (M.K.)

Levinas, Emmanuel. Signification and Sense. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003. Print. (M.K.)

Derrida, Jacques. Spurs:Nietzsche's Styles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. Print. (M.K.)

Clay. Postmodern. 1997. Cartoon. Soc TheoryWeb. 28 Mar 2012. <http://soctheory.iheartsociology.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/postmodern.gif>. (M.K.) The New Historic criticism asserts that a literary work is permeated by the social, political, and economic ideologies of that specific time and place.

In order to fully comprehend the true worth of a work, one must first understand the history of this time period, and take into consideration the authors own social position and life experiences. In order to accomplish this, a scholar utilizing the New Historic Method must delve into history books, other literary works of this time period, works which may have served to influence the thoughts and ideologies of the author.

New Historicism refuses to view history as a mere background to a literary work, but instead the driving force that infiltrates a work. The influences of history can be seen in the themes, moods and tone running throughout a work.
D.A New Historic Criticism claims the works of an author and the ideological bent of the author cannot be separated; therefore, everything we have come to know about the past and the present has been distorted by someone else’s ideological filter, and then further altered by our own viewpoint. I find this concept that we cannot know anything objectively, interesting, yet unsettling. I believe, while history and ideologies are significant, they are overplayed in this form of literary criticism.
D.A "...questions asked by traditional historians and by new historicists are quite different...traditional historians ask, 'What happened?' and 'What does the event tell us about history?' In contrast, new historicists ask, 'How has the event been interpreted?' and 'What do the interpretations tell us about the interpreters?'"

“From these works it becomes clear that he (Greenblatt) is not so much interested in referential realities on the one hand and literary and historical wiring on the other as in the relationship between these two.”(Veenstra)
D.A Brizee, Allen, J. Case Tompkins. "Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism: Post-Colonial Criticism." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 21 Apr. 2010. Web. 28 March 2012. (E.D.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKy8EwJ05CA,
D.A "Major British Writers Postcolonial." YouTube. 16 April 2009. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3K_oQQTds4> (E.D.) Queer theory criticism maintains that cultural definitions of sexuality and what it means to be male and female are in flux. In other words, queer theory makes no distiction between male and female, homosexual and heterosexual. (JC) "Reader-Response Criticism". October 1998. College of New Rochelle. 28 March 2012 <http://http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/readercrit.html>.

 "Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present)".1995-2012. Purdue University. 28 Mar 2012 <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/722/06/>

Rosenblatt, Louise. Readers, Texts, Authors. Vol. 34. Indiana University Press, 1998.

Rosenblatt, Louise. On a Review of Louise Rosenblatt's "Literature as Exploration". Vol. 5, University of Illinois Press, 1971.
(J.N.) Queer theory criticism proposes that we deliberately challenge all notions of fixed identity, in varied and non-predictable ways, as it claims that identities are not fixed, and therefore, cannot determine who we are. (JC) Reader-Response Criticism hands control of a text over to the reader, and makes the reader an integral part of any literary work. The reader's projection of cultural and psychological circumstances create meaning out of an otherwise intrinsically meaningless text. These biases not only magnify critical aspects of a work, but they are also necessary in order to fully glean a picture of the text as a whole. (PGP) Monet- "Impression Sunrise"
-AZ Nestvold, Ruth. “Late Victorianism. Literature at the Turn of the Century. Ruth Nestvold, 2001. Web. 27 March 2012. <http://ww.ruthnestvold.com/endcent.htm>. (AZ)

Norfleet, Phil. “What is Impressionism?” BAUDELAIRE AND THE IMPRESSIONIST REVOLUTIONS. N.p. Mar. Web. 27 Mar 2012. <http://impressionist1877.tripod.com/>. (AZ)

"Victor Cousin Quotes." BrainyQuote. BookRags, 2012. Web. 27 Mar 2012. (AZ)

"Quotes about Aestheticism." GoodReads. N.p., 2012. Web. 27 Mar 2012. (AZ) Queer critics question the accuracy of generalizations such as 'men' or 'women' as individual identities are so deep and complex that it is wrong to collectively classify people on the basis of one characteristic. (JC) Although queer theory criticism does present some valid and legitimate arguments, I largely disagree with its claims. Queer criticism does logically explain why you can not generalize as 'man' or 'woman.' Our identities are not fixed -> male and female are fixed identities -> male and female are not our identities. However, I do belive that to a certain extent men and women have similar tendencies and characteristics. It is undeniable that (generally speaking) men tend to be more pragmatic and realistic, and women tend to be more cerebral and emotional. (JC) “I don't feel that it is necessary to know exactly what I am. The main interest in life and work is to become someone else that you were not in the beginning.” - Michel Foucault (JC) “...it's my hypothesis that the individual is not a pre-given entity which is seized on by the exercise of power. The individual, with his identity and characteristics, is the product of a relation of power exercised over bodies, multiplicities, movements, desires, forces.” - Michel Foucault (JC) "We are all mediators, translators."
--Jacques Derrida (TCH) "I think that every sexual position is fundamentally comic" (Butler) (J.D.A) Reader-Response criticism focuses on finding meaning in the act of reading and finding different ways individuals or a group experiences and interprets the texts. (DH) “Eiffel saw his Tower in the form of a serious object, rational, useful; men return it to him in the form of a great baroque dream which quite naturally touches on the borders of the irrational ..."
--Roland Barthes, The Eiffel Tower and Other Mythologies (TCH) Reader-Response criticism argues: An assumption for Reader-Response Criticism has the readers thinking literature as a performative art, interpreting it as a musical work, drama, etc. It only exists when it is being read. (DH) Reader-response criticism gives the reader various approaches. It makes the reader he producer, giving ideas, memories, feelings, and not a consumer of meanings. (DH) Sexuality Logo. Digital image. Allisonclayton. Web. <http://allisonclayton.wordpress.com/tag/queer-theory/>. (J.D.A.) Gauntlett, David. "Queer Theory." Theory.org.uk. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-quee.htm>. (JC)
“In the procedures I would urge, the reader’s activities are at the center of attention, where they are regarded not as leading to meaning but as having meaning.” – Stanley Fish (DH) (J.D.A) “It is an experience; it occurs; it does something; it makes us do something. Indeed, I would go so far as to say, in direct contradiction of Wimsatt and Beardsley, that what it does is what it means.” –Stanley Fish (DH) Brizee, Allen, and J. Case Tompkins. "Gender Studies and Queer Theory (1970s-present)." Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue University, 21 Apr. 2010. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/722/12/>. (JC) As a literary theory Queer theory is very important, especially today because of the different movements and viewpoints that exist today. Some of the beliefs associated with the movement, however, I find to be in some sense bogus, for example, I do not subscribe in the least bit to the idea that gender is separate from one's sex. (J.D.A) Reading-response criticism gives the reader feeling and perception. The reader is guided by the text and with the text given; the reader can have experiences and “live and breathe” in the text. Reading-response criticism is a great way to interpret the text because the reader is given a first-person perspective. Another way to interpret the reading is through the gaps between the texts. The reader must connect what is separated and create parts of the work in his or her mind. Reading-response criticism is a fun way to interpret text and the greater the imagination, the better the experience. (DH) Picture of Michel Foucault. Digital image. Listal. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.listal.com/viewimage/732257>. (JC) Delahoyde, Michael. "Reader-response Critisism." Washington State University. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/reader.crit.html>. McManus, B. F.. Reader-response criticism. N.p., 1998. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/readercrit.html>. Henderson, Greig, and Cristopher Brown. "Glossary of Literary Theory." Reader Response Criticism. University of Toronto English Library, 1997. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/glossary/Reader-response_criticism.html>. Lang, Chris. "A Brief History of Literary Theory III." Xenos Christian Fellowship. Xenos Christian Fellowship, 2011. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://www.xenos.org/essays/litthry4.htm>. . N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar 2012. Let's take a closer look... New Criticism emphasizes a detailed reading of the work alone, with an examination of the relationship between ideas and form. The new critical method looks at what a text means and how the text means it. This relationship is visible in patterns of imagery, sound, and structure, along with point of view. Most prominent in the 1940s and 1950s, New Criticism was made popular by such authors as T.S. Eliot, John Crowe Ransom, and Cleanth Brooks. Cultural critics are those that take it upon themselves to analyze and critique the social mannerisms of people within their own society.
There is a need for good cultural criticism because it there are many aspects of our lives that our decided by said criticism and is beyond the reach of common sociology. (M.T.) Aestheticism is a movement founded on beauty. At its root the movement is based on the superficial. One of the beliefs of the movement is that life is merely about its pleasures. The movement turns away from a universal morality and moves toward subjectivity. (DK) Post-structuralism is a response
to structuralism, a philosophy
that essentially states that literary
meaning can be evaluated objectively. JW “It is through Art and through Art only that we can realize our perfection; through Art and Art only that we can shield ourselves from the sordid perils of actual existence.”
-Oscar Wilde (DK) The Aestheticism movement of the late 19th century heavily focused itself on art and it purpose. In this quote from Oscar Wilde, the purpose of Aestheticism is illustrated. Wilde asserts that Art is the tool that should be used to navigate life and that the purpose of life is solely to experience the perfection of beauty, nothing more. (DK) The idea of post-structuralism removes the author as the artist, and instead replaces the work of writing the story with the work of reading it and interpreting it in light of the reader's experience. JW Aestheticism asserts that art is solely for its face value – that there is no deeper meaning in art and if there is it is unimportant. It asserts that the real importance is the “shallow” beauty of the art. Art’s sole purpose is to be beautiful and bring pleasure to those who look at it. (DK) Oscar Wilde clearly understood the shallow nature of Aestheticism through his work, The Picture of Dorian Gray, in which he states that “All art is at once surface and symbol. Those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril. Those who read the symbol do so at their peril.” Wilde clearly believes that art has an essential purpose, to provide beauty to all those who look at it, and warns anyone who looks beyond that central purpose that there is none such thing to be found. The Poststructural theory rejects the "common sense" idea
that the individual self can be defined as a separate coherent entity; instead, they define
the individual through the binary opposition of various knowledge claims. More simply, a
particular individual defines himself through differnces between himself and another individual. (I am
male, while she is female. I have brown hair, while he has black hair.) This is just as a dictionary defines a word
thorugh the use of other words, which in turn define themselves through other words, creating a chain which will eventually lead back to the original word.
(TCH) De Morgan, William. Charger. 1888. Victoria and Albert Museum. Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://media.vam.ac.uk/vamembed/media/versions/uploads/new_images/2006ap3174_dish_morgan_custom_base_custom_base_custom_290x290_66169619.jpg>. (DK)

"Related Quotes." Oscar Wilde Famous Quote about Aestheticism, Art, Existance, Perfection. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.quotesdaddy.com/quote/960613/oscar-wilde/it-is-through-art-and-through-art-only-that-we-can>. (DK)

Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. By Oscar Wilde. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.wilde-online.info/the-picture-of-dorian-gray.html>. (DK) Foucault discusses this painting, one in Magritte's series in "The Treachery of Images," discussing the connection between the words, the image, and reality. JW William De Morgan - "Charger"
(DK) "What misleads us is the inevitability of connecting the text to the drawing--and the impossibility of defining a perspective that would let us say that the assertion is true, false, or contradictory." --Foucault "Genuine poetry can communicate before it is understood." - T.S. Eliot CJ “The poet wants to ‘say’ something. Why, then, doesn’t he say it directly and fortrightly? Why is he willing to say it only through his metaphors? Through his metaphors, he risks saying it partially and obscurely, and risks saying nothing at all. But the risk must be taken, for direct statement leads to abstraction and threatens to take us out of poetry altogether.” - Cleanth Brooks Jacques Derrida is credited with the formation of the idea of Deconstruction, a cornerstone to the overall Post-Structural Theory. Deconstruction asserts that meaning is defined through a
word's binary opposition, for example good is defined by the absence of evil, and
evil defined by the reverse. Derrida further asserted that since these "opposites" rely
on each other for meaning, and existence they are not truly opposites (thus one
"deconstructs" these polar opposites).
(TCH) “The Definition of Marxist Criticism.” virtuaLit Interactive Poetry Tutorial Bedford St. Martin’s. 27 March 2012 <http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_marx.html> CJ "Literature exists at the same time in the modes of error and truth; it both betrays and obeys its own mode of being." --Paul de Man Post-structuralism
is a response
to structuralism, a
philosophy that
essentially states that literary
meaning can be evaluated objectively. JW I believe post-structuralism to be a very valid criticism;
I believe that as Artists, writers and painters must give
up their work to the world when publishing it. It is no
longer their own work, but becomes Art as a result of
the projections others place upon it, taking up infinite
meanings and endless interpretations. JW Magritte, Rene. The Treachery of Images. 1966. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California. As it comes to interpreting the meaning of a specific text, the Poststructuralist states that a works meaning is defined by the interplay of the oppositions of the reader and that of the work. Therefore a work's meaning depends not on the authors original intent but on the
readers particular response to it. This theory argues that there is no correct interpretation
but instead a duplicity of interpretations with each particular instance of no
less importance or meaning than any other. A Poststructural critique
of a work seeks to come about the understanding of a work from a
multitude of perspectives and analyze how these different
perspectives shape the subsequent interpretation.
(TCH) “Terry Eagleton Quotes.” How to Read a Poem goodreads. 27 March 2012
<http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/10283.Terry_Eagleton> CJ “Theodor Adorno Quotes.” BrainyQuote BookRags Media Network. 27 March 2012
<http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/theodor_adorno.html> CJ CJ CJ Suzuki, Lea. "Mick Jaggar." Photo. SFGate.com 14 Nov. 2005. 14 Nov. 2005 (NR) “Pyramid of Capitalist System.” Cartoon. 1911. LaborArts 27 March 2012 <http://www.laborarts.org/collections/item.cfm?itemid=428> CJ I find Poststructuralism to be a powerful literary philosophy, quite simply because it makes art dynamic. This theory allows the art to transcend the artist--the art admirer to become the creator. A piece of writing, painting, or architecture comes to mean what the individual desires
it to mean, what he sees it to be through the vision of his past experiences. Art becomes not a stagnant piece of defined meaning
but an ever-changing continuum in which each different reader or admirer comes to find his own meaning based on what
he sees and what has experienced. After all, when a critic seeks to find the authors original intent of a piece it does not
matter what the artists original intent actually was but instead what the critic perceives to be the artists intent.
(TCH) Rhim, Debbie and Stephen Rhee. “Marxist Criticism.” Youtube. Youtube, 8 February 2011. Web. 28 March 2012.
CJ Czygan , Eric. "Post-Modernism: Deconstruction and Derrida Pt. 1 ." YouTube. Open Source Buddhist Research Institute, 2009. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fs5Q0tYlVQc>.
(TCH) The Dark Knight Rises. Dir. Christopher Nolan. 2011. Youtube. Youtube, Dec. 19 2011. Web. 27 March 2012 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GokKUqLcvD8> CJ L.L. “Those who find ugly meanings in beautiful things are corrupt without being charming. This is a fault. Those who find beautiful meanings in beautiful things are the cultivated. For these there is hope. They are the elect to whom beautiful things mean only Beauty. There is no such thing as a moral or immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all.” Oscar Wilde (AML) Wolfgang Iser Reader response is a literary theory in which primary focus falls on the reader and the process of reading rather than on the author or the text. (JC) Literature only exists when someone reads it, otherwise it simply sits and waits to be read. (JC) In Wilde's play "The Importance of Being Earnest" an action which Algernon names "Bunburying" is an example of aestheticism because it is experiencing life not in a moral or restricted way, but for the pleasure and beauty open to you. For Wilde that is attained through this type of duplicity and double-life, shown in the play and his life. A book has no inherent meaning or value, its value is only determined by the reader when the reader interacts with the text. (JC) McManus, Barbara F. "Reader-Response Criticism." Reader-Response Criticism. Oct.-Nov. 1998. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/readercrit.html>. (JC) OCAL. Eiffel Tower Paris clip art. 2007. Photograph. Clker.com Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://www.clker.com/clipart-14270.html>.
(TCH) Jacques Lacan The Three Orders of Subjectivity Parker, Oliver, dir. The Importance of Being Earnest. Miramax, 2002. Film. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSKNxf_qn7A>. (AML)
N.d. Photograph. tvtropesWeb. 29 Mar 2012. <http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/ThePictureOfDorianGray>. (AML)

Johnson, Elizabeth. "Top 10 Oscar Wilde Quotes." toptenz.net. N.p., 30 11 2011. Web. 29 Mar 2012. <http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-quotes-by-oscar-wilde.php>. (AML) The Symbolic Al-Khuraibet, Nour, and Hanan Al-Mutawa. "Wolfgang Iser." Iser. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://drhanan.com/critics/iser.htm>. (JC) The Real The Imaginary "Whenever the flow is interrupted and we are led off in unexpected direction, the opportunity is given to us to bring into play our own faculty for establishing connections for filling in the gaps left by the text itself" (JC) "The reading process is an interaction between the text and the reader’s imagination" (JC) The reason the Reader-response theory is so valuable is because it is so true. This is why people argue over books and what their particular political bent or deeper message is. It is because people value the reader's opinion so highly. The Reader-response theory has value because of the fact that there are book discussions. These book discussions usually do not ask "what do you think the author meant," but rather "what do you think about the book." This theory is valuable because even today, people value opinions of books almost as highly as the thought the books themselves are trying to relate, as evidenced by the necessity of books to have positive reviews by critics on the back of them. The realm of language: the set of signifiers, or words that are used to characterized objects. The symbolic is the external world and its surroundings as seen through the human eyes. The Realm of the Unconscious: the unknowable, the incomprehensible, and the inexpressible. The Real is everything that does not fall under the The Symbolic or Imaginary orders. It is what cannot be percieved by human conscious. "There are meaning and truth in the [Real...], but they are out of the reach of our consciousness." (Lacan) The realm of the images: projections and identifications produced by the mind. The Imaginary are the images produced by the mind when something is heard. “Any object in the human sphere is marked by the pregnancy of language and thus must be conceived as a signifier” (Lacan) For the most part, I believe in the psychoanalytical criticism because it looks for the deeper meaning in literature, art, and society in general. Lacan's orders of subjectivity help us catagorize our thought and can be used as a tool to better understand texts and literary works. "The Symbolic, The Imaginary, The Real." (Mass)Think/Other(Wise). Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://massthink.wordpress.com/2007/06/03/the-symbolic-the-imaginary-the-real/>.
(L.L.) Jacques Lacan. Digital image. Wikipedia. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/e1/Lacan2.jpg/250px-Lacan2.jpg>.
(L.L.) New Criticism: A New [Ahem] Criticism New Criticism is a highly empirical way to approach literary text. Its inception (and subsequent popularization) comes about following World War I, and it actively chooses not to focus on any material not in the text. This narrow focus in which the movement acts differentiates it from others as it worries solely about the text itself and outside influences or opinions that form as a result of knowing information about the author’s life or the political climate the author wrote in serve no purpose. New Criticism also dwells heavily on the ebb and flow of a work, paying close attention to literary devices such as rhyme and meter. Advocates of this approach hold poetry in the highest regard, as a result of the complex literary characteristics that come with the style. Important figures in this approach to literature are T.S. Eliot, Cleanth Brooks, and John Crowe Ransom, whom history credits with naming the approach. “If literary history has not been emphasized in the pages that follow, it is not because I discount its importance, or because I have failed to take it into account. It is rather that I have been anxious to see what residuum, if any, is left after we have referred the poem to its cultural matrix.” (Cleanth Brooks)
o Brooks’ quote here tidily expounds on what the approach of New Criticism focuses on. Rather than look at the work’s relevance to cultural events or happenings, he hones in on the literary value of the work simply as a piece of literature and nothing else. “Knowledge is invariably a matter of degree: you cannot put your finger upon even the simplest datum and say this we know.” (T.S. Eliot)
o Eliot’s quote here shows the strict interpretative ways of the approach of New Criticism. By not taking any piece of knowledge or information for granted, he illustrates the point that literary works themselves contain much depth and should be treated and analyzed as such, and that the introduction of outside facts, or datum, does nothing more than to muddle up the reader’s task of looking at the piece of work without bias or influence. I acknowledge that the approach of New Criticism is a valuable one in the idea of strictly looking at a text, but it seems short-sighted to me. This approach is so fearful of bringing in outside information into a text that it stifles the reader’s opportunity to better understand that work based on the time it was written or the state the author was in when writing. I do understand their justified fear of readers projecting meaning into a work when it is simply not there, but to completely disallow for such a thing to occur appears to be overly cautious, as the writers ARE influenced by the events of their day and the emotional state they write in, and to directly ignore facts such as these is the grave fallacy of New Criticism. Brian Schwarzbach Brooks, Cleanth. The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry. London: Dennis Dobson, 1949. vi. Web. <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=88978781>.

"T.S. Eliot Quotes." brainyquote.com. N.p., 2001. Web. 29 Mar 2012. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/t_s_eliot_2.html>.

"1993 HYPERTEXT DATABASE: NEW CRITICISM."lawrence.edu. N.p., 03 Oct 1997. Web. 29 Mar 2012. <http://www.lawrence.edu/dept/english/courses/60a/newcrit.html>.

New Criticism. 2011. Video. Youtube.comWeb. 29 Mar 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7uUhTeizJIA>. Brian Schwarzbach I believe cultural criicism is usefull because it can help one overcome their cultural biases and has worked to bring about positive change in the past (TL) Reader Response Criticism has two main theoretical assumptions:
1)Literature, like music or filmmaking, is an art and it only exists when it is read.
2)Literature and its contents do not have any objective meaning, rather, all meaning is subjective to the reader.
The function of Reader Response is to help serve a introspective, psychological function.
The pyschological/introspective aspect deals with the idea that people will be able to learn more about themselves after observing how they react to certain texts.
“One text is potentially capable of several different realizations, and no one reading can ever exhaust its full potential, for each individual reader will fill in the gaps in his own way, thereby excluding the various other possibilities”(Iser)
Iser's essential philosphy is that “The reading process is an interaction between the text and the reader’s imagination.” (Iser)
While Reader Response is a relatively new form of critique, it has already stirred up controversy. While on paper (no pun intended) the theory seems legitimate, the ultimate flaw is that it assumes that there is no objectivity in art. The problem is with this is that the craft itself becomes nothing more than a game of chance, hoping readers will relate or enjoy the authors work on some level. (LEL) LEL "Georg Pedersen." Georg Pedersen. Web. 27 Mar. 2012. <http://ytorf.com/2008/10/a-modest-proposal/>. (TL) BrainyQuote. Xplore. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/t/thomas_paine.html>.
(TL) BrainyQuote. Xplore. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/h/harold_bloom.html>.
(TL) I conclude that cultural criticism is an effective means to interpret a work. It weaves together various details to create a comprehesive, lucid portrait by which one can examine and analyze a work. B.B. “In thrusting onto the attention of scholarly reflection and critical analysis the hurly burly of a rapidly changing, discordant, and disorderly world, in insisting that academics sometimes attend to the practical life, where everyday social change exists out there, cultural studies tries in its small way to insist on what I want to call the vocation of the intellectual life. That is to say, cultural studies insists on the necessity to address the central, urgent, and disturbing questions of a society and a culture in the most rigorous intellectual way we have available.”
–Stuart Hall B.B. Cultural criticism aims to comprehend the methods in which meaning is generated, diffused, and produced through various beliefs, practices, institutions, and political, economic, or social establishments within the context of a given culture. B.B. Cultural critics acknowledge that culture plays an essential role in how we construct meaning. It shapes our personal lives and our society as a whole. B.B Through its lense, this literary theory allows its audience to assume the perspective of a culture that is completely foreign to them. This empowers them to empathize and pinpoint the faults that riddle the said culture. B.B. “The work that cultural studies has to do is to mobilize everything that it can find in terms of intellectual resources in order to understand what keeps making the lives we live, and the societies we live in, profoundly and deepy anti-humane.”
–Stuart Hall B.B. Giroux, Henry A., and Peter McLaren. Between Borders: Pedagogy and the Politics of Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 1994. Print. (B.B.)

http://blogs.bournemouth.ac.uk/research/tag/culture/ (B.B) The central idea behind Marxist Literary Criticism is that literary works are a direct result of historical aspects and can be analyzed by examining the social and political conditions in the era in which they were constructed. (JF) Marxist literary critics often examine the ways in which the text illuminates an idealogical or political oppression of the lower class by the upper class. (JF) Psychoanalytical Criticism & its Purpose within literature (T.R.F.) “He who stands aloof runs the risk of believing himself better than others and misusing his critique of society as an ideology for his private interest. While he gropingly forms his own life in the frail image of a true existence, he should never forget its frailty,
nor how little the image is a substitute for true life."
- T.W. Adorno (JF) Psychoanalytical Criticism acts a a sort of marriage between the realms of psychology and the arts. The primary purpose of psychoanalytical criticism is to diagnose the mental state of the author of a work in order to understand the motivations the author has for writing as he or she does about certain subjects. The wish in doing such is that by understanding the author's mental state the reader will be able to better understand the novel and the elements there in. (T.R.F.) "The dream-thoughts which we first come across as we proceed with our analysis often strike us by the unusual form in which they are expressed; they are not clothed in the prosaic language usually employed by our thoughts, but are on the contrary represented symbolically by means of similes and metaphors, in images resembling those of poetic speech" (Freud, 26) These people willingly embrace or force themselves to accept the rule of the stronger as the eternal norm. Their whole life is a continuous effort to suppress and abase nature, inwardly or outwardly, and to identify themselves with its more powerful surrogates—the race, fatherland, leader, cliques, and tradition.
- Max Horkheimer (JF) Psychoanalytical Criticism is an effective method of criticism because it highlights the correlation between our concious and subconcious minds. Freud asserted that these subconcious desires are seen within our dreams and are represented symbolically much like the themes and imagery seen in the literary works of the world. By tapping into the unconcious of authors through their life experiences one can effectively interpret the novel as the author intended it in his own mind. (T.R.F.) Marxist literary critics rarely take into consideration the aeasthetics and inner meanings of works. (JF) Although Psychoanalytical Criticism makes logical sense and can often times bring new insight to a novel, I believe it to be ineffective in aiding in the interpretation of many works. I believe that in psychoanalyzing authors of works those who do the analysis can easily find themselves projecting their own values and beliefs upon the author. This can lead to criticising an author for his beliefs rather than using analysis to further one's understanding of the work. It has the potential to overshadow elements of a novel with meanings which an author never intended. Therefore unless an author specifically identifies his or her reasoning behind certain elements we can only speculate as to why he or she chose to write in a certain way. At the very least, if psychoanalytical criticism is employed its insights should be taken with a grain of salt and not accepted as absolute fact. (T.R.F.) Being a literary theory that focuses on the social and economic conditions of a particular society, Marxist literary critics can utilize their knowledge to discover the ideals and economic contributions of said society through the analysis of key works from that era. It is in this way that Marxist Criticism is among the most influential literary theories of our society. (JF) (JF) One of the most prevalent experts on the subject of Psychoanalytical Criticism was Sigmund Freud. Freud believed in what he called the Oedipus Complex. The Oedipus Complex emphasizes the neccessity of the child-parent relationship and the complications that result from a child realizing that they are not the central focus of their parent's attention. Freud theorized that both men and women wished to have their mother's undivided attention. This desire takes different forms in boys and girls and ultimately lead to the sexual maturity of the respective genders. This theory of Freud heavily influences the psychoanalytical criticism of works of literature and often derives sexual trauma as reasons for the perverse nature of many works of literature. (T.R.F.) V., Hannah. Marxist Theory. Digital image. Www.deviantart.com. June-July 2010. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://hannahv92.deviantart.com/art/Marxist-theory-167242832>. (Jonathan Freel) "Where id is, there shall ego be." (Freud) Freud, Sigmund. "On Dreams." Excerpts. Art in Theory 1900-1990. Ed. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Cambridge: Blackwell Pub., Inc., 1993. 26-34. (T.R.F.) “Psychoanalytic Criticism”. Youtube.com. 28 September 2011. MrsTD3. 29 March 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5QCvI9XrEk8> (T.R.F.) N.K. "The Chimalpahin Conference 2008." Enkidu Magazine. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <http://enkidumagazine.com/eventos/chimalpahin/intro_en.htm>.
N.K. Veenstra, Jan R. "The New Historicism of Stephen Greenblatt: On Poetics of Culture and the Interpretation of Shakespeare." Blackwell Publicshing 34.3 (1996): 199. JSTOR. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2505620?seq=3>.

Murfin, Ross. "Critical Approaches." Bedford, St. Martins. Bedford Books, 1998. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_newhist.html>.

Brizee, Allen. "New Historicism, Cultural Studies (1980s-present)." Purdue Owl Online Writing Lab. Purdue University, 16 03 2012. Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/722/09/>.

New Historicism Video . 2011. Video. You Tube, Web. 28 Mar 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKy8EwJ05CA>. Danny Amsler qrl New Historicism suggests that literature must be studied and interpreted through the history and context of the author, and the history of the critic.
New Historicism evaluates how the work was influenced by the time it was produced in.
New historicism is indebted to Marxism, as Mitchell Austin Reader
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